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of France and Spain, with their houses, papers, and other moves able property, were to be protected and untouched ; but theysu were to consider themselves as prisoners on parole. . . )

The return of the prisoners transmitted to Great-Britain is: swelled to upward of 5000, by comprehending every adult freea man of the town, between 2 and 3000 sailors taken from the shipping and put into the batteries, and those militia of both Ca. rolinas that were in garrison. But the proper garrison did not • amount to quite 2500 at the time of surrender. The real num. ber of privates in the continental army was 1977, of whoin 500's were in the hospitals. The captive officers were greatly out of proportion to them; and consisted of į major general, 6 brigada diers, 9 colonels, 14 lieut. colonels, 15 majors, 84 captains and capt. lieutenants, 84. lieutenants, 32 second lieutenants and en signs. The commanders of the militia from the country were mostly of the first rank, and in honor repaired to the defence of the town, though they could not bring with them privates equal. to their respective commands. The continental regiments were completely officered, while the adequate number of privates was ; greatly deficient. The supernumerary regular officers were re tained in the garrison, from an apprehension that their being or- ! dered out would have dispirited the army, and from an expecta tion in the early parts of the siege, that their services would be wanted to command the large reinforcements of militia that had been promised. During the 30 days siege, only 20 American soli diers deserted. The militia and sailors stationed in the batteries suffered little. Of the continentals who manned the lines, 89% were killed and 138 wounded; and of the Charleston militia artillery stationed there, 3 were killed and 8 wounded. About 20 inhabitants were killed in their houses by random shot. Up ward of 30 houses were burnt, and others greatly damaged

The total loss of the royal forces is stated at 76 killed and 189 wounded. A prodigious artillery was taken, considerably more than 400 pieces, including every sort, and those in the forts and ships: *

The capital having surrendered, the next object with the Bris tish was to secure the general submission of the inhabitants. To : this end they posted garrisons in different parts of the country, and marched a large body of troops over the Santee toward that... extremity of the state, which borders on the most populous

*General Lincoln's letters and papers, and other MSS, befide Dr. Ramsay'

uns Hiftory and different publications, have been consulted in drawing up the ai: bove account of the opperations scipocring Charleston.


settkements of North-Carolina. This caused an immediate retreat of some American parties who had advanced into the up.. per parts of South-Carolina, with the expectation of relieving Charleston. Among the corps which had come forward with that view, there was one consisting of about 300 continentals, the rear of the Virginia line, commanded by colonel Buford. Tarle. ton, with about 700 horse and foot, was sent in quest of this party. Having mounted his infantry, he marched 105 miles in 54 hours., came up with them at the Waxhaws, and demanded their surrender on terms similar to those granted to the continentalsat Charleston. While the flags were passing and repassing on this business, Tarleton kept his men in motion, and when the truce was ended, had nearly surrounded his adversaries. An action (May 29:] instantly ensued. The continental party, laving partaken of the general consternation occasioned by the British successes, made bot a feeble resistance, and soon begged quarters. - A few, . however, continued to fire. The British cavalry advanced, but were not opposed by the main body of the continentals, who conceived themselves precluded by their submission. The accident al firing of the few, was an argument however for directing the British legion to charge those who had laid down their arms. In consequence of this arder, the unresisting Americans, praying for quarters, were chopped in pieces. By Tarleton s official account of this bloody scene, 113 were killed, 150 badly wounded, unable to travel, and left on parole, and 53 made prisoners ; while they made such ineffectual opposition as only to kill seven and a wound twelve of the British. Lord Cornwallis bestowed on Tarleton the highest encomiums for this enterprise, and recommended him in a special manner to royal favor. Tarleton's quar ters is become proverbial; and in subsequent battles a spirit of . revenge will give a keener edge to military resentments. p.

Scarce had admiral Arbuthnot's fleet, with the troops, under Sir Henry Clinton, taken his departure from Sandy-Hook for ** the reduction of Charleston, ere an intense frost, with great falls of snow, shut up the navigation of the New-York port from the sea. The increasing severity of the weather toward the middle. of January, entirely cut off all communination with the city by water, and soon after deprived the island of New York, and the adjoining islands, of all the defensive benefits of their insular sit vation. The North-River, with the streights and channels by which they are divided and surrounded, were every where clothed with ice of such a strength and thickness, as would have admitted the passage of armies, with their heaviest carriages and artillery. lu this situation the royal generals and officers at New-York took


the most prudent and speedy measures for the common defence. All orders of men in the city were embodied, armed and officer: ed, so that the whole force, including seamen, amounted to near 6000. General Washington, however, was in no condition to profit by the unlooked for event of a harder winter than was known even in that climate within the memory of men. He had weakened his army by detachments to the southward for the reLief of Charleston. An ineffectual attempt was made indeed by lord Stirling, with the trvops under his command, upon Statens Island on the 15th of January ; but as the royalists retreated to their strong holds and the ice afforded a bridge for reinforceInents from New York his lordship retreated at night.

