« 이전계속 »
éleven vessels were sunk in the channel. The Ranger frigate and two gallies were stationed so as to co-operate with the batteries on shore in defending these obstructions, and to attack any armed vessels that might attempt a passage through HogIsland and channel.
On the 12th the British opened their batteries, and a constant fire was kept up between both parties until the 20th, when their second parallel, within 300 yards of the American lines, was completed. But the fire of the besiegers was far superior to that of the besieged. The former had the advantage of 21 mortais and royals; the latter only of two, and by the 20th their lines had sustained great damage in many places. About the time the British opened their batteries, gov. Rutledge took post in the country between the Cooper and the Santce rivers : a work was ordered to be thrown up on the Wando, ninc miles from town, and another at the point of Lampriere's, to preserve the com. munication with the country by water: a post was also ordered at a ferry over the Santee, to collect and secure the boats neccs. sary for the crossing over of the expected succours with dispatch, and for effecting a retreat with facility when requisite. • For a few moments the narrative must be retrospective. The horses destined to mount the British cavalry were lost on the passage from New-York. When lieut. col. Tarleton was landed, he soon obtained a fresh supply ; and having mounted his cavalry, joined a body of about 1000 men, who marched through the .' country from Savannah. On the 18th of March a detachment from his corps surprised about 80 American militia, killed and wounded several, and dispersed the remainder. Five days after, Parleton with his legion fell in with another small party of mounted militia, who instantly retreated; but in the pursuit three were killed, one wounded, and four taken prisoners. On the 27th he had a rencounter with lieut. col. Washington, at the head of his regular corps of horse. The Americans had the ad. vantage, took seven prisoners, and drove back the cavalry of the British legion ; but durst not pursue them for want of infantry.' At the beginning of the siege gen. Lincoln ordered the 300 régular cavalry to keep the field, and the country militia were to act as infantry in their support. On various pretences the milia tia refused to attach themselves to the cavalry. The American body of horse intended to cover the country, and to preserve the communication between that and the town, was surprised at Monk's Corner, [April 14.] by a strong party of Britisli, led by lieut. cols. Tarleton and Webster. A negro slave, for a suni of money, conducted the British from Goose-Creek, in the night
through its through unfrequented paths. Although the commanding officer of the American cavalry had taken the precaution of having his horses saddled and bridled, and the alarm was given by his videttes, posted at the distance of a mnile in front, yet, being entire. ly unsupported by infantry, the British advanced so rapidly, notwithstanding the opposition of the advanced guard, that they began their attack upon the main body before the men could put themselves in a posture of defence. About twenty-five were kila led or taken; and they that escaped were obliged for several days to conceal themselves in the swamps. The British instantly fell
down on the peninsula between the Cooper and the Santee with : about 250 horse and 600 infantry. When gen. Lincoin was in.
formed on the 16th of what had happened, he called a council i of war, who were of opinion, that the weak state of the garri
son made it improper to detach a number sufficient to attack this separate corps. On the 18th Sir H. Clinton received a reinforcement of 3000 men from New York. The only practicable roete of an evacuation for the Americans was to the right of the town; but the besiegers, with their reinforcement, strengthened the troops on the peninsula, and took post on Haddrell's-point, which obliged the other to abandon Lampriere's. On the 20th and 21st, another council of war was held, to determine upon the measures that the interest and safety of the country called the American officers. to pursue under their present circumstances. The result was" As a retreat would be attended with many distressing inconveniences, if not altogether impracticable for the undermentioned causes, to wit,-). the civil authority is averse to it, and intimated in council, that if attempted, they would coun. teract the measure :-2. it must be performed in face of the ene. my, much superior, across a river three miles broad, in large ships and vessels, the moving of which must be regulated by the wind and tide : 3. could these obstacles be surmounted, we must force our way through a considerable body of the enemy, in full possession of the passes on our route to the Santee, the only road by which we can retreat :-4. supposing us arrived at that river, new and dangerous difficulties are again to be encountered, from the want of boats to cross it, with an army wasted and worn down by action, fatigue and famine, and closely pursued by the enemy--we advise therefore, that offers of capitulation, before our affairs become more critical, should be made to gen. Clinton, which may admit of the army's withdrawing, and afford security to the persons and property of the inhabitants”-signed William Moultrie and others. The terms when proposed, were in. stantly rejected: but still not receded from by the proposers, as
they had hopes of succours to open the communication, and + give an opportunity of retreating. Though the rejection of the terms dispirited the garrison, yet they thought, by delaying as long as possible, the people in the neighbouring states would have an opportunity to rouse and imbody. On the 23d of April, the British commenced their third parallel from 80 to 150 yards from the British lines. The next day the besieged made a sally, which was conducted by lieut. col. Henderson, who led out 200 men, and attacked the advanced working party of the British, killed several and took eleven prisoners. This was the only sally made by them, for their inferior numbers would not admit of their engaging repeatedly in such services. On the 26th the propriety of attempting a retreat came again before a council of officers, who were unanimounsly of opinion, that it was not expedient as a retreat was impracticable. While gen. Lincoln was pressed with a variety of difficulties, the British flag was seen flying on fort Aloultrie. When the royal ships had passed Sullivan's island, col. Pinkney, with about 150 men under his command, was withdrawn from that post, to reinforce the army in Charleston. The feeble remainder of the garrison, mostly militia, surrendered on the 6th of May to capt. Hudson of the British navy, without firing a gun. The same day the third parallel was completed close to the edge of the American canal, and a sap carried to the dam, which contained its water on the right, by which mean a great part was drained to the bottom. On that day also col. Anthony Walton White, who had taken the command of the remains of the American cavalry after their defeat, experienced a similar disaster. He had crossed the Santee, and on that day made prisa eners a small British party that was conducted to Lanneau's ferry. He had ordered in season proper persons to collect boats, and to assemble a body of infantry at this place, to cover the American cavalry in thcirre-crossing the Santee, which had not been carried into execution. The zeal of a new subject, who had late-. ly summitted to the royal arıny, led him to give immediate notice to lord Cornwallis of White's situation. Tarleton, with a party of horse, was dispatched to the ferry; arrived there a few minutes after the American cavalıy; and instantly charged them with a superior force. From the want of boats and of infantry, a retreat was inpracticable, and resistance unavailing. A rout took place. Major Call and seven others escaped on borseback, by urging their way through the advancing British cavalry. Lieut. col. Washington, major Jameson, and five or six privates, saved themselves by swimming across the Santee. About 30 were killed, wounded or taken. The remainder got off by.conVol. III.
