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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XXIV

SAINTE-CLAIRE DEVILLE to SHUTTLE

NEW YORK
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1911

Ref AE

5

.E34 1910 a V. 24

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by
The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.

o {

Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College Samaritans; INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXIV. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. A. A. R.* ARTHUR ALCOCK RAMBAUT, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.

Radcliffe Observer, Oxford. Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin {Schönfeld, Eduard.

and Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 1892-1897. A. Cy. ARTHUR ERNEST COWLEY, M.A., Litt.D.

Seadiah.
A. C. G. ALBERT CHARLES Lewis GOTTHILF GUENTHER, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.

Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist,
Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachio, Salientia, Shark (in par:).

and Fishes in the British Museum; &c. A. E. E. A. E. HOUGHTON.

Serrano y Dominguez,
Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the
Bourbons in Spain.

Francisco.
A. B. J. ARTHUR ERNEST JOLLIFFE, M.A.

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Fellow, Tutor and Mathematical Lecturer, Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Senior Series.

Mathematical Scholar, 1892.
A. F.L. ARTHUR FRANCIS LEACH, M.A.

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales.
Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls'

Schools.
College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Author of English Schools at the Reformation ; &c.
A.P.P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls'
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- Sanders, Nicholas.
1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of

England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
A. Ge. SIR ARCHIBALD GEikie, K.C.B.

Scotland: Geography and See the biographical article: GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD.

Geology (in part). A. Go. REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.

s Saravia, Adrian; Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester.

Servetus, Michael. A. H. S. REV. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, D.D., LL.D., LITT.D.

Sardanapalus; Sargon; See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H.

Sennacherib; Shalmaneser. A. H. S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.

Seistan (in parl); Shiraz; General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.

Shushter.
A. J. G. REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D.

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent Septuagint, The.
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of

Mysore Educational Service.
A. L.
ANDREW LANG, LL.D.

Scotland: History;
See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW.
A.M. Rev. ALLAN MENZIES, D.D.

Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, St Mary's College, St Andrews. Author Scotland, Church of.

of Hislory of Religion; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy. A. M. CL. AGNES MURIEL CLAY (Mrs Wilde).

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources Senate.
of Roman History, 133–70 B.C.

Sand-grouse; Sandpiper;

Scaup; Scoter; Scrub-bird; A.N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

Secretary-bird; Seriema; See the biographical article: Newton, ALFRED.

Shearwater; Sheathbill; Sheldrake; Shoe-bill; Shoveler; Shrike.

{ { {

"A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

A. No.

A. S. P.-P.

B. R.*

B. S. P.

C. A. G. B.

C. EI.

C. F. A.

{

C. F. B.

C. H.

C. H.

C. H. Ha.

ADOLF GOTTHARD NOREEN, Ph.D.

Professor of Scandinavian Languages at the University of Upsala. Author of
Geschichte der Nordischen Sprachen; Allislandische und Alinorwegische Gram-

Scandinavian Languages.
malik; &c.
ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford Scepticism;
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. Scholasticism.

Author of Man's Place in ihe Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.
HON. BRADFORD RHODES.
Head of Banking Firm of Bradford Rhodes & Co. Founder and First President of

Savings Banks:
34th Street National Bank, New York.

United States.
BERTHA SURTEES PHILLPOTTS, M.A. (Dublin).
Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge.

Scandinavian Civilization.
SIR CYPRIAN ARTHUR GEORGE BRIDGE, G.C.B.

Admiral. Commander-in-Chief, China Station, 1901-1904. Director of Naval | Sea, Command of the;
Intelligence, 1889-1894. Author of The Art of Naval Warfare; Sea-Power and other Sea-Power.

Studies; &c.
SIR CHARLES NORTON EDCCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., LL.D., D.C.L.

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College,
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Saka.
Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for

German East Africa, 1900, 1904.
CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, ist City of London (Royal Seven Weeks' War (in part).

Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
CHARLES FRANCIS BASTABLE, M.A., LL.D.

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of
Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of Inlernolional

Seigniorage.
Trade; &c.
CHARLES Hose, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc.
Jesus College, Cambridge. Formerly Divisional Resident and Member of the

Sarawak.
Supreme Council of Sarawak. Knight of the Prussian Crown. Author of A

Descriptive Account of the Mammals of Borneo; &c.
SIR CHARLES HOLROYD.

See the biographical article: HOL ROYD, SIR C.
CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member Sforza.

of the American Historical Association.
LIEUT.-COL. CHARLES JAMES Fox, F.R.G.S.

s
Chief Officer, London Salvage Corps. President of Association of Professional Fire Salvage Corps.
Brigade Officers. Vice-President of National Fire Brigades Union; &c.

Salisbury, Thomas de Monta-
CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.Hist S., F.S.A.

cute, Earl of;
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor
of Chronicles of London, and Stow's Survey of London.

Shore, Jane;

Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of. CARL THEODOR MIRBT, D.Th.

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publisistik Sardica, Council of.

im Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papslikums; &c.
CHEDOMILLE MIJATOVICH.

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni. Servis.
potentiary of King of Servia to the Court of James', 1895-1900 and 1902-

1903
SIR CHARLES MOORE WATSON, K.C.M.G., C.B.

Colonel. Royal Engineers.. Deputy-Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1896- {Sepulchre, The Holy.

1902. Served under General Gordon in the Soudan, 1874-1875. CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D.-ÈS-L.

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Salic Law.

Études sur le règne de Robert le Picux.
CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow

Sanuto, Marino;
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography,
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Schiltberger, Johann.,

Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
CHARLES WALKER ROBINSON, C.B., D.C.L.

Major-General (retired). Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army Salamanca: Batlle, 1812.
1890-1892. Lieut.-Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea,

1895-1898. Author of Strategy of the Peninsular War; &c.
DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn.
Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Shan't.
Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Allilude and Life in Islam; &c.

Short

, Francis Job. {

C. J. F.

C. L. K.

C. M.

C, MI.

C. M. W.

C. PL.

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C. R. B.

C. W. R.

D. B. Ma.

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