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useful and in variable extents unifying. This has been demonstrated recently in the organization of the International Geophysical Year where 67 states, including the Communists, have coordinated their resources and efforts to increase mankind's knowledge of his universe. Numerous other international organizations provide similar examples.
More tenuous and less specific are the hopes—and they are only hopes—that a small beginning of collaboration between the Soviet and the West on outer space might, as the New Republic put it: 13
“* * * just might-lay the groundwork for later international projects of space exploration and perhaps even help to keep the bugaboo of space 'control' under control.”
On the other hand it is doubtful if as much international enthusiasm could be generated for the joint exploration of space as has always been evident with relation to the development of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Peoples everywhere, particularly in the underdeveloped areas, see in the atom an enormous potential source of energy and of technological progress, a means by which their standards of living may be raised or maintained at a high level. The benefits which exploitation of space may bring to the “common man," on the contrary, are considered at the present time remote and uncertain.
PROPOSED FUNCTIONS OF AN OUTER SPACE AGENCY (Adapted from the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency) A. The Outer Space Agency is authorized
1. To encourage and assist research on, and development and practical app'ication of, the exploration and exploitation of outer space for peaceful uses throughout the world; and, if requested to do so, to act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the performance of services or the supplying of materials, equipment, or facilities by one member of the Agency for another; and to perform any operation or service useful in research on, or development or practical application of, the conquest of outer space for peaceful purposes;
2. To make provision, in accordance with this Statute, for materials services, equipment, and facilities to meet the needs of research on, and development and practical application of the uses of outer space for peaceful purposes. * * *
3. To foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of outer space;
4. To encourage the exchange and training of scientists and experts in the field of the peaceful uses of outer space;.
5. To establish and administer safeguards designed to ensure that materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its supervision or control are not used in such a way as to further any military purpose, and to apply safeguards, at the request of the parties, to any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or at the request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the field of the exploration and exploitation of outer space;
6. To establish or adopt, in consultation, and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for the minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision; and to provide for the application of these standards, at the request of the parties, to operations under any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or, at the request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the field of the conquest of outer space;
7. To acquire or establish any facilities, plant and equipment useful in carrying out its authorized functions, whenever the facilities, plant, and equipment otherwise available to it in the area concerned are inadequate
or available only on terms it deems unsatisfactory. 13 Ah, Space. The New Republic, February 3, 1958, p. 5.
B. In carrying out its functions, the Agency shall
1. Conduct its activities in accordance with the principles of the United Nations to promote peace and international cooperation, and in conformity with the policies of the United Nations furthering the establishment of safeguarded worldwide disarmament and in conformity with any international agreements entered into pursuant to such policies :
2. Establish control over the use of special materials received by the Agency, in order to ensure that these materials are used only for peaceful purposes;
3. Allocate its resources in such a manner as to secure efficient utilization and the greatest possible general benefit in all areas of the world;
4. Submit reports on its activities annually to the General Assembly of the United Nations and, when appropriate, to the Security Council; if in connection with the activities of the Agency there should arise questions that are within the competence of the Security Council, the Agency shall notify the Security Council, as the organ bearing the main responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and may also take the measures open to it under this Statute * * *
5. Submit reports to the Economic and Social Council and other organs of the United Nations on matters within the competence of these organs. C. In carrying out its functions, the Agency shall not make assistance to members subject to any political, economic, military, or other conditions incompatible with the provisions of this Statute.
D. Subject to the provisions of this Statute and to the terms of agreements concluded between a State or a group of States and the Agency which shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Statute, the activities of the Agency shall be carried out with due observance of the sovereign rights of States.
SPECIAL REPORT PREPARED BY AIR INFORMATION DIVISION OF THE LIBRARY OF
CONGRESS FOR THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON OUTER SPACE
THE SOVIET SPACE EFFORT
ORGANIZATION, EQUIPMENT, OBJECTIVES, AND PERSONNEL
SECTION 1-INTRODUCTION The Soviet Union announced its decision to launch an artificial satellite at the International Congress of Astronautics in Copenhagen in August 1955 (R. 17).