The distressed situation of the American commander in chief, may be conjectured from the following account. A more gene. ral and alarming dissatisfaction appeared in his arıny, than even before in any stage of the war. About the commencement of April it wore, in particular instances, features of a very dangey rous complexion; produced partly by a diversity in the terms of the men's inlistment, partly by the inequality of the rewards give en for entering into the service, but mostly by the disparity in the provision made by the several states for their respective troops. The uneasiness continued increasing, from the army's receiving for a considerable time no more than a half, a quarter, or an eighth of their allowance. They bore long with the greatest patience their distress, and every thing was due to the officers for encouraging them to it, both by exhortation and example. But on the 25th of May, at night, two regiments mutinied; howevery after several expostulations and exertions by the officers, they re. turned to their huts. A fortnight before, general Greene wrote [May 11.] to his excellency"I have little prospect either of providing for the march of the Maryland troops to the southward, or of putting this army in motion. Many stores contracted for, 1 on advantageous terms, and which I had hopes of possessing, have since been sold at private sale for want of money to fulfil our contracts. Many engaged in the manufactory of a variety of articles, seeing but little prospect of our being able to fulfil the conditions on our part, have declined going on. A great number of waggons on which we depended for this army have been sold, and others left unfinished. All our public horses, which have been to winter and recruit, have been nigh unto starving, and many have actually perished for want of proper supplies of forage. The stores that we have provided at Boston, Pennsylvania, and elsewhere, we find ourselves unable to get forward.' Numberless embarrassmeiits lie before me, such as state laws,

vulgar prejudices, want of money and support, as well as heavy demands against the department.” The distresses of his department were the subjects of another letter ten days after, in whiclo he said “ Private emolument has been but a secondary object with far the greatest part of the staff officers. The numbers who have been benefited by their appointments are very small, while hundreds have suffered both in character and fortune from their employments, and are now loaded with heavy debts, without the remotest prospect of being able to pay them, and have every ube stacle thrown in the way of settling their accounts, to prevent their demands being fixed.” Well might another general ada dress the commander in chief on the last of May, with " Dear Sir, I am very sensible of the embarrassments and perplexities you mention in your private letter. They would, I am certain, have depressed, and perhaps subdued almost any mind but yours; and I have often thought and frequently said, that the difficulty of your situation and command, gave you more intrinsic merit than the victories others have obtained. This I doubt not history will hereafter testify to the world, when your enemies are forgotten."

General Washington, however, had some consolation from the arrival of the marquis de la Fayette at head-quarters about the 12th of May. During his voyage from Boston to France he had a narrow escape, a dangerous conspiracy of the British sailors., : who composed a great proportion of the Alliance's crew, having nearly succeeded. On his safe arrival, without authority to solicit assistance in troops, he, through zeal for the American United States, devoted himself to obtain it. He boldly applied for such aid, and took upon himself all.consequences on each side 05 the Atlantic. He also assiduously employed himself in procuring loans of money and succour of every kind. When he had sor far prevailed with the French court, that he could announce in America that he should be followed by a fleet and corps of Frencie troops, he commenced his return to this continent. The speci.. al news, he brought with him he was only at liberty to mentions to congress and general Washington. Having communicated it to the general, he proceeded on the 13th for Philadelphia, and laid the same before congress, who three days after, passed a very honorable resolve concerning him, without hinting at the intelligence they had received. The people, though totally isnorant of his last services, expressed their great joy at the inaia quis's return. That propriety might exist in reference to the in-tended aid from France, when arrived, general Washington ha3 been appointed licutenant-general of his most Christian majesty's troops in America, and vice-admiral of the white flag. On Friday


the 19th, congress resolved, “ That bills be immediately drawn on Dr. Franklin for 25,000 dollars, and on Mr. Jay for 25,000 dollars, payable at 60 days sight, and that the money be applied solely to the bringing of the army into the field and forwarding their supplies in such a manner as the exigency and nature of the service may require.”

This day has been rendered very remarkable by an extraordinary phænomenon, which demands a particular relation. An unusual darkness came on between the hours of ten and eleven in the morning, and continued to increase. Your friend, hay. ing been accustomed to dark days at London, and frequently observed from his study the bright shining sun gradually, and at length totally eclipsed, as it descended behind the thick vapor which hung over the city, regarded it with no special attention till called to do it by his neighbors, who were much alarned. He dined by candle-light about one. After that it grew much lighter, and he walked about five o'clock to a tavern, a inile disdant, on the road to Boston, to meet a select committee of Roxbury, on special business. When they had finished, about eight at night, he set out for home, not suspecting but that, being fully acquainted with every foot of the road, lie should easily return, notwithstanding its being extremely dark. .

There were houses all the way, though at a considerable distance from each other. He marked the candle-light of one, and with that in his eye, went forward till he got up to it; but remarked that the appearance of the place was so different from what was usual, that he could not have believed it to be what it was, had it not been from his certain knowledge of its situation. He caught the light of a second house, which he also reached; and thus on. At length, the light being removed from the last he had gained a sight of, ere he was up with it, he found himself in such profound darkness as to be incapable of proceeding, and therefore returned to the house he had passed, and procured a lantern. Several of the company, having farther to go, were on horseback. The horses could not see to direct themselves; and by the manner in which they took up and put down their feet on the plain ground, appeared to be involved in total darkness, and to be afraid lest the next step should plunge them into an abyss. The gentlemen soon stopt at another tavern, and waited for the benefit of the moon; but after a while, finding that the air received no accession of light from it, when they were certain it was risen, they had recourse to candles to assist thein in getting home. In some instances horses felt the forcible operation of the darkness so strongly that they could not be compelled by

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