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light who came into ye world." Then follows an Epistle (as at first a Gospell) with the Liturgy, prayers for the sick, with some alteration, lastly ye blessing; and then the Lo. Chamberlaine and Comptroller of the Household bring a basin, ewer and towell, for his Matie to wash.'
25 Jan. 1661. After divers yeares since I had seen any play, I went to see acted "The Scornful Lady," at a New Theater in Lincoln's Inn Fields.'
'6 Jan. 1662. This evening, according to costome, his Majesty open'd the revells of that night by throwing the dice himselfe in the privy chamber, where was a table set on purpose, and lost his 1001. (The yeare before he won 15001.) The ladies also plaied very deepe.
came away when the Duke of Ormonde had won about 10001. and left them still at passage, cards, &c. At other tables, both there and at ye Groom-porters, observing the wicked folly and monstrous excesse of passion amongst some loosers; sorry I am that such a wretched costome as play to that excesse should be countenanc'd in a Court which ought to be an example of virtue to the rest of the kingdome.
9. I saw acted "The 3rd Part of the Siege of Rhodes." In this acted ye faire and famous comedian call'd Roxalana from ye part she performed; and I think it was the last, she being taken to be the Earle of Oxford's misse (as at this time they began to call lewd women.)
15. There was a general fast thro' ye whole nation, and now celebrated at London, to avert God's heavy judgments on this land. There had fallen greate raine without any frost or seasonable cold, not only in England, but in Sweden, and the most Northern parts, being here neere as warme as at midsommer in some yeares. This solema fast was held for ye House of Commons at St. Margaret's. Dr. Reeves, Dean of Windsor, preach'd on 7 Joshua, 12. Shewing how y neglect of exacting justice on offenders (by which he insinuated such of the old King's murderers as were yet reprieved and in ye Tower) was a maine cause of God's punishing a land. He brought in that of the Gibeonites as well as Achan and others, concluding with an eulogie of the Parliament for their loyaltie in restoring ye Bishops and Cleargie, and vindicating the Church from sacrilege.
16. This night was acted before his Ma" "The Widow," a lewd
'6 April. Being of the Vestry, in the afternoone we order'd that the Communion Table should be set as usual altar-wise, with a decent raile before it, as before the Rebellion.'
17 Aug. Being the Sunday when the Common Prayer Booke reformed and ordered to be used for the future, was appointed to be read, and the solemn League and Covenant to be abjured by all the incumbents of England under penalty of looseing their livings; our Vicar read it this morning.
20. There were strong guards in ye Citty this day, apprehending some tumults, many of the Presbyterian ministers not conforming.
21 Dec. One of his Maty's Chaplains preach'd, after which,"in
stead of ye antient, grave, and solemn wind musiq accompanying y organ, was introduc'd a concert of 24 violins betweene every pause, after the French fantastical light way, better suiting a tavern or playhouse than a church.'
These were early days, which exhibited but a sample and earnest of what the nation gained by the restoration of the Court, the Church and the Theatre, and their simultaneous efforts to de-puritanize the community. All was not indeed, even in good Mr. Evelyn's opinion, as it should have been; but the King smiled upon him, and occupations of the most honourable and patriotic nature now devolving upon him, and engrossing his time, left little leisure for superfluous rumination or boding augury. He dined with the King, or with the Chancellor, or with the Queen Mother, and he went to royal balls and royal theatricals, till he was tired of the hurry of a court life, while at home he received the visits of Majesty and all its satellites. He could now go to church without seeing a mechanic, or one whose ordination was of doubtful validity, ascend the pulpit; he saw Ash Wednesday and Christmas day reinstituted, and the Communion Table again set altar-wise, the Presbyterians turned out, and the carcasses of those arch' rebels Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster among the Kings, to Tyburne, hanged on the gallows there, and then buried in a deep pit.' He saw, and he records, these magnanimous triumphs, and could he but feel elated at such a Restoration? It is a most salutary exercise of the feelings, to compel one's self to think none the worse of a man's integrity, piety, and even amiableness, on account of what seem to us palpable incongruities, but which, perhaps, taking all the circumstances into consideration, do not exceed what may be fairly allowed as the average proportion of human infirmity which forms the set off against the truest excellence of character. In our next Number, we shall endeavour to do justice to Mr. Evelyn's exemplary discharge of all the social relations, his devout and resigned temper, his scientific ardour, and his unaffected philanthropy.
