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heroic mother, who headed a few faithful adherents in person, and his own activity, he was compelled to relinquish his birthplace, and to fly with not more than 40 paras. At the same period, the inhabitants of Gardiki incurred his deadly hatred, by capturing his mother and sister, who, during a rigorous confinement of forty days, were "treated with every circumstance of indignity and outrage." It appears that he soon collected a body of his trusty Albanians, and recaptured Tepelleni. He then entered into the military service of Coul Pasha, of Berat, at that time one of the most powerful chiefs in that part of Turkey. From unknown causes, Ali fled from Berat, though he afterwards returned and married. Coul's daughter, who became the mother of Monuctar Pasha, and of Veli Pasha. From that time, his power bas gradually acquired a consistency and extension, to which he -probably never aspired at his outset in life.

In all respects he is now an independent despot, though he recognises the superior authority of the Porte in all matters that do not immediately affect him. He maintains a powerful army, which is rated from 30,000 to 100,000 fighting men. Dr. Hol -land is inclined to think, that 10,000 may form a true estimate; which is small, when we recollect that the population of the country, subject to his controul, is probably not less than two millions, and that every Albanian is by habit, principle, and education, an undisciplined soldier. This population is com .posed of Turks, Greeks, and Albanians.

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The revenues of Ali, as well as his accumulated treasures, are very large; the former are derived from a land tax of about 10 per cent. of the value of the produce; from a tax (which seems to be arbitrary) on towns and cities; from the duties on imports and exports of six per cent. being double of what is paid in other parts of Turkey; from the "assumption of a right to all the property of those who die without male heirs; and from a duty of ten per cent. on the value of disputed property determined in a case of civil or commercial litigation. Besides these sources, there are other irregular means of raising money. Ali derives about 200,000l. per ann. from his private property.

. Many valuable observations are given by Dr. Holland on the state of Ali's government, and the benefits derived from his firm and decided sway. We proceed with rapidity to the moral portrait which he has given of this "man of war and woes." The nature of Ali Pasha's government, as well as the character of the man, will be more fully illustrated in the succeeding narrative. Speaking generally of his administration, it may be said to be of absolute individual despotism, supported by a union of powerful personal qualities in that individual. Quick thought, singular acuteness of observation, a conjunction of vigour and firmness in

action, and much personal artifice, an implacable spirit of revenge; and the utter disregard of every principle, interfering with that active movement of ambition, which is the main spring and master feeling of his mind."

Dr. Holland's first interview exhibited the Vizier at once in all the pomp of a despot, and the dependence of a mortal on the aid of his fellows.

In opposition to Mr. Hobhouse's assertion that Ali can neither read nor write, our author declares, "that he can read ;" and he adds, "I believe both in the Romaic and Turkish languages. Though I do not recollect to have seen him write, yet I cannot doubt his ability in this also, from the information I have received."

His political intelligence is always early and good, and he is deeply interested in the political relations of all the great European powers, as much from an inquisitive zeal as from immediate reference to his own views.

In his own person he unites all the duties which, in more extended empires are distributed among numerous ministers. "The physician Metaxo," says Dr. Holland, "well illustrated his unity of system by saying, that there was a cord tied round every individual in his dominions, longer or shorter, more or less fine, but every one of these cords went to him and were held in his hand."

In the details of his complicated duties, Ali displays an indefatigable industry. "He rises commonly before six, and his officers and secretaries are expected to be with him at this hour. There are no pauses in business during the day, except at twelve o'clock, when he takes his dinner, sleeping afterwards for an hour; and again at eight in the evening, which is his hour of supper."

Few men have freer access to a despot, than he in whose hands the health of the individual is placed; and the Vizier seems to have displayed his genuine character in the interviews with Dr. Holland. Of the style of their intercourse, we may form some estimate from the subsequent passage:

"He usually sent for me to the Seraglio in the afternoon or evening'; sometimes alone, or, occasionally with my friend, when he had nothing to say about his complaints. At whatever time it was, the approaches to the Seraglio were always crowded with the singular groupes already described. The Vizier was rarely to be found in the same room on two successive days; and during my present stay at Ioannina, I met with him in eight different apartments. His dress was not greatly varied; and only on one occasion, I saw him with a turban instead of the blue cap, which he wore at the time of our first interview. His attitude was also very uniform, according to the Turkish habit. I

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seldom saw him rise from his couch, though once he did so, while explaining to me the decline of his bodily powers, striding firmly at the same time across the chamber, as if to show that still much of energy was left. His manner of reception was always polite and dignified. There was evidently more form intended when many persons were present; and his manner became easy and familiar when we were alone. We had always seats on the divan near him; the privilege of sitting before Turks of this rank being limited almost exclusively to strangers."

"The most frequent topics introduced by the Vizier in conversation, were those relating to general politics; and in these, it was evident, that he was more interested than in any other. The conversation was generally carried on by question and reply; and his inquiries, though often showing the characteristic ignorance of the Turks in matters of common knowledge, yet often, also, were pertinent and well conceived, and made up by acuteness what they wanted of instruction."

Ali, like many vigorous but uncultivated minds, has a strong tendency to belief in the philosopher's stone, the elixir vitæ, and astrology. He has some philosophical apparatus, in which he takes considerable interest, though the favourite objects of his attention are arms of all kinds; of these he has a large collection of most exquisite workmanship.

