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camp from his earliest youth, he opened for himself, without envy, a path to the glory of military pre-eminence by an unbroken series of distinctions. What he achieved as the commander of an army, Spain is a witness, and our medals stamped with veracious eulogy, proclaim.
Nor did he acquire less celebrity in the management of civil affairs; for there was no illustrious office in which the fortune of his country did not exercise his talents, and in which he did not shine as the faithful servant of that country, and the wise counsellor of his king. He negociated treaties the most weighty; and, when connected with the administration of the Treasury, preserved the credit of a delicate currency undepreciated, by adjusting the coinage with perfect ingenuity and chaste disinterestedness. In either senate-house he prevailed with vivid powers of speech-inflamed the erect spirits of his audience, and meanwhile stood in the midmost heats of ardent eloquence, true to himself in unmoved tranquillity of judgment.
Tempering these arts of peace and war by a humanity of disposition the most sweet, and elegantly distinguishing the intervals of business by the delights of more than polished learning, he was forbidden any longer to benefit his country, save through a surviving offspring of the best promise, by a premature death, on the fifth day of Feb, uary, in the year of our Lord 1720, and of his age 47.
tigii Glóriam, sine invidia viam «li munivit. Quid Exercitùs Imperator gessit, Testis est HISPANIA, et affixa veraci Præconio loquentur Numismata.
Nec in Civilibus Rebus dirigendis minorem adeptus est Celebritatem : çum nullum fere esset Officium Illustrius in quo Ipsum non exercuit Fortuna Patriæ, in quo Ipse non emicuit Adjutor Patriæ Fidus et Sagax Regi a Secretis. Federum gravissimorum Auctor fuit Perfectorg: in Ærarii Administratione caste versatus delicatam Publicarum Pæcuniarum Fidem temperato solerter Fænore, conservavit integram. In utraque Senatûs Curia vivida dicendi Facultate præpollens, arrectos auditorum animos inflammavit, Ipse interea in medio ardentis Eloquii æstu, immota Judicii Tranquillitate sibi constans.
Has Belli Pacisq Artes Suavissimæ Judolis Humanitate condientem, politiorisq: Doctrinæ Deliciis Intervalla Negotiorum elegantissime distinguentem Patriæ diutius prodesse, nisi per superstitem optimæ spei progeniem, retuit Mors præmatura, Quinto Die Feb: A.D. 1720, Ætatis Suæ 47.
The next inscription is also in Latin,* and records, in very neat terms, that George Stanhope, second son of James, the first Earl, after resigning in 1747 a lieutenant colonelcy, which he had held for five years, died a private individual, on the 24th of March, 1754, in his 57th year. He fought at Culloden, and was wounded at Lafeldt. This memorial was provided by his elder brother, who is thus remembered :
To the Memory of
Unshaken Public Integrity,
And PRIVATE Worth.
Deep were his researches
For his country's Good.
Of the Trial by Jury,
Of the Freedom of Elections,
And of the Liberty of the Press.
* Hic quoque memorandus est
Qui Tribunatu Vicario
abdicato anno 1747-8,
Patriæ forsan desideratus
On the 7th day of March, 1786,
(and in the 720 year of his Age)
And in the Pursuit of Truth.