Art. IV. An Autumn near the Rhine; or Sketches of Courts, Society, Scenery, &c. in some of the German States bordering on the Rhine. 8vo. pp. 524. London, 1818.
THE Rhine, the magnificent Rhine, while its very name calls up the idea of all that is wild, and rich, and majestic in scenery, forms a kind of central point in our historical recollec tions of marking periods and of illustrious individuals. With out ascending to the times of romance or plausible conjecture, we
find, at a sufficiently early date of classical history, its banks te: nanted by rude and warlike tribes, whose inroads into Belgic Gaul, stimulated the policy and ambition of Julius Cæsar to lead, for the first time, the Roman armies across the Rhine. The fine, but doubtful campaigns of Drusus and Germanicus were manæuvred and fought the adjacent country, in which was also the theatre of the splendid efforts of Arminius to liberate his country from the chains of Rome, Some of the most remarkable events of the reigo of Charlemagne were transacted in this quarter ; and the conflicts between his descendants frequently rendered it a troubled scene. In the subsequent stages of Germanic story, the Rhenish territory has always formed a kind of debateable ground on which alien or native armies might contend for the mastery. It did not of course, escape the protracted visitations of the thirty years' war, when Gustavus and his school of warriors traversed Germany from the sea to the Carpathians, and from the Vistula to the Danube. Of the wars between the different Continental states, and between France and Great Britain, these regions have been the frequent field, and bave given a melancholy immortality to the names of Spinola, Farnese, Condé, Luxembourg, Marlborough, Eugene, Villars, and a host of equally illustrious homicides.
The Rhine has seldom, and only for a brief time, served as the boundary of great and powerful nations. In the earlier periods of authentic history we find it bordered by savage tribes, who were at all times ready either to engage in mutual quarrel or to range themselves under the command of some powerful or popular leader ; and the neighbouring regions still bear testimony to that more recent, and not less turbulent period, when the summits of the Bergstrasse and the Adenwald were crowned with fortresses, whose ruins blend richly with the wild and grand scenery of these romantic tracts, and whose original possessors descended from their mountain fastnesses to encounter each other in fierce rivalry, or to plunder the helpless traveller. Within a narrower limit of commemoration, thé Rhenish states have presented the same general aspect of minute and intricate separation, but with a more tranquil and better defined policy, and on the whole, perhaps, with favourable results to the general interests of mankind.' 'IIad the whole of Germany, for instance, been under the dominion of Austria, the efforts of Luther would probably have been as little successful as were similar attempts in the adjacent country of Bohemia ; but the division of territory, the variety of interests, the difference of policy, and the distinctions of personal character among the reigning inonarchs of the Imperial states, afforded favourable opportunities for the introduction and advancement of the reformation, of which the great
instruments raised up by Providence for that transcendent work, did not fail to make skilful and vigorous use.