çealing themselves in the swamps. The British prisoners, who were in a boat crossing the river, being called upon by theiç friends to come back, rose on their guard, and were released. On the eighth Sir H. Clinton began a correspondence with gen. Lincoln, and repeated his former terms and summons. At this, time, all the flesh provisions of the garrison were not sufficient to furnish rations for a week. There was no prospect either of reinforcements or of supplies from the country. The engineers gave it as their opinion, that the lines could not be defended ten days longer, and that they might at any time be carried by assault in ten minutes.. Gen. Lincoln was disposed to close with the terms offered, as far as they respected his army ; but some demur was made in behalf of the citizens. Sir H. Clinton insisted on their being all prisoners on parole, and would promise nothing further, than that the town property of those within the lines should not be molested by the British troops. He also evaded any determinate answer to the article which requested leave for those who did not choose to submit to the British government, to sell their estates and leave the province. It was hoped, that upon a proper representation of matters in a free conference, the gen, erosity of the besiegers would soften their demands; the same was therefore asked by gen. Lincoln, without his directly refusing what was offered. Contrary to the expectation of the besieged, an answer was returned, that hostilities should re-commence at eight o'clock.. When the hour arrived, the most vigorous onset of the besiegers was immediately expected by the garrison, But neither army fired a gun for some time. Both seemed to dread the consequences of an assault, and to wish for a continu, ance of the truce, and a re-consideration of the proposed articles At nine, firing commenced from the garrison, and was kept up on both sides for several hours with unusual briskness, and did more execution than had taken place in the same length of time since the commencement of the siege... The British batteries of the third parallel, which were ready on the 6th, opened on this occasion. Shells and carcases were thrown incessantly into al most all parts of, the town; and several houses burt. Beside the cannon and mortars which played on the garrison at a less. distance than a hundred yards, rifles were fired by the Hessian. chasseurs with such effect, that very few escaped who showed themselves above the lines. The British advanced (May 11.] within twenty-five yards of the same, having crossed the wet ditch by sap; and commenced their preparations for making a general assault by sea and land. The principal inhabitants of the town, and a number of the country militia, now addressed gen.
Lincoln : signified to him, that the terms which Sir H. Clintos had offered, so far as they related to them, were satisfactory; and requested his acceptance of them : the lieut. governor and coun. cil also desired, that the negociations might be renewed. The moment for it was come. The town militia had thrown down their arms. The citizens ir general were discontented and clamorous. Many of the American cannon were disinounted, ånd others silenced for want of shot. All expectations of suca cour was at an end. No hope remained ; but what little atose from the bare possibility, that tire flower of the British army on the continent, 9000 strong, fushed by their successful opperation and seconded by a naval force, might be repulsed while attempting a storm, by a garrison; worn down with hard service, and under 3000 men. Gen. Lincoln wrote to Sir H. Clinton, and offered to accept the terms before proposed to him. The British commanders, averse to the extremities of a storm, consented. The articles of capitalation were signed the next day by B. Lincoln, H. Clinton, and M. Arbuthnot. It was stipulated, that the continental troops and sailors should remain prisoners of war until exchanged; and be supplied with good and wholesome prom visions, in such quantity as is served out to the British troops,
The militia were to return home as prisorrers on parole ; whick as long as they observed, was to secure them from being molested in their property by the British troops. The officers of the 'arAy and navy were to keep their swords, pistols and baggage, which was not to be searched, and were to retain their servants : but their horses were not to go out of town, but might be disa posed of by a person left for the purpose. The garrison, at an hour appointed, was to march out of the town, to the ground between the works of the place and the canal, where they were to deposit their arms. The drums were not to beat a British march, nor the colours to be uncased. All civit officers and cit. izens who had born arms during the siege, were to be prisoners on parole, and with respect to their property in the city, were to have the same terms as the militia ; and all other persons in the town not described in any article, were notwithstanding to be prisoners on parole. It was left to future discussion, whether or 30t twelvemonth's time should be allowed to all such as do not choose to continue under the British government, to dispose of their effects, real and personal; in the state, without any motestation whatever, or to remove such part thereof as they choose, as well as themselves and families; and whether, during that time, they or any of them should have it in their opinion to reside oc casionally in town or country, The French consul, tlie subject