The Soviets regard the launching of a satellite as the next step in the develop ment of rocketry and the first step to the solution of interplanetary travel. Soviet official interest in space travel dates back more than a quarter of a century when GIRD's (Groups for the Study of Reactive Propulsion) were organized in Moskva, Leningrad, and other cities. Since World War II this interest has intensified. An Astronautics Section has been created at the Central Aeroclub (imeni Chkalova) in Moskva and a special Inter-Agency Commission has been set up at the Academy of Sciences for the purpose of coordinating Soviet space effort (R. 8, 9, 25).*
The current sputniks are the result of many years of work on the part of Soviet engineers and scientists. They have been conceived as an integral part of the IGY program to study the structure of the ionosphere and of the atmosphere. Special attention is to be paid to radiation studies of cosmic rays and solar radiation in the ultraviolet and X-ray ranges. Satellites will also be used for study of fluctuations of the magnetic field of the earth and of the effect of meteors and micrometeors on space vehicles. It is anticipated that satellites will provide interesting information on the effect of weightlessness on animal life (R. 6, 7, 9, 30, 42).
Some of the above phenomena have already been measured by means of high altitude rockets but for very short periods of duration. The obvious advantage of the sputniks is that they permit observations over prolonged periods of time and over large areas of the earth's surface. Other applications of artificial satellites also present themselves. Sputniks could be used for experimental checking on the theory of relativity (by observation of the displacement of the perigee), measurement of gravitational displacement of transmitter frequency
*Indicates references at end of report.
of the sputnik, and measurement of intensity of luminescence of the metagalaxy from the sputnik (R. 9, 39).
The primary problem of putting an artificial satellite into orbit involves construction of rockets capable of performing the task and calculation of proper orbits. But a whole group of secondary problems arise which complicate the task if the satellites are to be manned. These problems are largely biological in nature such as overcoming the effects of acceleration of more than 2G's, the effects of weightlessness of protracted periods of time, the effects of radiation, lack of normal pressures, etc. (R. 4, 15, 24, 43).
Some of these problems can be studied under laboratory conditions more easily than others. Soviet scientists have made extensive studies of certain aspects and have devised air-tight cabins, pressure suits, and space suits. Considerable effort has gone into design of instruments which can operate independently for long periods. These automatic recording instruments present difficulties in design since on the one hand they must be light, compact, and operate on small amounts of power and, on the other, they must be sturdy enough to stand the effects of stress, vibration, and considerable variations in temperature and pressure (R. 4, 43).
Still another problem is that of rocket fuels and in this field much research remains to be done. The current Soviet rockets operate on more or less conventional liquid fuel systems but research is moving in the direction of exotic fuels. One Soviet source claims that satisfactory results have been obtained with chemical fuels recently by the use of metallic additives such as aluminum and magnesium. Currently work is being done on hydrogen compounds of boron and lithium. Interesting results have been obtained with boron ethyl, boron alkyl, and pentaboron. Experiments with pentaboron have proved to be particularly rewarding and specialists predict a bright future for this type of fuel (R. 5, 15, 24).
SECTION 2-SOVIET ROCKET PROGRAM The launching of high altitude rockets has been practiced in the U. S. S. R. for a long time. These rockets have been used for investigation of the upper layers of the atmosphere and the ionosphere. Instruments carried aloft have been used to measure temperature and pressure of the atmosphere up to elevations of 200 km. Rockets have also been used to measure the magnetic field of the earth from elevations of more than 100 km. Radiation studies are also made and rockets have been used to study primary cosmic radiation and corpuscular radiation of the sun. Studies have been made of the velocities at which they enter the atmosphere and the effect of various types of radiation on living organisms. The velocities of meteors and micrometeors encountered in the upper layers have also been studied for the purpose of determining the "meteoric hazard" (R. 3, 7, 8, 37, 39, 42).
With the onset of the IGY the Soviet rocket program has been intensified. In July and Aug. 1957 two series of high altitude rockets have been launched from the “middle latitudes of European U. S. S. R.” During the entire 18 months of the IGY the U. S. S. R. expects to launch no less than 125 high altitude rockets; 70 from "middle latitudes of European U. S. S. R.,” 25 from the Bukhta Tikhaya observatory on Franz Joseph Land, and 30 from the Mirnyy observatory in Antarctica (R. 9, 27, 33, 40, 48).
In addition to the heavy rockets, referred to above, the U. S. S. R. has several types of lightweight rockets for meteorological purposes. These rockets are capable of bearing aloft a limited number of meteorological instruments up to an altitude of several dozen km. The use of these rockets for aerological work is almost routine (R. 9).