We have no present motive for discussing the now obliterated changes introduced into the Germanic constitution by Napoleon; but we can have no hesitation in expressing our strong disapprobation of the plans adopted by the Allied powers in their dissolution of the Rhenish confederation and their construction of a semifeudal, semifederative system. If justice-justice on their own principles, we mean-had been their object, it required something like the re-establishment of the former regime'; but if a sincere regard to the common weal had actuated ibem, we should have have heard nothing of the adjustments, absorptions, extensions, and mediatizations, by which they have arbitrarily, and as we apprebend, injuriously, altered the political aspect of Europe, and interposed formidable obstacles to the ascertainment and consolidation of civil and religious freedom. Not that we cherish much sympathy for the small princes and chieftains themselves who have been so unceremoniously ousted; nor that we regard the old system with any other feeling than with cordial dislike, and with sincere wishes for the substitution of a better; but we condemn the arrangements of the Allies, because we are upable to trace in them that enlightened solicitude for the independence of sovereigns, the liberty of subjects, and the happiness of nations, which the royal and noble negociators on all occasions clamorously professed. There was a fine opportunity for the proof of their sincerity, presented to them in the condition of the free cities and states of the Empire, and, to speak in courteous phrase, they neglected it. There is no part of German history on which the mind and memory dwell with greater interest, than on the rise, vicissitudes, and decay of those privileged establishments. In the olden time' of Germany. her ' merchants were princes,' and whatever might be the defects of their mercantile policy, whatever of error or of ambition might occasionally sully the interpal rule or the honourable rivalry of the commercial states, there was a republican energy in their character, a boldness and a grandeur in their enterprises, which amply redeemed their vices, and almost authorized the occasional extravagance of their pretensions. In the dark periods of the Empire, they wereits best resources ; in its better days, they were its proudest boast. Amid surrounding deserts of despotisin and poverty, they were as rich oases, flourishing in all the wealth of commerce, and in as large an enjoyment of the blessings of freedom as theconditions of mortality and the circumstances of political science would permit. Gradually, but forcibly and completely swept away by the tide of despotic encroachment and military violence, sound policy, the state of Europe, and the claims of man's moral and intellectual nature demanded their restoration. But the same
cold and selfish calculations which consigned Venice to Austria, and Genoa to Sardinia, rejected the appeal, and while affecting to re-establish four out of the number, left even these the mere • sbadows of a mighty name,' holding a precarious existence at the mercy of the stronger powers by whom they are sorrounded. A pretty intelligible intimation of the kind of freedom which they are suffered to retain, is suggested by the affair of Colonel Massenbach. He was obnoxious to the Prussian Government, and sought safety in the free and independent city of Frankfort; his asylum was insulted by the demand of the Prussian ambassador, that he should be given up, and the magistrates were under the necessity of compliance. We are equally at a loss to guess the principle on which many of the general divisions and allotments of territory were made. How sagaciously soever they may have been partitioned, and with whatever regard to strength and compactness they may in reality have been assigned to their possessors, they certainly make a very strange and uncouth appearance in the map. Such interlinkings and insula-' tions of states, such sections and separations of the same country: here, the king of Bavaria obliged to request permission of his brother, or cousin, of Wirtemburg to cross his kingdom, before he can reach bis duchy of Deuxponts; there, the grand duchy of Hesse flanked and cut in two by the Electorate of the same name; in a third direction, the kingdom of Hanover winding and insinuating a long excresence between two fractions of the duchy of Brunswick. If we add to this strange and whimsical tesselation, the little counties, margraviates, and principalities, with their small patches of country, set in the midst of the larger states, we shall then bave a faint idea of the condition in which Germany was left by those to whom its final settlement was committed.
The volume before us, from wbicb' these reminiscences have detained us a little too long, contains a number of miscellaneous and desultory, but very amusiog sketches of government, society, habits, and scenery, put together, ostensibly, during a tour among some of the Rhenish states. We have not the smallest suspicion that the adventures and associations described by the Writer, really occurred in his personal experience; but we have as little hesitation in ascribing to him a fair portion of local knowledge, and a coosiderable acquaintance with the individuals both animate and inanimate who figure in his pages. Altogether, he has produced a very agreeable book, which will afford not only gratification, but considerable information on subjects which are, though much the matter of common conversation, very little familiar to general knowledge.
Mentz, the first important object occurring in these letters, presents a melancholy contrast to its former prosperity under