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of the abolition. We do not think that, after his decree for the immediate abolition, the Bourbons will now venture to set up the public opinion in France as a reasonable ground for refusing the same boon. We shall also be much surprised, if the presence of the Duke of Wellington within the barriers of Paris, and the events of which it is the consequence, do not add weight to the moral character and moral sentiments of England, even with the French government and people. To improve this feeling, (although we earnestly deprecate, as weakness, any abstinence from exacting of France substantial security for the future repose of the world), we would recommend any concession, connected with the colonies or treasuries of the two countries, by way of purchase for immediate abolition, and of evidence concerning the sincerity of our own moral feelings on the subject. We doubt not, that a large portion of the French people believe that we have been actuated by a sense of colonial rivalry and of base self-interest throughout the whole transaction; and considering the low state of their morals, and the prejudices against the British character in which they have been studiously edu cated, we cannot be surprised at such a result. It should be our task then, after having provided (as far as human precautions can do it) an interval of substantial repose and security for Europe, to employ that interval in communicating the striking amelioration which we think is working in our own national character to that of our enemies. Few questions can offer more efficacious instruments for this purpose than that under discussion.
But we must draw this already too extended article to a close. We cannot do so in a more appropriate manner than by declaring our humble gratitude as Britons to Him who " is the Governor among the nations," for the signal favour which he has shown to our country: He has mounted her on a pedestal of glory from which her views and her agency may extend themselves to the children of sorrow in far distant climes. As long as she uses her influence for purposes such as those detailed in these Papers, so long and no longer do we believe that she will be kept at this altitude. And while engaged in these contemplations, a British heart may, without any undue departure from humility, indulge in some portion of that exultation which prompted the: poet to embody his Morning Dream of the apparition of Bri tannia in the following lines
ART. VIII. Travels in the Ionian Isles, Albania, Thessaly, Mace domia, &c. during the Years 1812 and 1813. By Henry Hol-.. land, M.D. F.R. S. &c. London. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. 1815. 4to. pp. 551.
WHETHER the increase of voyages and travels maintain a due proportion to the increased number of voyagers and travellers we shall not pretend to determine; but we can fairly venture to assert, that the period is gone when few dared to present them selves at the tribunal of criticism, without large pretensions to novelty either in matter or manner. The chief ambition of our times among literary adventurers seems to be, to print a book, without any fastidious regard to its contents, provided that it exhibit all the pomp of quarto and ample margin. We do not much like to receive an account of an author's feats before he has well recovered from the fatigue of his travels, changed his/ dress, got rid of vertigo, and a little sifted and sorted his im pressions and recollections. The motive most laudable for giving. to the world the results of our observations and experience, is the ambition of benefiting either the moral or the physical con dition of our fellow-creatures; and this can never be the result of a crude, half-meditated, ephemeral performance, whatever may be the sprightliness of its manner, or the graces of its style. The extraordinary situation of Europe, for the last twelve years, has given almost a new direction to the travels of our countrymen. Excluded from the classic scenes of Italy, many of them have sought the equally consecrated regions of Greece; and from some of these we have received very valuable additions to that department of knowledge, which we do not characterize too highly in calling it the science of man. Associations of great dignity and utility have been successively called forth by the fervid strains of Lord Byron; by the interesting, though some
what prolix relation of his fellow-traveller, Mr. Hobhouse; by Major Leake's researches; and, last of all, by the work now before us.
The high reputation which Dr. Holland had acquired among those who have known him longest, and the pleasing style of his earlier productions, excited considerable expectations when this new product of his pen was announced. How far these expectations have been realized will be seen in the following examination. Before, however, we enter upon the subject, we must make our formal protest against that style of apology in which Dr. Holland has expressed himself: "a preface," says the Doctor, "filled with apologies is an acknowledgement of faults which a man coolly determines to commit. I shall not, therefore, attempt to excuse the want of a good map, by pleading the loss of my actual surveys, and of a considerable part of my journal. Whatever I have left untold, will soon come before the public from more fortunate and more enlightened travellers than myself. From Major Leake and Sir W. Gell, maps may be expected far superior to any thing that I could have offered, had my papers been preserved." (P. v.)
That others may supply our deficiencies is no reason why we should not bear all the discredit of doing our work ill; more especially is this the case, if there should exist no actual compact either with an individual or the public to publish at all risks.
Dr. Holland's narrative commences with his leaving England in the spring of 1812 for Portugal, and concludes with his second visit to Zante. In the course of his travels he visited Gibraltar, Sardinia, Sicily, the Lipari Isles, the Ionian Isles, Albania, Thes saly, and some of the most interesting districts of Greece. During the time he was resident in these parts, he appears to have pos sessed very considerable opportunities for observation; the results of which we have now before us. Portugal afforded little which has appeared worthy of record to him, though to us it appears that some sketch of the physical history of that country, so little known and yet so highly interesting, was not unworthy of his pains. Sardinia too is passed over with an unpardonable rapidity. In a very brief note, we have a few isolated mineralogical guesses (for Dr. Holland does not even pretend to have examined the country,) which serve rather to rouse than to gratify curiosity. In his account of Sicily, he has added nothing previously unknown. The Ionian Isles, and here he is entering upon his main object, are treatwith the same unceremonious rapidity. At Zante, we are told, that, a Greek newspaper called the Εφημερίς τῶν Ιωνικών Ελευθερωμένων Now, had been established under the sanction of the British Government: and that literary avocations also appear to engage some attention, as Romaic translations have been published of a few good French and English books. That in Cephalonia, considerable,
police improvements have been made by the British Governer (Major De Bosset), and that the rocky structure is chiefly limestone, though of what kind, we are left to conjecture All the other details respecting Cerigo, Ithaca, and Santa Maura, arè those of an every day traveller.
