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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.
Preliminary Sketch.Ancient Slavery.

Early existence of Slavery in the world.—Tin* Mosaic institutions in regard to Slav-
ery.—Hebrews, how reduced to servitude.—The Jubilee.— Distinction between
native and foreign Slaves.—Voluntary Slaves: the Mercenarii of the Romans;
the Prodigals or debtor Slaves; the Delinquents; the Enthusiasts.— Involuntary
Slaves; prisoners of war, and captives stolen in peace, with the children and de-
scendants of both.—Voluntary Slavery introduced by decree of the Roman Sen-
ate.—Slavery in Rome: condition of the Slaves; cruelty to the old and sick;
prisons for Slaves; Sicily: servile war and breaking up of the prisons.— Piracy
esteemed honorable by the early Greeks. — piratical expeditions to procure
Slaves.—Causes of the gradual extinction of Slavery in Europe.—Origin of the
African Slave Trade by the Portuguese.—Followed by most of the maritime na-
tions of Europe 17

CHAPTER II.
Slavery In Greece.Athenian Slaves.

Early existence of Slavery in Greece.— Proportion of Slaves to Freemen.—Their
numbers in Athens and Sparta.—Mild government of Slaves in Athens—the re-
verse in Sparta.—Distances of noble conduct of Slaves towards their masters.—
Probable origin of Slavery, prisoners of war.—Examples in history of whole cities
and states being reduced to Slavery: Judea, Miletos, Thebes.—Slaves obtained by
kidnapping and piracy.—The traffic supposed to be attended by a curse.—Certain
nations sell their own people into Slavery.—Power of masters over their Slaves;
the power of Life and Death.—The Chians, the first Greeks who engaged in a
regular Slave-trade.—Their fate in being themselves finally reduced to Slavery.—

First type of the Maroon wars. The Chia-11 Slaves revolt.—The hero slave Dri-

macos.—His history.—Honors paid to hja taeraorj.—Servile war among the Sa-
mi'Ms.__Athe»ian laws to protect Sla7ea {eora cruelty.—Slaves entitled to bring an
for assault'.—Death penalty fyr rijne9 aKainst slaTesSlaves entitled to
^wo^""1—■'''''riteges of Slave ° jn Athens- Revolt of Slaves working in
- * for Slaves who were cruelly treated.

CHAPTER III.
Slaves Op Sparta, Crete, Thessaly, &e —The Helots.

The Helots: — leading events of their History summed up.— Their Masters de-
scribed.—The Spartans, their manners, customs and constitutions.—Distinguish-
ing traits: severity, resolution and perseverance, treachery and craftiness.—Mar-
riage.—Treatment of Infants.— Physical Education of Youth.—Their endurance
of hardships.—The Helots: their origin; supposed to belong to the State; power
of life and death over them; how subsisted; property acquired by them; their
military service.—Plato, Aristotle, Isocrates, Plutarch and other writers conviot
the Spartans of barbarity towards them; the testimony of Myron on this point;
instances of tyranny and cruelty.—Institution of the Crypteia; annual massacre
of the Helots.—Terrible instance of treachery.—Bloody servile wars.—Sparta en-
gaged in contests with her own vassals.—Relies upon foreign aid.— Earthquake,
and veugeanoe of the Helots.—Constant source of terror to their masters.—Other
classes of Slaves.—Their privileges and advancement.—Slavery in Crete: classes
and condition.—Mild treatment.—Strange privileges during certain Festivals.—
Slaves of Syracuse rebel and triumph.—The Arcadians 88

CHAPTER IV.

Slavery In Rome.

Slavery under the kings and in the early ages of the Republic.—Its spread, and
effect on the poorer class of Freemen.—The Licinian law.—Prevalence of the two
extremes, immense wealth and abject poverty.— Immense number of Slaves in
Sicily.—They revolt.—Eunus, their leader.— Their arms.— Horrible atrocities
committed by them.—The insurrection crushed.— Fate of Eunus.— Increase of
Slaves in Rome.—Their employment in the arts.— Numbers trained for the Am-
phitheatre.—The Gladiators rebel.—Spartacus, his history, — Laws passed to re-
strain the cruelty of masters.—Effects of Christianity on their condition.—Their
numbers increased by the invasion of northern hordes.—Sale of prisoners of war
into slavery.—Slave-dealers follow the armies.—Foreign Slave-trade.—Slave auc-
tions.—The Slave markets.—Value of Slaves at different periods.—Slaves owned
by the State, and their condition and occupations.—Private Slaves, their grades
and occupations.—Treatment of Slaves, public and private.— Punishment of of-
fenses.—Fugitives and Criminals.—Festival of Saturuus, their privileges.—Their
dress.—Their sepulchres.—The Gladiators, their combats 16

CHAPTER V.
Slavery In Rome.Continued.

