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apprehensive that the national calamities were but yet in their infancy. At Chatham, he saw the Soveraigne' man of war, for burthen, defense, and ornament, the richest that ever 'spread cloth before the wind, and especially for this remarkable, that her building cost his Ma'tie the affections of his subjects, who quarrell'd with him for a trifle, refusing to contr "bute either to their own safety or his glory.' These expressions are worth quoting, only as they serve to indicate the very simplehearted, but very ill-informed and inadequate notions, which the Writer had taken up with regard to the great political questions that were then agitating the country. Nobody could be more free from the spirit of a partizan than he appears to have been; and yet almost all his references to political affairs are in the same strain of partial or erroneous representation. Mr. Evelyn embarked at Chatham for Flushing on the 21st of July; and passed nearly three months in the Netherlands. Soon after his return to England, the differences between the King and the Parliament arrived at their crisis. Evelyn, now only one and twenty, joined the King's army with his horse and arms after the battle of Brentford; but the tender of his service appears to have been declined out of consideration of the certain ruin to which it would have exposed him and his brothers, without
any advantage to his Majesty.' His martial ardour, fortunately, did not disdain to be regulated by prudence, nor was his loyalty a passion so entirely ungovernable as to content itself with nothing short of a complete abandonment of self-interest. Finding it impossible, if he continued in this country, to remain neutral, or at least 'to evade the doing of very unhandsome things," he obtained his Majesty's license to travel again; and in Nov. 1642, returned to the Continent. The Diary is now occupied, to the extent of more than two hundred pages, with our Traveller's memoranda of sights and adventures on passing through France and various parts of Italy. If we meet with no very novel or important information, nor with any profound remarks, we are at least never offended with any affectation or impertinence. Of the Journalist's simplicity of style and of character, the following may serve as a specimen.
We began to enter the plains of Rome, at which sight my thoughts were strangely elevated, but soon allay'd by so violent a shower which fell just as we were contemplating that proud mistress of the world, and descending by the Vatican (for at that gate we entered), that before we got in into the Citty I was wet to the skin!'
At Rome he spent about seven months, and having recommendations to several English residents of distinction, had no difficulty in gratifying his curiosity with the survey of all the architectural wonders, the treasures of antiquity, and the eccle
siastical shows which at that period it contained. Among the virtuosi to whom he was introduced, was an amusing personage named Hippolito Vitellesco, afterwards Bibliothecary of the Vatican library,' who possessed one of the best collections of statues in Rome; to which,' we are told, he frequently talked, as. if they were living, pronouncing now and then, orations, 'sentences, and verses, sometimes kissing and embracing them.' This same gentleman had not long before purchased land in the kingdom of Naples, in the hope, by digging, to find more statues; and it seems had been so far successful as to obtain more than compensated for the purchase. An edifying exhibition of the zeal of the Papal court for the conversion of the Jews, formed part of one day's amusement to the young Englishman.
Jan. 7. A Sermon was preach'd to the Jewes at Ponte Sisto, who are constrain'd to sit till the hour is don; but it is with so much malice in their countenances, spitting, hum'ing, coughing, and motion, that it is almost impossible they should heare a word from the preacher. A conversion is very rare.'
The reflection does not appear to have at all occurred to the heretical spectator of the scene, to what, in fact, under the name of Christianity, this precious scheme was designed to convert the infidel audience. On a subsequent occasion, he was actually invited by a Dominican friar to be godfather to a converted Turk and Jew, with which extraordinary request he did not scruple to comply.
The ceremonie was perform'd in the Church of Sta. Maria Sopra la Minerva, neere the capitol. They were clad in white, then exorcis'd at their entering the Church with aboundance of ceremonies, and when led into the choir were baptiz'd by a Bishop in pontificalibus. The Turk lived afterwards in Rome, sold hot waters, and would bring us presents when he met us, kneeling and kissing the hems of our cloaks; but the Jew was believ'd to be a counterfeit.'
From Rome, he proceeded to Naples, then a dangerous journey by reason of the banditti who infested the neighbourhood of the capital; and our Traveller was but ill mounted on his base, unlucky, stiff-necked, trotting, carrion mule,'' which are in the world,' he says, the most wretched beasts :' the party were therefore faine to hire a strong convey of about thirty firelocks' to guard them as far as Nova Fossa. With the scenery of Naples and its classical environs, Evelyn was highly delighted, but he was struck with the licentiousness of
The building of the Citty is for the size the most magnificent of any in Europe, the streetes exceeding large, well paved, having vaults and conveyances under them for the sullage, which renders them very sweete and cleane even in the midst of winter. To it belongeth more than 3000 Churches and Monasteries, and those the
best built and adorn'd of any in Italy. They greately affect the Spanish gravity in their habite; delight in good horses; the streetes are full of gallants on horseback, in coaches and sedans, from hence brought first into England by Sir Sanders Duncomb. The women are generally well-featur'd, but excessively libidinous. The countrypeople so jovial and addicted to musick, that the very husbandmen almost universaly play on the guitarr, singing and composing songs in prayse of their sweetehearts, and wil commonly goe to the field with their fiddle; they are merry, witty, and genial, all which I much attribute to the excellent quality of the ayre. They have a deadly hatred to the French, so that some of our company were flouted at for wearing red cloakes, as the mode then was.'
