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affect him, which was soon found to be incurable. This disorder occasioned the inost poignant sufferings, and ultimately put an end to his days, in the eighty-fifth year of his age. His obsesequies were solemnised with considerable pomp ; the body lay in state at the Jerusalem Chamber, and was escorted into Westminster Abbey by a long train of exalted admirers, amongst whom two dukes and three earls supported the pall. His stature was moderate, thin in youth, but rather corpulent in old age. The expression of his countenance was pleasing and venerable, but indicative in no marked degree of that profound sagacity which enhanced his works. Old as he lived to be, he never was obliged to wear spectacles, and, as is said, only lost one tooth.
His private character was eminently philosophical : patience, modesty, and indefatigability distinguished his thoughts, his writings, and his actions, with peculiar charms and the happiest success. In the decline of his life he was subjected to fits of pain so intense, that large drops of perspiration would run down his face while they lasted. Yet he never complained, never stopped the study, or broke up the company with which he might happen to be engaged at the moment, but as soon as the paroxysm ceased, talked or read on with alacrity. He had a favourite dog, which he used to call Diamond, and one evening as the animal was wantoning about his study, it kpocked down a candie, and set fire to a heap of manuscript calculations, upon which he had been employed for years. The loss was irretrievable, but the resigned philosopher only exclaimed with simplicity, “Ah, Diamond, Diamond, you little know what mischief you've been doing. Of his mental abstraction, and indifference to the common course of things, anecdotes the most amusing are recited. He would sometimes rise at his usual hour, but sit thinking for half the day, on the side of his bed, with his clothes half on. Superior in a manner to the wants of nature, he has been known, when occupied with an idea, to go for a day without food, and at other times, when he did obey the summons to a meal, he would sit down to the table, but furgetting what he came for, leave the dishes untouched before him for hours together.
The ample task of expatiating upon the high order of his discoveries, and reviewing his publications, is superseded by the vulgar fact, that his systems are universally received throughout the civilised world, and his observations are the theses upon which other professors expatiate. Editions and translations of his works have been made and published in all the modern tongues, and various countries of Europe and America ; but the best that has appeared in England, was given by Bishop Howly, in 5 volumes, royal 4to. during the year 1781.
HOWARD, EARL OF NOTTINGHAM, K.B.
The reign of Elizabeth, Queen of England, though darkened by the fury of religious persecution, and in general scandalously sullied by a heartless system of policy, which was pursued through constant crime, and completed in frequent bloodshed, presents, vevertheless, many passages replete with brilliant deeds, and national improvement. First on the list of cminent claims which the character of her administration possesses to the gratitude of posterity, are the measures which she successfully adopted for the advancement of our naval strength. It was reserved for her honour to carry the fame of the British fleet far beyond the reputation which the most popular of her predecessors had been able to attain for it, and the many glorious exploits which confirmed the wisdom of those designs shed an atoning lustre over the story of less enlightened views, and less generous deeds. To her reign we stand indebted for that great contingent source of maritimal strength, the establishment of the East India Company; she appropriated particular forests for ship-building, and was the first to found the manufacture of gunpowder in England ; she built a naval fortress on the Medway, encreased the number, and raised the pay of her seamen ; she encouraged the intrepid For
bisher to make three attempts at a North-west Passage to China ; patronised the fearless Drake in his voyage round the world; and. finally, in reward for those talents which led to his ever memorable destruction of the Spanish Armada, created the noble subject of this sketch Earl of Nottingham.
Born in the year 1536, the Honourable Charles Howard entered the naval service of his country at a very early age, and obtained the most advantageous appointments for the developement of his talents under the immediate eye of his father, Baron Effingham, who filled the post of Lord High Admiral upon the accession of Queen Elizabeth to the throne. At this period, though only two and twenty years of age, young Howard was particularly distinguished by the notice of his royal mistress, who entrusted him with an embassy to France, to congratulate Charles the IX. upon his assumption of the crown. This mission satisfactorily discharged, he for awhile quitted the naval service, as the events of the period afforded no opportunity for employment, and entered the army. In this new profession he was nominated to the command of a regiment of cavalry; and after a promiscuous service of nine years, was proclaimed a general of horse, when the Earl of Warwick opposed the insurrection headed by the Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, in the north. The rapid and favourable termination of that revolt, though not particularly described, is yet so pointedly recorded in history as to be generally known. Immediately afterwards Howard was replaced on his natural element, and led the squadron of ships of war, which Elizabeth ordered out to sea as a convoy to Anne, daughter of Maximilian, Emperor of Austria, during her voyage to Spain. In 1571 we find him returned for the county of Surrey to the House of Commons, and ere long, by the death of his father, invested with the family title, and a seat in the Upper House. At the same moment he had also the satisfaction of receiving the high office of Lord Privy Seal, which was possessed by his father at the moment of his demise. That the son succeeded in gaining the same confidence from his royal mistress, by which the parent had always been distinguished, may be safely inferred from his progressive rise to some of the greatest honours to which a subject can aspire. He was first made Chamberlain of the Royal Household, next elected a Knight of the Garter, and,
at last, upon the death of the Earl of Lincoln, advanced, in 1585, to the dignity of Lord High Admiral.