Abstract of the laws in regard to Slavery.— Power of Life and Death.—Cruelty of
Masters.—Laws to protect the Slave.—Constitution of Antoninus; of Claudius.—
Husband and Wife could not be separated; nor parents and children.—Slave
persons to Slavery.—How the state of Slavery might bo terminated; by manu-
mission; by special enactments; what Slaves entitled to freedom.—Practice of'
giving liberty to Slaves in times of civil tumult and revolution.—Effects of Slav-
ery under the Republic, and under the Empire 5f

CHAPTER VI.
Christian Slavery In Northern Africa.

Barbary—the Carthaginians, the Romans, the Vandals.— Northern Africa annexed
to the Greek Empire.— Conquered by the Saracens.— The Spanish Moors pass
over to Africa.—Their expeditions to plunder the coasts of Spain, and carry off
the Christian Spaniards into Slavery.—Cardinal Ximenes invades Barbary, 1509,
to release the captives.— Barbarossa, the sea-rover, becomes king of Algiers.—
The Christian Slaves build the mole.— Expeditions of Charles V. against the
Moors.—Insurrection of the Slaves.—Charles releases 20,000 Christians from Sla-
very, and carries off 10,000 Mohammedans to be reduced to Slavery in Spain.—
The Moors retaliate by seizing 6000 Minorcans for Slaves. Second expedition of
Charles — its disastrous termination—his army destroyed — prisoners sold into
Slavery.—The Algerines extend their depredations into the English Channel.—
Condition of the Christian slaves in Barbary—treated with more humanity than
African slaves among Christians.—Ransom of the Slaves by their countrymen.—
British Parliament appropriates money for the purpose.—The French send bomb
vessels in 1688.—Lord Exmouth in 1816 releases 3000 captives, and puts an end
to Christian Slave/y in Barbary 68

CHAPTER 7H.
African Sr-AVE Trade From The Fifteenth To The Eighteenth Century.

Negroland, or Nigritia, described.—Slavery among the Natives.—Mungo Park's esti-
mate of the number of Slaves.—The Portuguese navigators explore the African
XMtt—Natives first carried off in 1434.—Portuguese establish the Slave-Trade on
'he Western Coast—followed by the Spaniards.—America discovered—colonized
by the Spaniards, who reduce the Natives to Slavery—they die by thousands in
consequence. —The Dominican priests intercede for them.—Negroes from Africa
Jubstitnted as Slaves, 1510.—Cardinal Ximenes remonstrates.—Charles V. en-
courages the trade.—Insurrection of the Slaves at Segovia.—Other nations colo-
nize America.—First recognition of the Slave-Trade by the English government
*> J5G2, reign of Elizabeth.—First Ncaroes imported into Virginia in a Dutch ves-
Wl in 1020.—The French and other cominfricial notions er,gage ir» the traffic—
The great dem3»d for Slaves on the AtrtctW coast.—Negroes fighting and kidnap.
P'Dg each other.—Slave factories estaM'sbed hy tho En8lish> French, Dutch,
Spanish, and Portuguese—Slave factory- described.—How Slaves were procured
fatl>eInterior- . , 93

CHAPTER VI11
Sxave Trappy 0f Tnt! J^jsvant—Nubian Slaves.

706 Mohan^^lan slave-trade Walrt ares captured for the slave market of the

slaves.—The encampment.—Attack upon the villages.—Courage of the Natives.
--Their heroio resistance.—Cruelty of the viotora.—Destruction of villages.—The
captives sold into slavery. 102

CHAPTER IX.

African Slave Trade In The Eighteenth Century.

