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STATEMENT OF DR. HUGH L. DRYDEN, DIRECTOR, NATIONAL

ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS; ACCOMPANIED BY PAUL G. DEMBLING, GENERAL COUNSEL, NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

Dr. DRYDEN. Thank you. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee and counsel, less than 72 hours ago, I was high above the Atlantic Ocean, returning from a busy week in Europe.

As we flew westward, my thoughts ranged far beyond the comfort of the pressurized cabin, and, because they may be pertinent to the matters being considered by your committee, I should like to mention two of the subjects that came to mind.

My airplane was traveling at an airspeed of more than 300 miles per hour. The earth-some 20,000 feet below—was revolving at about 1,000 miles per hour.

Simultaneously, the earth was traveling in space, in orbit around the sun, at the rate of about 66,000 miles per hour. At the same time, the sun itself was moving at the rate of 630,000 miles per hour, within our galaxy that we call the Milky Way.

The star nearest our Sun is Alpha Centauri. It is more than 25 trillion miles away.

We have to reach about 25,000 miles per hour to escape from the earth. To travel outside the solar system, we will have to escape from the gravitational pull of the sun. That will require a minimum speed of about 70,000 miles per hour. A space craft journey from the Earth to Alpha Centauri would take over 40,000 years at this speed.

As those increasingly large numbers flashed through my mind, I was reminded how enormous is the task ahead: of learning more about our solar system and the myriad galaxies which comprise the

cosmos.

of space.

At the same time, I was impressed with the need for urgency to get on with the job, to use the new tools that we have just fashioned that, for the first time in history, enable us to probe the secrets of the universe, to see things as they really are, and to begin man's exploration

The second of my thoughts on my homeward flight was based upon happenings of the previous week.

Everywhere I went, especially in Madrid and in Munich, where there were opportunities for conversation with others of the scientific community, I had been met with the following questions:

Was the United States really going to provide world leadership in the scientific, peaceful use of our new-found ability to send space craft far beyond the atmospheric envelope that encircles the earth?

Would the United States be willing to spend the hundreds of millions annually necessary to accomplish such explorations into space, even if the military advantages were not clearly foreseen and there was no demonstrated prospect of new scientific information that could be immediately translated into dollar-producing projects?

Fortunately, I was prepared for such questioning.

I could and did note that our national leaders in the administration and in both Houses of Congress had been virtually unanimous in declaring that the United States should promptly blueprint a wisely bold national space program, and that it should be directed toward exploration and exploitation of space for peaceful purposes. I told

my questioners how the leaders of both the House and the Senate had taken on the task, in addition to their already burdensome duties, of studying intensively the ways and means to insure that those intentions should become actualities.

As I flew westward I could not help but think how important it will be that as a nation we carry forward these plans for the peaceful use of our new ability to move into space.

I realized, of course--and I believe this point of view is shared by even the most anxious of my European friends—that the United States will have to be alert to every possibility of using the new space technology to strengthen our military powers of deterrence. But the important, the vital point, is that we need to put our national emphasis upon the civil aspects of space technology.

The simple fact is, in addition to being a peaceful Nation composed of citizens who hate the thought of war, we must so conduct ourselves that our friends around the world—and our enemies as well—will know beyond mistake that, although we are amply strong as our national interest requires, we are striving by word and deed for peace.

Last week, Dr. James H. Doolittle, Chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, appeared before your committee. Since my return, I have read his statement and except for his comments about me--I concur completely.

I have also reviewed, hurriedly I must admit, the comments of the other gentlemen who testified last week before your committee.

In the light of that previous testimony and keeping in mind some of the questions which you gentlemen have asked, I should like now to make several comments that may be helpful and then attempt to provide answers to such further questions as you may have.

First, may I say I believe that the administration is far more interested in the accomplishment of a national space program that-except for the space technology efforts of the Military Establishmentwill be under civil direction, than it is in the precise language of any part of Senate bill 3609.

In the early stages, when the administration was studying how best to formulate its national space program, the NACA made recommendations.

As I understand it, the bill was purposely written in general, rather than specific, terms because the entire subject of space technology isand for some time to come will remain—largely an assortment of unknowns. Today, we simply do not know what we will find, or what good it will be, when we venture into space.

There is a distinction between the situation today respecting space legislation and the situation at the end of World War II when the Atomic Energy Act was drafted,

In that earlier undertaking, the fearful possibilities of atomic energy for military purposes had already been demonstrated. The possibilities of civilian use of atomic energy were at least partially known.

In other words, in 1946 the atomic energy prospects--what needed to be done respecting both civilian and military research and development, and the necessary precautions that had to be taken-were sufficiently clear to make desirable the drafting of legislation in very specific and detailed form.

SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON SPACE AND ASTRONAUTICS

LYNDON B. JOHNSON, Texas, Chairman RICHARD B. RUSSELL, Georgia

STYLES BRIDGES, New Hampshire THEODORE FRANCIS GREEN, Rhode Island ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas

BOURKE B. HICKENLOOPER, Iowa
WARREN G, MAGNUSON, Washington LEVERETT SALTONSTALL, Massachusetts
CLINTON P. ANDERSON, New Mexico JOHN W. BRICKER, Ohio
STUART SYMINGTON, Missouri

KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota
EDWIN L. WEISL, Consulting Counsel
CYRUS VANCE, Consulting Counsel
Dr. HOMER JOSEPA STEWART, Scientific Consultant
Dr. GLEN P. WILSON, Coordinator of Technical Information
Mrs. EILENE GALLOWAY, Special Consultant

CONTENTS

Page 248

269

279

307 315

344

355

360

362

369

374

Statement of

Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, Director, National Advisory Committee for

Aeronautics; accompanied by Paul G. Dembling, General Counsel,

NACA.-
Dr. H. Guyford Stever, Associate Dean of Engineering, Massachusetts

Institute of Technology, and Chairman, NĀCA Special Committee
on Space
Maurice H. Stans, Director, Bureau of the Budget; accompanied by

William H. Finan, Assistant Director, Management and Organ-
ization, Bureau of the Budget; Alan L. Dean, Management Analyst,
Bureau of the Budget; and Kenneth F. McClure, Assistant General

Counsel, Department of Commerce
Harris Ellsworth, Chairman, United States Civil Service Commission;

accompanied by Warren B. Irons, Executive Secretary, United

States Civil Service Commission..
Loftus E. Becker, Legal Adviser, Department of State ---
Dr. W. H. Pickering, director, jet propulsion laboratory, California

Institute of Tehnology -
Dr. James Van Allen, Chairman, Rocket and Satellite Research Panel,

and professor of physics, University of Iowa.-
Dr. Detlev W. Bronk, President, National Academy of Sciences,

president, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, and Chair

man, National Science Board..
Don K. Price, Jr., vice president, Ford Foundation, and dean designate,

Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration...
Dr. Harry Wexler, Director, Office of Meteorological Research, United

States Weather Bureau --
Dr. Richard W. Van Wagenen, dean of the Graduate School, American

University, appearing in behalf of the American Association for the

United Nations.
Appendix:
Statement of Dr. F. W. Reichelderfer, Chief, United States Weather

Bureau --
Statement of the Federation of American Scientists
The Problems of Congress in Formulating Outer Space Legislation,

by Eilene Galloway, special consultant, Senate Committee on Space

and Astronautics -
An International Outer Space Agency for Peaceful Purposes, by Mary

Shepard, analyst, International Organization Foreign Affairs Divi-
sion, Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress-
The Soviet Space Effort, special report prepared by Air Information
Division of the Library of Congress --

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PRINCIPAL WITNESSES
Becker, Loftus E., Legal Adviser, Department of State --
Bronk, Dr. Detlev W., President, National Academy of Sciences --
Dryden, Dr. Hugh L., Director, National Advisory Committee for Aero-

nautics.-
Ellsworth, Harris, Chairman, United States Civil Service Commission...
Pickering, Dr. W. H., director, jet propulsion laboratory, California Insti-

tute of Technology -
Price, Don K., Jr., vice president, Ford Foundation.
Stans, Maurice H., Director, Bureau of the Budget
Stever, Dr. H. Guyford, associate dean of engineering, Massachusetts Insti-

tute of Technology -
Van Allen, Dr. James, Chairman, Rocket and Satellite Research Panel..
Van Wagenen, Dr. Richard W., dean of the Graduate School, American

University
Wexler, Dr. Harry, Director, Office of Meteorological Research, United

States Weather Bureau...

379 380

381

387

393

315 360

248 307

344 362 279

269 355

374

369

SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON SPACE AND ASTRONAUTICS

LYNDON B. JOHNSON, Texas, Chairman RICHARD B. RUSSELL, Georgia

STYLES BRIDGES, New Hampshire THEODORE FRANCIS GREEN, Rhode Island ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas

BOURKE B. HICKENLOOPER, Iowa
WARREN G. MAGNUSON, Washington LEVERETT SALTONSTALL, Massachusetts
CLINTON P. ANDERSON, New Mexico JOHN W. BRICKER, Ohio
STUART SYMINGTON, Missouri

KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota
EDWIN L. WEISL, Consulting Counsel
CYRUS VANCE, Consulting Counsel
Dr. HOMER JOSEPA STEWART, Scientific Consultant
Dr. GLEN P. WILSON, Coordinator of Technical Information
Mrs. EILENE GALLOWAY, Special Consultant

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