The period of this appointment was big with the most important consequences. Philip the II., of Spain, was well known to have flattered himself with strong pretensions to the crown of England, by virtue of his marriage with the late Queen Mary, and the most critical apprehensions of a powerful attack to try the issue of this claim, were reasonably entertained, both by the government and the people. It was not, however, until the year 1588, that the measures of preparation for so formidable an undertaking were thought to be complete, and the destination of the extraordinary force, which had long been in a course of muster, was publicly avowed. An accurate account of the Spanish fleet was then published in Latin, and circulated throughout Europe, in which The Most Happy Armuda, as it was fancifully styled, was boasted to consist of 130 vessels, fivating 58,898 tons, mounting 2630 pieces of cannon, and manned with 19,295 soldiers, 8450 marines, and 2085 galley slaves. These ships of war were also accompanied by a large fleet of transports, carrying a plentiful store of ammunition, and farther provided with a prodigious quantity of arms, which were destined to supply the great body of volunteers that was expected to flock around the Spanish banner upon its first descent to our shores. The officer originally entrusted with the command of this great armament was the Marquis of Santa Cruz, a nobleman who had distinguished his name by a long course of valorous experience. Death, however, snatched him from the post of defeat, and his place was nominally supplied by the Duke of Medina Sidonia, while the Admiral second in command, Don Martinez de Ricalde, was really the person to whose advice the direction of every movement was confided. A large body of nobility crowded around these officers, under the character of volunteers, and some of the highest dignitaries of the church were allotted as chaplains to the forces. In the month of May, the captains were all assembled at Lisbon, and the feet was forth with reported to be in a fit condition for sea.
This momentous act, however, was deferred until the first of June, on which day, with a consecrated banner, blessed by the Pope, and pronounced Invincible, the sails of the Spanish fleet were unfurled, and the voyage commenced, under every circum.
stance that could establish pomp and excite enthusiasm. Being shus launched to subdue England, and convert its inhabitants, the commanders were instructed to proceed to the Roads of Calais, and there form a junction with the reinforcement promised by the Duke of Parma. This point effected, the orders contained in a sealed packet were to be obeyed. To these charges was added a general recommendation to act on the defensive, and to forbear any first attack.
Of the force which was collected by Elizabeth to repel this powerful invasion, the accounts are various and contradictory. That her ships were more numerous than those of the enemy appears certain, though their size and strength were inferior, their equipment much weaker, and their power still farther re. duced by the different squadrons into which they were divided, for the purpose of guarding every vulnerable quarter upon which the descent might be first made. Howard, as Lord High Admiral, assumed the chief command, Sir John Hawkins was his Rear-admiral, and all the vessels available for actual engagement are estimated at 175 sail, the number of tons being 29,794, and of men 14,501. Of these Sir Francis Drake, as Vice-admiral, jed a distinct squadron of 32 vessels, and 2,358 men; while Lord Henry Seymour, supported by a Dutch fleet, under the Count Nassau, drew off 23 sail, and 1700 men, in order to coast along the shores of Flanders, and embarrass the projected approach of the Duke of Parma. Of the remaining force mustered by the English, beside volunteer ships from private individuals amounting to 1%, there were also 10 fine merchantmen tendered to the Lord High Admiral, and a fleet of 58 vessels fitted out for him by the City of London. With these various means of opposition, Howard put to sea, and, in compliance with the directions given for the occasion, cruised along our western coast in order to receive the enemy at their first approach. The season advanced, but there was no appearance of an enemy; and the English cabinet began to conjecture from the delay, that no decided attempts at an invasion would be made during the year. In consequence of this supposition, Walsingham, the Secretary of State, issued orders to the High Admiral, to send his heavier vessels into harbour and pay off the men, in order to save the state expense. Fortunately, however, for the country, the discrimination of Lord Effingham was more correct. He wrote back to the Secretary to