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(2) In the case of any permits for the excavation or removal of any archaeological resource located on Indian lands, the permit may be granted only after obtaining the consent of the Indian or Indian tribe owning or having jurisdiction over such lands. The permit shall include such terms and conditions as may be requested by such Indian or Indian tribe.

(h)(1) No permit or other permission shall be required under the Act of June 8, 1906 (16 U.S.C. 431-433), for any activity for which a permit is issued under this section.

(2) Any permit issued under the Act of June 8, 1906, shall remain in effect according to its terms and conditions following the enactment of this Act. No permit under this Act shall be required to carry out any activity under a permit issued under the Act of June 8, 1906, before the date of the enactment of this Act which remains in effect as provided in this paragraph, and nothing in this Act shall modify or affect any such permit.

(i) Issuance of a permit in accordance with this section and applicable regulations shall not require compliance with section 106 of the Act of October 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 917, 16 U.S.C. 470f).

(j) Upon the written request of the Governor of any State, the Federal land manager shall issue a permit, subject to the provisions of subsections (b)(3), (b)(4), (c), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i) of this section for the purpose of conducting archaeological research, excavation, removal, and curation, on behalf of the State or its educational institutions, to such Governor or to such designee as the Governor deems qualified to carry out the intent of this Act.

CUSTODY OF RESOURCES

SEC. 5. [16 U.S.C. 470dd) The Secretary of the Interior may promulgate regulations providing for

(1) the exchange, where appropriate, between suitable universities, museums, or other scientific or educational institutions, of archaeological resources removed from public lands and Indian lands pursuant to this Act, and

(2) the ultimate disposition of such resources and other resources removed pursuant to the Act of June 27, 1960 (16 U.S.C. 469_469c) or the Act of June 8, 1906 (16 U.S.C. 431

433). Any exchange or ultimate disposition under such regulation of archaeological resources excavated or removed from Indian lands shall be subject to the consent of the Indian or Indian tribe which owns or has jurisdiction over such lands. Following promulgation of regulations under this section, notwithstanding any other provision of law, such regulations shall govern the disposition of archaeological resources removed from public lands and Indian lands pursuant to this Act.

PROHIBITED ACTS AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES SEC. 6. (16 U.S.C. 470ee] (a) No person may excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface, or attempt to excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface any archaeological resource located on public lands or Indian lands unless such activity is pursuant to a permit issued under section 4, a permit referred to in section 4(h)(2), or the exemption contained in section 4(g)(1).

(b) No person may sell, purchase, exchange, transport, receive, or offer to sell, purchase, or exchange any archaeological resource if such resource was excavated or removed from public lands or Indian lands in violation of

(1) the prohibition contained in subsection (a), or

(2) any provision, rule, regulation, ordinance, or permit in effect under any other provision of Federal law.

(c) No person may sell, purchase, exchange, transport, receive, or offer to sell, purchase, or exchange, in interstate or foreign commerce, any archaeological resource excavated, removed, sold, purchased, exchanged, transported, or received in violation of any provision, rule, regulation, ordinance, or permit in effect under State or local law.

(d) Any person who knowingly violates, or counsels, procures, solicits, or employs any other person to violate, any prohibition contained in subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both: Provided, however, that if the commercial or archaeological value of the archaeological resources involved and the cost of restoration and repair of such resources exceeds the sum of $500, such person shall be fined not more than $20,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. In the case of a second or subsequent such violation upon conviction such person shall be fined not more than $100,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(e) The prohibitions contained in this section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.

(f) Nothing in subsection (b)(1) of this section shall be deemed applicable to any person with respect to an archaeological resource which was in the lawful possession of such person prior to the date of the enactment of this Act.

(g) Nothing in subsection (d) of this section shall be deemed applicable to any person with respect to the removal of arrowheads located on the surface of the ground.

CIVIL PENALTIES

SEC. 7. (16 U.S.C. 470ff] (a)(1) Any person who violates any prohibition contained in an applicable regulation or permit issued under this Act may be assessed a civil penalty by the Federal land manager concerned. No penalty may be assessed under this subsection unless such person is given notice and opportunity for a hearing with respect to such violation. Each violation shall be a separate offense. Any such civil penalty may be remitted or mitigated by the Federal land manager concerned.

(2) The amount of such penalty shall be determined under regulations promulgated pursuant to this Act, taking into account, in addition to other factors

(A) the archaeological or commercial value of the archaeological resource involved, and

(B) the cost of restoration and repair of the resource and Such regulations shall provide that, in the case of a second or subsequent violation by any person, the amount of such civil penalty may be double the amount which would have been assessed if such violation were the first violation by such person. The amount of any penalty assessed under this subsection for any violation shall not exceed an amount equal to double the cost of restoration and repair of resources and archaeological sites damaged and double the fair market value of resources destroyed or not recovered.

(3) No penalty shall be assessed under this section for the removal of arrowheads located on the surface of the ground.