We shall close this account of Ali, by extracting a very happy summary of the distinguishing features of his character.

"I have hitherto spoken" says Dr. Holland" of the better parts of Ali Pasha's character. Truth compels the addition of other features of less pleasing kind; and to the general picture of eastern despotism must be annexed some traits peculiar to the man. The most striking of these are, a habit of perpetual artifice, shewn in every circumstance of his life; and a degree of vindictive feeling, producing acts of the most unqualified ferocity. The most legitimate form that his cunning assumes is in political matters, where, according to frequent usage, it might perhaps have the name of sagacity and adroitness. He is eminently skilled in all the arts of intrigue, and his agents or spies are to be found every-where in the Turkish empire, doing the work of their master with a degree of zeal which testifies at once his own talent in their selection, and the commanding influence of his powers over the minds of all that surround him. His political information, derived from these sources, and from the ample use of bribery, is of the best kind; and it may, I believe, be affirmed as a fact, that not a single event of importance can occur at Constantinople, even in the most secret recesses of the Divan, which is not known within eight days at the Seraglio of Ioannina.

"The personal artifice of Ali's character, however, is the trait which most impresses those around him with alarm. Whatever be the external testimony of the moment, no man feels secure beneath his power; or even it may be said, what I know from my own observation,

that an unusual fairness of aspect is often the source of greatest terror to those concerned. To cozen with a form of fair words seems at once the habit and delight of the man.'

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"The positive cruelty of Ali Pasha's temper admits of little palliation; connected, as it seems to be, not solely with ambitious views, but often with feelings of a more personal kind."

We now proceed with Dr. Holland on his Journey. When describing the city of Ioannina, he enters into the long controverted point of the site of Dodona, which, on very slender foundations, he endeavours to fix between Thesprotia and Molossia. Strabo most distinctly says, that it belonged at first to the Thesprotians, and afterwards to the Molossians. And we are not aware of its having been assigned by any writers of the same era to these two different nations at the same time. It is singular, however, that Dr. Holland should have overlooked one proof of the opinion supported by him, as it occurs in the very passage of schylus, to which he refers in the note to p. 143. Eschylus speaks of Io going to the Molossian plains and the temple of Thesprotian Jove. κι ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἦλθες πρὸς Μολοσσὰ γάπεδα, εἶ', ' τὴν αἰπύνωτόν τ ̓ ἀμφὶ Δωδώνην, ἵνα τ μαντεῖα θακός τ ̓ ἐστὶ Θεσπρωτοῦ Διὸς, ι τέρας τ ̓ ἄπιστον, αἱ προσήγοροι δρύες.

Prometheus; lines 854-857.

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Dodona is so intimately associated in ancient writings with the tradition of a flood, that the author naturally adverts to that event. We are, however, disposed to think, that the author would have done much better to have rested satisfied with Herodotus's simple explanation of the fable of the black dove; viz. that she was a black Egyptian woman who spoke in an unintelligible dialect, than to have resorted to the idle conjecture of Bryant, that any allusion is here made to the dove in Noah's ark. While we are on the subject of Bryant, it may be remarked, that it is by no means to be allowed that he has succeeded in rendering it probable that any of the ceremonies, which he forces into the most unnatural explanations, had in reality any allusion to Noah's flood. The Grecian and Egyptian ceremonies which he thus explained, referred in reality to the Metempsychosis. His whimsical practice of quibbling upon all the Grecian and Eastern names of places and persons, and of dissecting them all into Hebrew radicals, has been well exposed by Sir William Jones.

It would, indeed, be highly desirable to resolve the curious fact, that the Greeks ascribed the flood of Deucalion, which certainly was the universal flood, to a particular district in Greece; but we must look for aid in this difficulty elsewhere, than in the reveries of Bryant. We should collect that all the persons of the Mythology were foreigners to Greece, yet in every part of

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Before we conclude our remarks on this question, we must point out a singular error into which Dr. Holland has fallen, in attempting to prove, that there should be no remains of the temple of Dodona. In a note, page 146, he says that Strabo asserts," the Oracle of Dodona has disappeared in like manner as other things." On referring to the passage in question, it will be found that Dr. Holland has totally mistaken the meaning. Strabo says, εκλέλοιπε δὲ πως καὶ τὸ μαντεῖον τὸ ἐν Δωδώνη καθάπερ τάλλα; which is, the oracle has lost its spirit of prophecy like other oracles. This affords no proof of the destruction of the temple.. Nay," Strabo adds, T de puua, &c. It is a foundation of the Pelasgi, &c. which shows that it was standing in his time. Polybius, too, in the passage quoted by Dr. Holland says just as little to the purpose for which he is cited.

We at first regretted the extreme scantiness of Dr. Holland's remarks on the Roman or modern Greek; but on examining those with which he has favoured us, we rather congratulate ourselves as well as him, that they are so very few. He attempts to compare the difference between the ancient and modern Greek with that between the Latin and the Italian. This is very erroneous. The Italian has a totally different construction from the Lating it is in fact a distinct language; the Romaic on the other hand is not a different language from the ancient Greek, but merely a corrupt dialect. When the northern nations settled in Italy and began to speak the language of the country, they never learned the inflexions of words and the rules of syntax, but taking mere vocables they used them in the same way as their own northern terms, and in the construction of the German and

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