The above Lines are inscribed
To the statements of these epitaphs, the addition of a few facts seem desirable. The first Earl was the son of Alexander Stanhope, who was the son of Philip first Earl of Chesterfield, by his second wife, Ann, daughter of Sir John Packington, and was born during the year 1673. Visiting Spain, at a very carly age, he acquired a thorough knowledge of the language or the country, and there adopted the profession of arms. His gallantry at the siege of Namur attracted the attention of King William, who gave him a company on the field, and soon after made him Colonel of the 33d foot. In 1704, he was taken prisoner at Porta-la-Grara, in Portugal; but, being speedily exchanged, obtained promotion to the rank of Brigadier-general, and greatly distinguished himself at the ensuing siege of Barcelona, under the Earl of Peterborough. The reduction of Minorca was the most important and dexterous achievement of his career. In 1707, he was commissioned to negociate a treaty with Spain; and, after discharging his trust advantageously, was appointed Ambassador at the Court of Charles III. When a fresh rupture took place, he again figured at the head of an army, and reduced Port Mahon in 1708. In 1710 he commanded the allied troops in Spain ; and, after killing the Spanish general with his own hands before the gates of Madrid, planted the colours of England in that subjugated capital. Before the year closed, however, he met with a reverse of fortune, and had the mortification to be taken prisoner, with 3000 chosen troops, at Briheuza. For this act he was censured by the House of Lords. The reign of George the I. with whom he was a confidential favourite, brought him his highest acquisition of honours. In 1714 he impeached the Duke of Ormond; in 1715 was nominated a Member of the Privy Council, and Secretary at War; and in 1716 was preferred to be one of the principal Secretaries of State. During the following year he became First Commissioner of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer, and was raised to the Peerage with the titles of Lord Mahon, Earl Stanhope. In 1718 he resigned his post at the Treasury, but resumed the seals in the office of principal Secretary of State. This was his last official situation, and he did honour to it, by bringing in a bill for the modification of the Test and Corporation Acts, which, after an animated opposition, was declared part and parcel of the law. The first Earl was a man of decided talents, and clear reputation, in the various capacities with which bis name is associated. His public zeal was strong, his services highly advantageous, and his character has been most favourably appreciated by the country.
The second Earl was born on the 15th of August, 1714, and succeeded to the titles of the family, when only seven years old. His guardian was the celebrated Earl of Chesterfield, by whom especial pains were taken with his education. Nor were these pains unrewarded, for it is admitted on all hands that he was not exceeded in his knowledge of antient and modern languages, and a profound acquaintance with mathematics. For these acquirements, the panegyric of his epitaph is simple truth. He was a scholar, and the patron of scholars. But he applied his learning solely to the gratification of his private hours, and in no respect obtruded his attainments upon the public, except as a senator. In this character, however, he was deservedly popular. His endeavours to reduce the expenditure of the country, and to confirm the liberty of the people, and his hostility to the American war, and the proceedings respecting Wilkes's Middlesex election, reflected equal honour upon the correctness of his judgment, and the ardour of his patriotism.
Charles, the third Earl, though the least praised of his family on the monument, was, nevertheless, one of the most singular and celebrated men of the age in which he lived, or the house from which he sprung. He was a patriot, a philosopher, and a philanthropist of eminent desert and purity. A second son, he was sent, in his eighth year, to Eton School, where he remained until he was ten, but then removed with his family to Geneva, in consequence of the bad health of his elder brother. The death of that brother soon after made him heir to his father's titles, and then the celebrated Le Sage was engaged to be his tutor. Thus ably instructed, he grew rapidly distinguished for his classical and mathematical attainments, so much so, that in his eighteenth year he obtained a premium from the Swedish Society of Arts and Sciences, for the best Treatise on the Pendulum. The paper was written in French, and displayed considerabie skill in the language, and proficiency in science.
Returning to England, he stood candidate for the representation of Westminster; but, failing in his object, obtained a return for the borough of High-Wycombe. Once presented before the country in a responsible capacity, he commanded universal admiration by the independence of his conduct. Marrying a daughter of the great Chatham, he adopted the views of that truly noble lord, declared himself a staunch friend to Parliamentary reform, opposed the American war with great vigour, made the most enlightened efforts in favour of religious toleration, and sought on every occasion to reduce the national debt, and lighten the burthens of the people. Nearly as he was related to Mr. Pitt, he nevertheless declined both place and pension with him when the liberality of his early principles seemed to abate ; but though warm in his advocacy of the French Revolution, he voted with the minister on the subject of the Regency.
There is, perhaps, no series of motions in the history of the British Parliament more curious and extraordinary than those brought forward by the third Earl of Stanhope. Always thinking for himself, he always acted by himself, recognised no party, viewed every subject upon its natural ground, and supported or opposed it with legitimate feelings. Praiseworthy as this line of conduct unquestionably was, it nevertheless met with a peculiar fate; for, as he linked himself with no specific body of men, so