6. Feb. We went by coach to take the ayre and see the diversions or rather maddnesse of the Carnival; the courtisans (who swarme in this Citty to the number, as we are told, of 30,000, registred and paying a tax to the State) flinging eggs of sweete water into our coach as we passed by the houses and windows. Indeed the towne is so pestered with these cattell, that there needes no small mortification to preserve from their enchantment, whilst they display all their naturall and artificiall beauty, play, sing, feigne compliment, and by a thousand studied devices seeke to inveigle foolish young
This city he now determined to make the non ultra of his travels, and accordingly returned to Rome; since,' he adds, 'from the report of divers experienc'd and curious persons I 'had been assur'd there was little more to be seene in the rest of 'the civil world, after Italy, France, Flanders, and the Low Country, but plaine and prodigious barbarism.' Before he finally quitted the once and yet glorious City,' he had the distinguishing privilege of doing homage to the then tenant of the Seat of the Beast.
4. May, 1645. Having seen the'entrie of ye Ambassг of Lucca, I went to the Vatican, where, by favour of our Cardinal Protector, Fran. Barberini, I was admitted into the Consistorie, heard the Ambass make his oration in Latine to the Pope, sitting on an elevated state or throne, and changing two pontifical miters; after which I was presented to kisse his toe, that is, his embroder'd slipper, two Cardinals holding up his vest and surplice, and then being sufficiently bless'd with his thumb and two fingers for that day, I return'd home to dinner.'
On quitting Rome, our Traveller visited Lucca, where, in the church of St. Fredian, lies the corpse of an English king whom none of our historians have given any account of; a St. Richard, who died here in his pilgrimage towards Rome!' Mr. Evelyn gives us the Latin epitaph on his tomb; which tomb, a Note by the Editor states, still exists, though who this Richard king of England was, it has puzzled antiquaries to deter
• Hic rex Richardus requiescit, sceptifer, almus :
Suffragium quorum nobis det regna Polorum.'
Passing through Florence, Bologna, and Ferrara, Mr. Evelyn hastened to Venice, being anxious to arrive there before Ascension day, to witness the ceremony of throwing a gold ring and cup into the Adriatic. By favour of the French ambassador, he bad admittance to a much more remarkable raree-show, 'the Reliquary, called Tresoro di San Marco, which few even of • travellers are admitted to see.' And no wonder such precaution was observed, when, among other invaluable treasures, there were such items as the following:
• Divers heads of saints inchas'd in gold; a small ampulla or glasse with our Saviour's blood; a greate morcell of the real crosse; one of the nailes; a thorn ; a fragment of ye column to which our Lord was bound when scourged; the standard or ensigne of Constantine ; a piece of St. Luke's arme; a rib of St. Stephen; a finger of Mary Magdalene; numerous other things which I could not remember; but a priest, first vesting himself in his sacerdotals with the stole about his neck, shew'd us the Gospel of St. Mark (their tutelar patron) written by bis own hand, and whose body they shew buried in the Church, brought hither from Alexandria many years ago.'
Whilst Mr. Evelyn was at Venice, a ship bound for the Holy Land presented a tempting opportunity for visiting the consecrated territory whence all these anatomical relics were professedly imported; but after Mr. E. bad bespoken his passage, and laid in his stores for the voyage, the vessel was pressed into the service of the State, to carry provisions to Candia, which altogether frustrated his design, to his great mortification. He now resolved to spend some months at Padua in the study of physic and anatomy, and was regularly matriculated at the university. "
Here he obtained those rare tables of veines, nerves,' &c. which he afterwards presented to the Royal Society, being the first of that kind that had been seen in Eng
land, and for aught I know, in the world.' He passed nine months at Padua and Venice, and then set off for Milan, through Vicenza and Verona, in company with Mr. Waller, the cele
brated poet, now newly gotten out of England, after the Par• liament had extremely worried hiin for attempting to put in execution the commission of array, and for which the rest of bis colleagues were hanged by the Rebels.' Mr. Evelyn was particularly struck with the situation of Verona.
This Citty deserved all those elogies Scaliger has honoured it with, for in my opinion the situation is the most delightful I ever saw; it is so sweetly mixed with rising ground and vallies, so elegantly planted with trees on which Bacchus seems riding as it were in triumph every autumn, for the vines reach from tree to tree; here of all places I have seene in Italy would I fix a residence. Well has that learn'd man given it the name of ye very eye of the world;Ocelle mundi, Sidus Itali cœli,
Flos urbium, flos corniculumq' amœnum,
The next morning we travell'd over the downes where Marius fought,
The passage of the Alps was at that period a far more adventurous undertaking than it is now, when it has become the high road of gentlemen tourists; and our Author has no better epithets for the country than melancholy and troublesome.' At Geneva, he fell sick of the small-pox, having caught it by lying in a bed which his hostess's daughter, just newly recovered from that fell disease, had been so accommodating as to give up to him. His night's rest was dearly purchased at the expense of a five weeks' confinement to his chamber. Here he had several interviews with Diodati, the learned Author of the Italian version of the Bible. The Signor expressed to Mr. Evelyn in the course of conversation, his warm approbation of our Church government by Bishops;' and assured him, that the French Protestants would make no scruple to submit
to it and all its pomp, had they a king of the reformed religion as we had.' If this was their feeling, and all that they wanted was, a king to take the head-ship of their church, we do not wonder that no scruple should have existed in their minds with respect to Episcopacy on the ground of the pomp with which it is encumbered. A Presbyterian form of church government is ill adapted to combine with the system of royal patronage; and King James was so far perfectly right, when he said, 'No bishop, no king:' in ecclesiastical matters, they go together. And for our own part, if the Church is to be governed by the civil power, we should prefer a king at its head, to a presbytery. On this point, we are not Calvinists.
In Oct. 1646, we find Mr. Evelyn at Paris, where he contracted that friendship with the family of Sir Richard Browne, King Charles's resident at the court of France, which was sealed by his marriage to one of Sir Richard's daughters in the following June. In September, 1647, he came to England to settle his affairs, leaving his young wife, then only twelve years of age, under the care of her mother; but in 1649, he returned to France, which he did not finally quit till the year 1652.