Without entering into further minor details, we now proceed to examine that part of the work on which Dr. Holland appears to have bestowed the most attention. Albania has been so fully described by Mr. Hobhouse, that little remains to be told by his successors; that little, however, is now given, with some interesting sketches of the personal character of Ali Pasha, who has been rendered of late so very familiar to us all by the powerful strains of Childe Harold.
Passing from Santa Maura to Prevesa, Dr. Holland landed in Albania, of which the account is interesting and pleasing Prevesa is distinguished not only as being the chief sea-port of Ali's dominions, but as being the scene of his merciless vengeance ona French garrison which occupied it in 1798. The French discribe Ali's conduct as base, and that of their own troops as heroically devoted; Mouctar Pasha (Ali's eldest son) describes the resistance made to his attack as extremely feeble. Perhaps allowance should be made for the exaggerations of both.
The singular appearance, of a Turkish town does not at first display itself very decidedly in Prevesa, where the chief attrac tion consists in the characteristics of the Albanian soldiery: "To an eye not then accustomed to note minute differences, where all was new and imposing, the most remarkable appearances in their costume were the external mantle falling loosely over the shoulders, and reaching down behind as far as the knees, made of a coarse brown woollen stuff, but bordered and variously figured with red-coloured threads; the two vests, the outer one open, descending to the waist, and occasionally made of green or purple velvet; the inner vest laced in the middle, and richly figured; a broad sash, or belt, around the waist, in which are fixed one, or sometimes two blunderbusses, and a large knife; the handles of the blunderbusses often of a great length, and curiously worked in silver; a coarse cotton shirt, coming from beneath the belt, and falling down a short way below the knees, in the manner of the Scotch kilt, covering the drawers, which are also of cotton; the long sabre; the circular greaves of worked metal, protecting the knees and ankles; the variouslycoloured stockings and sandals; the small red cap, which just covers the crown of the head, from underneath which the hair flows in great profusion behind, while in front it is shaved off, so as to leave the forehead and temples entirely bare. To this general description may be added the capote, or great cloak, one
of the most striking peculiarities of the Albanian dress; a coarse shaggy woollen garment, with open sleeves, and a square flap behind, which serves occasionally as a hood, the colour sometimes gray or white, so as to give the appearance of a goat's skin thrown over the back."
The passage up the Gulph of Arta from Prevesa presents many interesting scenes, particularly that of Actium, where the battle was fought so important in its effects on the fate of mankind. A considerable trade is carried on from the Gulph, in grain, timber, oil, tobacco, cotton, and wool. And previous to the year 1792, a French agent resided at Arta, to supply timber by contract to the eastern ports of France.
The mountains between Arta and Cinque Pozzi, on the road to Ioannina, are of a milk white compact limestone, exhibiting the striking phenomenon of layers of flinty nodules. Dr. Holland has given no minute account of it, so that it is nearly fruitless to conjecture of what species this calcareous rock may be; though from what he does say, we should be disposed to consider it as an indurated variety of chalk. Ioannina has been so admi rably described by Mr. Hobhouse, that no extract is here necessary from Dr. Holland's sketch of it.
Dr. Holland's medical character introduced him into an easy familiarity with the Albanian Chief, which gave him many glimpses into the habits of that extraordinary man, which few other travellers could probably have enjoyed. Though Dr. Holland with much diffidence says," My own information, indeed, does not enable me to add to the history of Ali Pasha all the details which might be desired by those who love to trace the causes and means of political, elevation. Few written records exist of these events, and the tales and songs of the country, present almost the only sources from which to obtain a know ledge of his early life and fortunes. His vengeance has, indeed, affixed melancholy memorials to some incidents of his past his tory; but the connexion of occurrences is obscure, and his own policy has probably led to the concealment of many of the means which have most aided his progress.". We shall quote freely. from this part of the narrative, as it is decidedly the best part of it.
Ali was born about the year 1750 or 1751 at Tepellini, a small town of Albania, where his father, Veli Pasha resided. At the time of the death of the latter, his son was scarcely 15 or 16, with a very insecure title to a small inheritance. After all the vicissitudes that can well be imagined, Ali, by dint of superior talents, unceasing activity, and a most entire indifference as to the means of attaining his ends, has passed from his originab?? obscurity, to the absolute sovereignty of Albania. At one times his affairs were so desperate, that in spite of the exertions of thin