SECTION 3-HIGH ALTITUDE RESEARCH ROCKETS
Rockets for probing the upper layers of the atmosphere are launched from special reinforced concrete ramps with guiding rails. The servicing and scientific personnel are protected by concrete, underground bunkers during the launching (R. 8).
American and British scientists have, in general been installing recording instruments in the noses of rockets. In order to avoid "contamination” of measurements by rocket gases, U. S. S. R. scientists rely on special research rockets with detachable instrument containers. These rockets were designed by the Institute of Applied Geophysics. * * *
The two instrument containers fit within two “mortar” tubes attached laterally to the opposite sides of a rocket.
The front openings of the “mortar" tubes are then covered by streamlined caps (R. 8, 9, 26, 27, 33).
At an assigned altitude (i. e., several dozen km. after the rocket engine quits and the rocket is coasting on its momentum) the containers are shot out of the “mortar” tubes by special charges. After receiving this extra boost the containers forge ahead and slightly to the side of the carrier rocket, moving through air uncontaminated by the rocket. Some time after the containers separate from the rocket, at a preset altitude, a valve opens and lets air into sample bottles in the container. In order to insure identity with the ambient atmosphere, the sample is taken only after the speed of the detached container has dropped to 50–70 m/sec. After that the container continues in free fall until an altitude of 10–12 km., at which time the parachute is ejected. If all goes well, the container then parachutes safely to the ground and lands in an upright position on special rods. The function of the rods is to absorb part of the shock and to keep the container in a vertical position, thereby making it easier to find (R. 8, 9, 33).
The instrument containers are metallic cylinders 2 meters long and 40 cm, in diameter. They consist of three sections (or two if the parachute compartment is not counted). The lower part consists of an airtight compartment housing instruments, power supply, programming mechanism, etc. The middle section consists of open grillwork and contains air sample bottles. To limit desorption, only metal glass, ceramic, and negligible amount of vacuum rubber (in the form of thin padding between metal and glass of the bottles) is used in the open compartment. The upper section, which is also sealed, contains the parachute (R. 3, 8, 9, 26, 33).
Non-Soviet practice is to use metal air bottles, since only inert gases are being analysed, and glass is a poor container for helium. In addition, the recovery of glass bottles is particularly difficult. Nevertheless, Soviet investigators use glass bottles 400 to 5,000 cc. in capacity, equipped with special valves. The glass bottles are prepared by washing in alcohol and evacuating down to pressures of 10_ mm. Hg. with a simultaneous heat to 300°-400° C. Since a bottle thus prepared may wait in storage for some time, it is again evacuated one or two days before launching. This second evacuation provides an opportunity for checking the vacuum in the bottle and if the pressure rose to 10-4 mm. Hg. or more, the bottle is rejected as defective (R. 8, 26).
The greatest difficulty encountered in setting up this equipment was design of the valve. In American practice metal bottles with metal tubes are used. The tubes are opened with special knives and closed by flattening them out in order to provide an airtight seal. In selecting valves a Soviet scientist considered various possibilities. Valves involving fusing proved unsuitable because of liberation of "parasitic gases". Finally a usual type of vacuum stopper with an opening of about 1 cmwas selected. This ground glass stopper had better than normal quality of surface finish. Ceresin (a mixture of high polymer hydrocarbons, Cn H2n+2 was used as a lubricant. Ceresin is sufficiently inert chemically with regard to gases under consideration and has valuable mechanical properties. It permits free rotation of stopper when hot and provides a perfect seal when it cools off to a solid (R. 26).
The valve itself has two spiral springs which provide a couple tending to rotate the stopper. Motion of the stopper is prevented by friction of the cold solid ceresin. A heating wire wound around the stopper melts the wax at a predetermined time. This permits the stopper to make a quarter turn which opens the bottle. Further movement is arrested by a low melting point wire which is part of the electric circuit. After 10 seconds (a sufficient time to equalize the ambient and bottle pressures) the current melts the wire permitting the stopper to make another quarter turn which closes the valve. The ceresin solidifies again providing a vacuum seal for the bottle (R. 26).
