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Insects will afford a convenient opportunity for genetic research (R. 46, 43, 33, 23, 21).

V. L. Ginzburg, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R., suggested the use of an artificial satellite of the earth for experimental checking of the general theory of relativity and, specifically, for checking the displacement of the perigee of the satellite itself, a measurement of the gravitational displacement of the radio frequency transmitted by the satellite, and a measurement of the intensity of luminescence of the metalalaxy from the satellite (R. 9).

Work is also underway on the means of exploring the surface of nearest planets. A concentrated effort in this direction has been made by Yu. S. Khlebtsevich, chairman of the Committee for Radio-Telecontrol of the Astronautics Section. Khlebtsevich specialized in the problems of remotely controlled mobile laboratory devices. The concept of unmanned automatic mobile equipment investigating the surface of a planet seems to him to be the only realistic way of exploration. It is claimed that in the course of his research, Khlebtsevich found new methods of controlling space rockets over large distances, solved the problem of fixing the coordinates of the rocket with respect to the planets, and obtained many other technical solutions. This work, he feels, permits him to conclude that the initial investigation of space, as well as the moon, Mars, and Venus, will be feasible in the nearest future at an economically reasonable cost. The use of automatically controlled unmanned vehicles eliminates the basic difficulties of space travel : space flight biology, passenger protection, space ships, shields, etc. There is no longer the need to return the equipment to earth. The rocket is lightened to such an extent that its design and construction become practically feasible now, prior to the solution of problems connected with the development of atomic engines (R. 29).

The problem of highly advanced automatic exploring devices has been considered by the Institute of Automatics and Telemechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R. These devices are a new type of automatic mechanisms, called self-organizing and self-tuning systems, designed for the performance of specified operations under unspecified conditions, and capable, in each case, of selecting the best solution of a given problem among a set of alternatives. The mechanisms have memory storage devices and can analyze their actions. At the present time, such machines are just beginning to be built. It is of considerable interest, therefore, to study the models of such systems. One of the first men to build such models is the English scientist Grey-Walter, who called his models, “turtles.” The Soviet Institute of Automatics has also built a model of such an automatic machine, specially designed for the exploration of the surface of planets (R. 32).

Another significant aspect of space development is the use of artificial satellites as television relay station in a satellite has for a long time attracted the attention of specialists: it was the subject for a discussion at a scientifictechnical conference in 1953. The problem of centralized television broadcasting over a large area in the U. S. S. R. has now become capable of solution. It is claimed that within a few years Moskva television broadcasts will be received as far beyond Soviet Union borders as China or the Antarctic. This will probably necessitate a heavier satellite orbiting at an altitude of over 35,000 km. The orbit and velocity of the satellite will be selected so as to keep it stationary over a desired area of the earth's surface (R. 36).

SECTION 21-ORGANIZATION OF THE SOVIET SPACE EFFORT

Since April 1955 the overall coordination of the Soviet space effort has been vested in the Permanent Interagency Commission for Astronautics. This commission has been set up under the auspices of the Astronomic Council of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R. Academician Leonid Ivanovich Sedov was named chairman of the Astronautics Commission (R. 8, 27a, 49).

The Astronautics Commission is composed of a number of outstanding scientists and engineers such as P. L. Kapitsa, V. A. Ambartsumyan, P. P. Parenko, B. V. Kukharkin, and others. A. G. Karpenko is the Learned Secretary of the Commission (R. 49).

The Soviet Astronautics Commission has been active on the international scene. In 1955, it sent two observers (L. I. Sedov, and Prof. K. I. Ogorodnikov) to the VIth Congress of the Astronautical Federation. In 1956, the Soviet Astronautics Commission became a member of the Astronautical Federation and L. I. Sedov was elected vice-president of the Federation. In 1957, the

Soviet Astronautics Commission sent four delegates (L. I. Sedov, A. G. Karpenko, Alla T. Masevich, and Dr. Lidiya V. Kursanova) to the VIIIth Congress of the Federation at Barcelona (R. 2a, 2b).

