Fairness in the World Economy: US Perspectives on International Trade Relations
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006. 1. 1. - 230페이지
Americo Beviglia Zampetti s Fairness in the World Economy provides an important lens into understanding fairness debates in contemporary trade discourse. . . an important contribution to the trade literature. . . the historical excavation that Fairness in
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3 Fairness in US commercial policy discourse before the advent of the multilateral trade system
4 The fairness idea in the development of the multilateral trade regime
5 Rethinking fairness in the evolution of the international trade policy and rulemaking discourse
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action agricultural American Antidumping approach behaviour Charter clause commercial policy commodities commutative justice competition Congress considered context contracting parties cooperation Cordell Hull countervailing duty debate Democratic developing countries differential treatment discrimination discriminatory distortions distributive justice domestic industry domestic producers effects Enabling Clause ensure Epistemic Communities equality of treatment equity exchange export Fair Trade fairness concerns favour foreign trade free-riding GATT Havana Charter Hull human rights ideas important inequality institutions interests International Economic International Law international trade issues Journal legislation liberalization negotiations non-discrimination norms notion of fairness objective particular perspective policy-making political practices President principle protectionism protectionist quantitative restrictions reciprocity reference Republican role RTAA rules safeguard measures share social special and differential specific subsidies Tariff Act tariff reduction Theory trade agreements trade barriers trading system unconditional MFN unfair United University Press Uruguay Round USA’s World Trade York
125 페이지 - With respect to customs duties and charges of any kind imposed on or in connection with importation or exportation or imposed on the international transfer of payments for imports or exports, and with respect to the method of levying such duties and charges, and with respect to all rules and formalities in connection with importation and exportation...
88 페이지 - The diversity in the faculties of men, from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperable obstacle to a uniformity of interests. The protection of these faculties is the first object of government. From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of property immediately results; and from the influence of these on the sentiments and views of the respective proprietors, ensues a division of the society into...
12 페이지 - But apart from this contemporary mood, the ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.
94 페이지 - ... engage mutually not to grant any particular favor to other nations, in respect of commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the other party, who shall enjoy the same freely, if the concession was freely made, or on allowing the same compensation, if the concession was conditional.
76 페이지 - Harmony, and a liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand : neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences ; consulting the natural course of things ; diffusing and diversifying, by gentle means, the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing...
96 페이지 - The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
12 페이지 - Not, indeed, immediately, but after a certain interval; for in the field of economic and political philosophy there are not many who are influenced by new theories after they are twentyfive or thirty years of age, so that the ideas which civil servants and politicians and even agitators apply to current events are not likely to be the newest. But soon or late, it is ideas, not vested interests, which are dangerous for good or evil.
96 페이지 - League : (a) will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions of labour for men, women, and children, both in their own countries and in all countries to which their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will establish and maintain the necessary international organizations...