England first engages in the Slave-Trade in 1662—Sir John Hawkins' voyages.—
British first establish a regular trade in 1618.—Second charter granted in 1631.
—Third charter in 1662.—Capture of the Dutch Forts.—Retaken byDe Ruyter.
—Fourth charter in 1672; the King and Duke of York shareholders.—Monopoly
abolished, and free trade in Slaves declared.—Flourishing condition of the Trade.
—Numbers annually exported.—Public sentiment aroused against the Slave-Trade
in England.—Parliament resolve to hear Evidence upon the subject.—Abstract of
the Evidence taken before a Select Committee of the House of Commons in 1790
and 1791.—Revealing the Enormities committed by the Natives on the persons of
one another to procure Slaves for the Europeans.—War and Kidnapping—imput-
ed Crimes.—Villages attacked^ and burned, and inhabitants seized and sold.—
African chiefs excited by intoxication to sell their subjects 106

CHAPTER X.

African Slave Trade In The Eighteenth Century, Continued.The

Middle Passage.

Abstract of Evidence before House of Commons, continued.—The enslaved Africans
on board the Ships—their dejection.—Methods of confining, airing, feeding and
exercising them.—Mode of stowing them, and its horrible consequences.—Inci-
dents of the terrible Middle Passage—shackles, chains, whips, filth, foul air, dis-
ease, suffocation.—Suicides by drowning, by starvation, by wounds, by strang-
ling.—Insanity and Death.—Manner of selling them when arrived at their desti-
nation.—Deplorable situation of the refuse or sickly Slaves.—Mortality among
Seamen engaged in the Slave-Trade.—Their miserable condition and suffering
from disease; and cruel treatment 126

CHAPTER XI.
Slavery In The West Indies, 1750 To 1790.

Abstract of Evidence continued.—Slavery in the West Indies from 1750 to 1790.— ,
General estimation and treatment of the Slaves.—Labor of Plantation Slaves—
their days of rest, food, clothing, property.—Ordinary punishment by the whip
and severity of these Punishments.—Extraordinary

burton.—Planters accustomed to take their Slaves to England, and to carry them
back into slavery by force.—Important case of James Somerset decided, 1772.—
John Wesley.—Motion in House of Commons against Slave-Trade, 1776.—Case of
ship Zong.—Bridgwater Petitions.—The Quakers in England oppose Slavery.—
Resolutions of the Quakers, from 1727 o 1760.—They Petition House of Com-
mons.—First Society formed, 1783.—Thu Quakers and others in America.—Ao-
tion of the Quakers of Pennsylvania from I'i88 to 1788.—Benezet writes tracts
against Slavery.—His letter to the Queen - Sentiment in America favorable to
Africans, 1772.—House of Burgesses of Vikgl, ia addresses the King.—Original
draft of Declaration of Independence.—First Society formed in America " for Pro-
moting Abolition of Slavery," 1774.—Opposition to the Stive-Trade in America.. 168

CHAPTER XIII.
Movements In England To Abolish The Slave Trade.

Thomas Clarkaon, the historian of the Abolition of the Slave-Trade.—Devotes his
life to the cause, 1785.—Publishes his Essay on Slavery —His coadjutors.—WD- .
liam Wilberforce, parliamentary leader in the cause.—Middleton, Dr. Porteus,
Lord Scarsdale, Granville Sharp.—Clarkson's first visit to a slave-ship.—Associa-
tion formed—Correspondence opened in Europe and America.—Petitions sent to
Parliament.—Committee of Privy Council ordered by the King, 1788.—Great ex-
ertions of the friends of the cause. —Clarkson's interview with Pitt 179

CHAPTER XIV.
Parliamentary History.The Twenty Years' Struggle.

Mr. Pitt introduces the subject of the Abolition of the Slave-Trade into the House
of Commons, May 9, 1788.—Speech of Mr. Pitt on the occasion.—Parliamentary
action in 1789.—Debate of 12th of May.—Speech of William Wilberforce.—Trav-
els and exertions of Clarkson.—Sessions of 1791 and 1792.—Debates in the Com-
mons.—Speeches of Wilberforce, Pitt, Fox, Bailie, Thornton, Whitbread, Dundas,
and Jenkinson.—Gradual abolition agreed upon by House of Commons 188

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