A. G. Karpenko has pointed out that the Soviet Astronautics Commission is concerned not only with the current effort involving high altitude rockets and artificial satellites but that it is looking forward to interplanetary travel and exploration. At present one of the major tasks of the Astronautics Commission consists of working out and building of mobile, automatic and remote control laboratories for exploration of the moon and the nearer planets. The function of the Commission in this task is that of coordinator of the space effort. The actual work is performed by a number of scientific and technical organizations (R. 49).

Not all of the organizations involved in the Soviet space effort have been identified, but some of the organizations involved are listed below : 1. Institute for the Study of Terrestrial Magnetisns, Ionosphere, and Radio

Wave Propagation of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R.

This institute plays a leading role in the collection of data and solution

of theoretical problems related to the space effort (R. 35). 2. Institute of Applied Geophysics of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R.

This institute has played an important role in the design of instruments

and equipment for the study of the upper ionosphere (R. 27). 3. Institute of Theoretical Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences of the

U. S. S. R.

The function of this institute is the calculation of orbits and life spans

of existing and future Soviet sputniks and space rockets (R. 30). 4. Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences

of the U. S. S. R.

This institute has been designated as a central point for collection and

evaluation of all data received from sputniks by radio (R. 12). 5. Institute of Automatics and Telemechanics of the Academy of Sciences of

the U. S. S. R. This institute has been responsible for working out programming mecha

nisms on the sputniks. It is currently engaged in the problem of developing

robots for remote control exploration of the moon, Mars, and Venus (R. 32). In addition to the scientific institutes listed above a significant role in the Soviet space effort has been played by the Astronautics Section of the Central Aeroclub imeni V. Chkalov. This is part of the DOSAAF organization and its function appears to be the stimulation of interest in astronautics among the young people of the U. S. S. R. Its structure and the calibre of its personnel, however, suggests that this Astronautics Section may be performing a more important function. It may even be in charge of research and development of certain aspects of the Soviet space effort (R. 8, 47a).

The Astronautics Section of the Central Aeroclub appears to have been founded early in 1954 or late 1953. N. A. Varvarov was the chief of section. The section had been organized into a number of scientific-technical committees each headed by an expert in the fields. The committees follow :

1. Cosmic Navigation (A. A. Shternfeld and V. V. Dobronravov)
2. Rocket Engineering (I. A. Merkulov)
3. Space Medicine (A. D. Seryapin)
4. Astronomic and Physical Problems (K. P. Stanyukovich)

5. Radio and Telecontrol (Yu. S. Khlebtsevich) (R. 21a, 29). The Astronautics Section is still in operation; Varvarov is still chief of section. The section is still actively working on the problems of space flight (R. 29).

SECTION 22-PERSONNEL IN THE SOVIET SPACE EFFORT

The names of Soviet scientists and technical experts listed below are all involved, in one way or another, with rocketry, artificial satellites, ionosphere studies, and other problems related to the Soviet space effort. The names of personnel and information have been obtained only from the articles used for this report. No special search for additional names or additional information about names already known has been made. But there is little doubt that additional information could be obtained, if requested.

1. AMBARTSUMYAN, V. A.: Member of the Permanent Interagency Astronau

tics Commission of the Academy of Sciences of U. S. S. R. and President

of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR (R. 49). 2. BABAT, G. I.: Professor of Electrical Engineering and Doctor of Technical

Sciences. Has written both technical and popular articles on uses of electricity. Proponent for use of photonic propulsion for space rockets

(R. 34). 3. BELOUSOV, V. V.: Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Corre

sponding member of the Academy of Sciences. Director of Institute of Ter

restrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (R. 2b, 7). 4. BLAGONRAVOV, A. A.: Academician. Secretary of Department of Technical

Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R. He is a professor and one of the top Soviet specialists on rockets and space flight. He participated in the designing of the sputnik rockets. In the summer of 1957 he claimed that the U. S. S. R. had a rocket capable of reaching the

moon (R. 5a, 21, 33). 5. CHEBOTAREV, G.: Professor of Astronomy. Doctor of Physical and Mathe

matical Sciences. Associated with the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy of the U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences. He is a specialist on motions of celestial bodies. Works in Leningrad. Proposed 2 projects for sending a ballistic rocket to the moon, which would require only 16 tons of fuel,

instead of hundreds of tons, as generally estimated (R. 28, 30). 6. CHUDAKOV, A. Ye.: Specialist on cosmic radiation associated with working on

data obtained via the sputniks (R. 26). 7. DANILIN, B. S.: Specialist on upper atmosphere. Has been working on

problem of exploring the structure of the upper layers of the atmosphere

with aid of sputniks (R. 26). 8. DOBRONRAVov, V. V.: Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Chair

man of the Cosmic Navigation Committee of the Astronautics Section of the Central Aeroclub imeni V. Chkalov. Specialist on rockets and author of

books and articles on space flight (R. 21a, 37b, 44a, 55). 9. DOLGINOV, S.: Magnetologist. Candidate of Physical and Mathematical

Sciences. Currently working on the problem of probing the external mag

netic field of the earth by means of rockets and artificial satellites (R. 42). 10. ENEYEV, T. M.: Specialist in celestial mechanics. Currently working on cal

culation of orbits, lifetimes, and fuel required for placing of artificial

satellites into orbit (R. 25). 11. FEDOROV, Ye. K.: Geophysicist. Corresponding member of the Academy of

Sciences of the U. S. S. R. Member of North Pole-1 Drifting Station in 1937. Hero of the Soviet Union. In April 1939 he became Director of the Arctic Institute (Leningrad). In December 1939 he became Chief of the Hydrometeorological Service of the U. S. S. R. In 1954 he was a consultant to the High Latitude Expedition of that year. In 1957 he was working at the Institute of Applied Geophysics. He is associated with research on

upper atmosphere by means of high altitude rockets (R. 9). 12. FESENKOV, V. G.: Engineer. Collaborated on assembly of Sputnik I (R. 21). 13. FRADKIN, M. I. : Cosmic ray specialist. Engaged in study of primary cosmic

radiation as collected via the artificial satellites (R. 25). 14. GADOMSKI, Jan: Professor of Astronomy. President of Warsaw Astronautics

Society. Working on project of photon propulsion of rockets (R. 22). 15. GALKIN, G. N.: Physicist. Working on project of perfecting solar-silicon

batteries for use as power sources for artificial satellites. (R. 25). 16. GINSBERG, V. L.: Physicist. Working on composition of primary cosmic

radiation. Has theory of using artificial satellites for the purpose of proving the general theory of relativity. Has written a serious technical article

article on this subject (R. 25). 17. GRINGAUZ, K. I. : Physicist. Working on concentrations of positive ions in

the orbit of the artificial satellite of the earth (R. 26). 18. IMYANITOV, I. M.: Physicist. Working on measurement of electrostatic fields

in the upper layers of the atmosphere of the earth (R. 26). 19. ISAKOV, P.: Chairman of Scientific-Technical Committee for Space Medicine

of the Astronautics Section of the Central Aeroclub of DOSAAF (R. 46). KAPITZA, P. L.: Academician. Outstanding Soviet physicist. Member of the

Presidium of the U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences. Member of the Permanent Interagency Commission on Astronautics (Space Travel) of the Astronomic Council of the U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences (R. 49).