The gas samples taken from high altitudes were subjected to a quantitative spectrum analysis developed in the U. S. S. R. by S. E. Frish. The sample air from the sample bottle is forced into a very thin tube by filling the bottle with mercury. A high frequency voltage is applied to the terminals of the tube causing the gases within to glow. Spectrum of this glow is photographed and compared to sample spectrographs of known gas mixtures. This method has been refined to the point where it can be applied to samples not greater than hundredths of one cc (which corresponds to altitudes of 130-140 km.). This quality of a given gas in the sample has an error of about 5-6%. In Soviet practice the time interval between taking of the sample and its analysis amounts to an average of 2–5 days. In American practice this interval has varied from 6 weeks to as much as 18 months (R. 8, 26).
The above method is applicable only up to altitudes of 150 km. Thereafter the atmosphere is so rare that only bottles of excessive size could provide sufficient quantities of air for analysis. The problem is solved by the use of radio frequency mass-spectrometer which is installed directly into the instrument container. Although this instrument is less sensitive than the magnetic type of mass-spectrometer used in laboratories it is much ligher and less bulky. It determines the composition of air continuously through a wide range of altitudes and its indications can be photographed or transmitted by radio (R. 8, 9, 26).
The method of using detachable instrument containers appears to have advantage for measurement of other parameters as well. For example, while direct measurements of air pressures at altitudes from 50 to 80 km. performed by instruments in detached containers closely compare to figures obtained by American scientists, whose instruments were located within the rocket itself, however when altitudes of 80 to 100 km. were reached, pressures obtained by Soviet scientists were smaller than those obtained by U. S. scientists. At present, American investigators have introduced a correction factor to compensate for air and gases escaping from the rocket and the corrected figures are quite close to Soviet figures (R. 9).
Thermal gauges, magnetic electric-discharge gauges, and ionization manometers are used for determination of pressures at various altitudes (R. 9, 27).
The rockets are also equipped with instruments for measuring ultra-violet and X-ray spectra of the sun and cosmic radiation. Cameras are used for recording the readings. Photographs of the earths surface have been made from elevations of several hundred km. (R. 8, 9).
SECTION 4-ANIMALS IN ROCKET RESEARCH
Because of their interest in the conquest of space Soviet scientists have been experimenting with animals and microorganisms for a number of years. Contrary to the American practice of using anesthetized animals (monkeys and mice) the Soviets concentrated on the use of animals which are fully awake. Because of the ease with which they could be trained. Soviets selected dogs. They succeeded in sending dogs into the upper layers of the atmosphere as far back as 1951. (R. 4, 8, 33).
In order to find out conditions detrimental to man in space, a number of experiments were performed with animals under laboratory conditions. First of all, dogs were placed in a pressure chamber and the pressure was dropped from the normal down to 30 mm. of mercury for 2/100 or 3/100 of a second. Thirty seconds later dogs developed subcutaneous swellings. Then acceleration experiments were performed on human beings. Men stood accelerations of 3 to 4 G's without difficulty. At 5 or 6 G's they complained of pains in their chests. At 7G's they could breath only with difficulty and no one could withstand accelerations of 8 G's for more than 2 minutes (R. 33, 46).
Since even the strongest artificial radioactivity sources cannot match the energy of cosmic radiation in space it is obviously impossible to test animals under laboratory conditions. Consequently, grey mice were taken aloft in balloons and kept there for a 24-hour period. At first these animals appeared to experience no ill effects but 2 years later their fur turned "silver" along the spine, a typical symptom of radiation sickness. Worms were also taken aloft and their progeny began to degenerate. The seventh generation of inbred worms died before reaching maturity (R. 33, 43, 46).
Before dogs could be used for high altitude research they had to be conditioned. They were held in pressure cells, taken up in aircraft, and kept in grounded rockets. At the end of each two-hour period spent in a sealed cabin they would be given tidbits as rewards. Dogs who were irritable or impatient were eliminated. This training went on for 2 months, until the dogs were completely adjusted to the sealed cabin and to the senders (i. e., meters) which were inserted into the dogs for the purpose of measuring heart beat, breathing, skin temperatures, etc. (R. 8, 33).
During the first series of experiments dogs were placed into an airtight cabin in the nose of the rocket. Dogs were strapped in place by special harnesses and a supply of oxygen was maintained by means of regenerative system. After reaching an elevation of 110 km. the cabin with the dogs was detached from the rocket. Then free fall of the cabin began. Tremendous velocities were attained in the thin upper air. Then the denser air slowed the cabin down and at about 3 km. elevation the parachute opened and the cabin landed safely on specially provided shock absorbers (R. 4, 8, 33, 43).