(b)(1) Any person aggrieved by an order assessing a civil penalty under subsection (a) may file a petition for judicial review of such order with the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or for any other district in which such a person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 30-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessment was issued. The court shall hear such action on the record made before the Federal land manager and shall sustain his action if it is supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole. (2) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty

(A) after the order making the assessment has become a final order and such person has not filed a petition for judicial review of the order in accordance with paragraph (1), or

(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (1) has entered a final judgment upholding the assessment of a

civil penalty, the Federal land managers may request the Attorney General to institute a civil action in a district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found, resides, or transacts business to collect the penalty and such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and decide any such action. In such action, the validity and amount of such penalty shall not be subject to review.

(c) Hearings held during proceedings for the assessment of civil penalties authorized by subsection (a) shall be conducted in accordance with section 554 of title 5 of the United States Code. The Federal land manager may issue subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents, and administer oaths. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid to witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena served upon any person pursuant to this paragraph, the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the United States and after notice to such person, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony before the Federal land manager or to appear and produce documents before the Federal land manager, or both, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

REWARDS; FORFEITURE SEC. 8. (16 U.S.C. 470gg] (a) Upon the certification of the Federal land manager concerned, the Secretary of the Treasury is directed to pay from penalties and fines collected under sections 6 and 7 an amount equal to one-half of such penalty or fine, but not to exceed $500, to any person who furnishes information which leads to the finding of a civil violation, or the conviction of criminal violation, with respect to which such penalty or fine was paid. If several persons provided such information, such amount shall be divided among such persons. No officer or employee of the United States or of any State or local government who furnishes information or renders service in the performance of his official duties shall be eligible for payment under this subsection.

(b) All archaeological resources with respect to which a violation of subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 6 occurred and which are in the possession of any person, and all vehicles and equipment of any person which were used in connection with such violation, may be in the discretion of the court or administrative law judge, as the case may be) subject to forfeiture to the United States upon

(1) such person's conviction of such violation under section 6,

(2) assessment of a civil penalty against such person under section 7 with respect to such violation, or

(3) a determination by any court that such archaeological resources, vehicles, or equipment were involved in such violation.

(c) In cases in which a violation of the prohibition contained in subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 6 involve archaeological resources excavated or removed from Indian lands, the Federal land manager or the court, as the case may be, shall provide for the payment to the Indian or Indian tribe involved of all penalties collected pursuant to section 7 and for the transfer to such Indian or Indian tribe of all items forfeited under this section.

CONFIDENTIALITY

SEC. 9. (16 U.S.C. 470hh] (a) Information concerning the nature and location of any archaeological resource for which the excavation or removal requires a permit or other permission under this Act or under any other provision of Federal law may not be made available to the public under subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 of the United States Code or under any other provision of law unless the Federal land manager concerned determines that such disclosure would

(1) further the purposes of this Act or the Act of June 27, 1960 (16 U.S.C. 469-469c), and

(2) not create a risk of harm to such resources or to the site at which such resources are located.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), upon the written request of the Governor of any State, which request shall state

(1) the specific site or area for which information is sought, (2) the purpose for which such information is sought, 1

(3) a commitment by the Governor to adequately protect the confidentiality of such information to protect the resource from commercial exploitation,

the Federal land manager concerned shall provide to the Governor information concerning the nature and location of archaeological resources within the State of the requesting Governor.

REGULATIONS; INTERGOVERNMENTAL COORDINATION SEC. 10. (16 U.S.C. 470ii) (a) The Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture and Defense and the Chairman of the Board of the Tennessee Valley Authority, after consultation with other Federal land managers, Indian tribes, representatives of concerned State agencies, and after public notice and hearing, shall promulgate such uniform rules and regulations as may be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Act. Such rules and regulations may be promulgated only after consideration of the provisions of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (92 Stat. 469; 42 U.S.C. 1996). Each uniform rule or regulation promulgated under this Act shall be submitted on the same calendar day to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the United States Senate and to the Committee on Natural Resources of the United States House of Representatives, and no such uniform rule or regulation may take effect before the expiration of a period of ninety calendar days following the date of its submission to such Committees.

(b) Each Federal land manager shall promulgate such rules and regulations, consistent with the uniform rules and regulations under subsection (a), as may be appropriate for the carrying out of his functions and authorities under this Act.

(c) Each Federal land manager shall establish a program to increase public awareness of the significance of the archaeological resources located on public lands and Indian lands and the need to protect such resources.

COOPERATION WITH PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS SEC. 11. (16 U.S.C. 470jj) The Secretary of the Interior shall take such action as may be necessary, consistent with the purposes of this Act, to foster and improve the communication, cooperation, and exchange of information between

(1) private individuals having collections of archaeological resources and data which were obtained before the date of the enactment of this Act, and

(2) Federal authorities responsible for the protection of archaeological resources on the public lands and Indian lands and professional archaeologists and associations of professional

archaeologists. In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with the provisions of this Act, make efforts to expand the archaeological data base for the archaeological resources of the United States through increased cooperation between private individuals referred to in paragraph (1) and professional archaeologists and archaeological organizations.

SAVINGS PROVISIONS SEC. 12. (16 U.S.C. 470kk] (a) Nothing in this Act shall be construed to repeal, modify, or impose additional restrictions on the activities permitted under existing laws and authorities relating to

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