21. KARPENKO, A. G. : Academician. Learned Secretary of the Permanent Inter

agency Commission on Interplanetary Travel (Astronautics) of the Astronomic Council of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R. Was sent by the Astronautics Commission as a delegate to the VIIIth Congress of the

Astronautical Federation in Barcelona in 1957 (R. 2a, 27a, 49). 22. KATAYEV, S.: Television engineer. Is working on the problem of building a

television and radio receiving and rebroadcasting station sufficiently com

pact and shockproof to be placed into orbit around the earth (R. 36). 23. KAZANTSEV, A. N. : Doctor of Technical Sciences. University professor whose

specialty is propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere. Has written

articles on propagation of radio waves from the satellites (R. 19, 37aa). 24. KHAYKIN, S.: Professor. Has worked on determination of velocity of arti

ficial satellites by means of Doppler effect. (R. 18). 25. KHLEBTSEVICH, Yu. S. Candidate of Technical Sciences. A young expert on

guided rockets. Since at least 1954 he has been chairman of the ScientificTechnical Committee for Radio-Telecontrol of the Astronautics Section of the Central Aeroclub in V. Chkalov. For several years now he has been working on a project for sending remote controlled radio and television equipped robot laboratories to the moon and the nearer planets. (R. 7a,

21a, 29). 26. KUKARKIN, B. V.: Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Uni

versity professor. Member of Astronomic Council of the Academy of Sciences. Member of Permanent Interagency Commission on Interplanetary Travel (Astronautics) of the Astronomic Council of the Academy of

Sciences of the U.S. S. R. (R. 41, 49). 27. KURNOSOVA, Lidiya V. (woman); Soviet radiation research expert. She

was sent by the Astronautics Commission of the Academy of Sciences as a delegate to the VIII Congress of the International Astronautical Federation in Barcelona in 1958. She is currently studying the composition of

primary cosmic radiation. (R. 2a, 25). 28. LANDSMAN, A. P.: Physicist. Working with Dr. Vavilov on project of

perfecting solar-silicon batteries for use as power sources on artificial

satellites. (R. 25). 29. LOGACHEV, Yu. I.: Radiation specialist. Currently working with S. N.

Vernov on data (obtained by artificial satellites) on variations in cosmic

radiation. (R. 26). 30. LYAPUNOV, Boris V.: Popular writer on rockets and space flight. (R. 31). 31. MALOVETSKAYA, B. M. (woman): Physicist. Working with Dr. Vavilov on

a project of perfecting solar silicon batteries for use as power sources on

artificial satellites (R. 25). 32. MANDEL'SHTAN, S. L.; Physicist. Working on high frequency solar ultra

violet rays (R. 26). 33. MASEVICH, Alla G. (woman) (the anglicized form of the name is MASSE

VICH): Astronomer. Academician. Deputy Chairman of the Astro omic Council of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R. Was sent to VIII Congress of the International Astronautical Federation in Barcelona as a delegate of the Permanent Interagency Commission on Space Travel (Astronautics) of the Astronomic Council. She is also very closely related to the visual (i. e. optical) observation stations for the Soviet satellites

(R. 1a, 1b, 2a, 44). 34. MERKULOV, 1. A.: Chairman of the Technical Scientific Committee for Rocket

Engineering of the Astronautics Section of the Central Aeroclub imeni V.

Chkalov (R. 21a). 35. MIKHNEVICH, V. V.: Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Ex

pert on upper atmosphere pressures. Currently working at the Institute

of Applied Geophysics of the U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences (R. 26, 27). 36. MIRTOV, B. A.: Stratospheric meteorologist. Specialist on composition of

the upper atmosphere. Sent as delegate to recent Paris Conference on

Upper Air Studies by means of rockets (R. 26). 37. MOSEVICH, A. (See MASEVICH above.) 38. NAZAROVA, T. N. (woman): Physicist. Currently engaged in studying solid

components of interplanetary matter by means of rockets and artificial

earth satellites (R. 26). 39. OGORODNIKOV, K. I.: Member of U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences. Was sent

to VIth Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (Copenhagen, 1955) as an observer for the Permanent Interagency Commission

for Interplanetary Travel (Astronautics) of the Astronomic Council of

the U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences (R. 2b). 40. OKHOTSIMSKIY, D. YE.: Specialist in celestial mechanics. Currently working

on calculation of rocket and satellite orbits (R. 25). 41. PARENAGO, P. P.: Corresponding Member of the U. S. S. R. Academy of

Sciences. Member of the Permanent Interagency Commission on Space
Travel (Astronautics) of the Astronomic Council of the Academy of

