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A CLASS-BOOK FOR THE USE OF GRAMMAR, NORMAL, AND HIGH
SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES, SEMINARIES, COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES,

AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING.

BY

CALVIN TOWNSEND,

COUNSELOR AT LAW.

REVISED EDITION.

IVISON, BLAKEMAN, TAYLOR & CO.,

PUBLISHERS,
NEW YORK AND CHICAGO.

1872.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1888, by

CALVIN TOWNSEND,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Northern

District of New York.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by

CALVIN TOWNSEND,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Northern

District of New York.

PREFACE.

The analytic method of this work furnishes its chief claim to superiority over others as a text-book on civil government. The Constitution of the United States is our fundamental law. To understand this well is to understand the whole theory; and to analyze this is to analyze the entire American system.

The principal aim, therefore, of this work is to present analytically the subject of civil government as adminise tered in this country.

The living, earnest teacher of to-day insists on a critical d analysis of whatever subject he brings into the class-room.

This has been the tendency of his profession for several years. A general acquaintance with miscellaneous and scattered facts bearing on his subject does not satisfy. He must get inside of things, and take his pupil with him.

No work has been published, known to the author, pretending to give a topical and tabular arrangement of the Le principles of our government. Several authors have

written with ability on civil government, having direct reference to the wants of the schoolroom ; but they have not satisfied the instructor. Whether the present attempt shall add one more to the list of failures, time and the teacher will tell.

The Constitution of the United States consists of a combination of powers granted and powers prohibited. Each of these classes of powers is divisible into general topics

904 reb.

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