Sciences (R. 49). 42. PETROVSKIY, A. M.: Member of the Institute of Automatics and Teleme

chanics of the U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences. Currently engaged in work

on design of robot mechanisms for exploration of the moon (R. 32). 43. POBEDONOSTSEV, YU. A.: Professor. Doctor of Technical Sciences. One of

the speakers at the official meeting organized by the Academy of Sciences on Oct. 16, 1957, to celebrate the successful launching of the first sputnik. He is interested in various aspects of astronautics and may be a member of the Permanent Interagency Commission on Space Travel (Astronautics)

of the Astronomic Council (R. 41). 44. POKROVSKIY, A. V.: Director of Institute of Aviation Medicine. Has been

in charge of high altitude experiments with dogs and other animals sent aloft in rockets. He is a specialist on space medicine. In December 1956 he attended the Paris Conference on Guided Rockets where he read a

paper on jet propulsion (R. 3, 4, 8, 27b). 45. POLOSKOV, Š. M.: Doctor of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Special

ist on upper air. Conducted studies by means of rocket sondes of the

outer layers of the atmosphere (R. 3, 8, 26, 33). 46. RAZORENOV, L. A.: Nuclear physicist. Candidate of Physical and Matḥe

matical Sciences. Has worked with S. N. Vernov on the composition of primary cosmic radiation. Recently wrote an article on "hyperons” (R.

6a, 25). 47. REPNEV, A. L.: Physicist. Has been working with B. S. Danilin on mea

surements of the upper atmosphere with the aid of satellites (R. 26). 48. SEDOV, Lonid I.: Academician. Chairman of the Permanent Interagency

Commission on Space Travel (Astronautics) of the Astronomic Council of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R. Vice-President of the In

ternational Astrononautical Federation (R. 2a, 2b, 49). 49. SERYAPIN, A. D.: Chairman of the Scientific Technical Committee for Space

Medicine of the Astronautics Section of the Central Aeroclub imeni V.

Chkalov in 1954 (R. 21a). 50. SHAFER, Yu G.; Physicist. Has been working with S. N. Vernov on varia

tions of cosmic radiation (R. 26). 51. SHTERNFELD, A. A.: Was Chairman of the Scientific Technical Committee for

Cocmic Navigation of the Astronautics Section of the Central Aeroclub

of the U. S. S. R. (R. 21a). SHVIDKOVSKIY, Yo G.: Physicist. Has been working with B. S. Danilin on

measurement of upper layers of the atmosphere with aid of sputniks

(R. 26). STANYUKOVICH, K. P.: Chairman of the Scientific Technical Committee for

Astronomic and Physics Problems of the Astronautics Section of the

Central Aeroclub of the U. S. S. R. (R. 21a). 54. TARATYNOVA, G. P. (woman): Specialist in celestial mechanics. Worked

with Okhotsimskiy on calculation of orbits for artificial satellites (R. 25). 55. TUSHKOV, N.: Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Has been

working on the problem of using satellites for measuring the external

magnetic field of the earth (R. 42). 56. VARVAROV, N. A.: Specialist on rockets and space flight. Chairman of Astro

nautics Section of the Central Aeroclub of the U. S. S. R. (R. 6, 21). 57. VAVILOV, V. S.: Physicist. Has been working on the problem of develop

ing silicon solar batteries for use on artificial satellites (R. 25). 58. VASIL'YEV, R. R.: Member of the Institute of Automatics and Telemechanics

of the U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences. Has been engaged in work on

design of robot mechanisms for exploration of the moon (R. 32). 59. VERNOV, Sergey Nikolayevich: Corresponding member of the Ú. S. S. R.

Academy of Sciences. Cosmic ray specialist. Chairman of the Cosmic Ray Group of the IGY Committee of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R. Has worked on cosmic rays for more than 25 years. Is now working on cosmic ray problems beyond the boundaries of the atmosphere of the earth (R. 8a, 25, 26, 37a, 44b).

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