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to use a knee after it had been slightly in- good to present gratification. But we do conjured. And to-day we are told of another tend that the right knowledge impressed in who has had to lie by for years, because he the right way would effect much; and we did not know that the palpitation he suffered further contend that as the laws of health from resulted from overtaxed brain. Now must be recognized before they can be fully we hear of an irremediable injury that fol. conformed to, the imparting of such knowllowed some silly feat of strength; and, again, edge must precede a more rational livingof a constitution that has never recovered come when that may. We infer that as vigfrom the effects of excessive work needlessly orous health and its accompanying high undertaken. While on all sides we see the spirits are larger elements of happiness than perpetual minor ailments which accompany any other things whatever, the teaching how feebleness. Not to dwell on the natural pain, to maintain them is a teaching that yields in the weariness, the gloom, the waste of time moment to no other whatever. And thereand money thus entailed, only consider how fore we assert that such a course of physiolgreatly ill-health hinders the discharge of allogy as is needful for the comprehension of its duties-makes business often impossible, and general truths, and their bearings on daily always more difficult; produces an irritability conduct, is an all-essential part of a rational fatal to the right management of children; education. puts the functions of citizenship out of the Strange that the assertion should need makquestion; and makes amusement a bore. Is ing! Stranger still that it should need deit not clear that the physical sins-partly our fending! Yet are there not a few by whom forefathers and partly our own-which pro- such a proposition will be received with someduce this ill-health, deduct more from com- thing approaching to derision. Men who plete living than anything else? and to a great would blush if caught saying Iphigénia inextent make life a failure and a burden in- stead of Iphigenia, or would resent as an instead of a benefaction and a pleasure?
sult any imputation of ignorance respecting To all which add the fact, that life, besides the fabled labors of a fabled demi-god, show being thus immensely deteriorated, is also cut not the slightest shame in confessing that short. It is not true, as we commonly sup- they do not know where the Eustachian tubes pose, that a disorder or disease from which are, what are the actions of the spinal cord, we have recovered leaves us as before. No what is the normal rate of pulsation, or how disturbance of the normal course of the func- the lungs are inflated. While anxious that tions can pass away and leave things exactly their sons should be well up in the superstias they were. In all cases a permanent dam- tions of 'two thousand years ago, they care age is done not immediately appreciable, it not that they should be taught anything may be, but still there; and along with other about the structure and functions of their own such items which Nature in her strict account- bodies, nay, would even disapprove such inkeeping never drops, will tell against us to struction. So overwhelming is the influence the inevitable shortening of our days. of established routine! So terribly in our Through the accumulation of small injuries education does the ornamental override the it is that constitutions are commonly under- useful! mined, and break down,' long before their We need not insist on the value of that time. And if we call to mind how far the av- knowledge which aids indirect self-preservaerage duration of life falls below the possible tion by facilitating the gaining ci a livelihood. duration, we see how immense is the loss. This is admitted by all; and, indeed, by the When, to the numerous partial deductions mass is perhaps too exclusively regarded as which bad health entails, we add this great the end of education. But while every one final deduction, it results that ordinarily more is ready to endorse the abstract proposition than one-half of life is thrown away.
that instruction fitting youths for the business Hence, knowledge which subserves direct of life is of high importance, or even to conself-preservation by preventing this loss of sider it of supreme importance; yet scarcely health, is of primary importance. We do not any inquire what instruction will so fit them. contend that possession of such knowledge It is true that reading, writing, and arithmetic would by any means wholly remedy the evil. I are taught with an intelligent appreciation of For it is clear that in our present phase of their uses; but when we have said this we civilization men's necessities often compel have said nearly all. While the great bulk them to transgress. And it is further clear of what else is acquired has no bearing on the that, even in the absence of such compulsion, industrial activities, an immensity of infortheir inclinations would frequently lead them, mation that has a direct bearing on the indusspite of their knowledge, to sacrifice future trial activities is entirely passed over.
For, leaving out only some very small and number, some small smattering of which classes, what are all men employed in? They is given in schools, we turn to that other diare employed in the production, preparation, vision which deals with force, of which even and distribution of commodities. And on a smattering is scarcely ever given, we meet what does efficiency in the production, prepa- with another large class of activities which ration, and distribution of commodities de- this science presides over. On the applicapend? It depends on the use of methods fit- tion of rational mechanics depends the sucted to the respective natures of these com-cess of nearly all modern manufacture. The modities; it depends on an adequate knowl- properties of the lever, the wheel and axle. edge of their physical, chemical, or vital prop- etc., are involved in every machine-every erties, as the case may be; that is, it depends machine is a solidified mechanical theorem: on Science. This order of knowledge, which and to machinery in these times we owe is in great part ignored in our school courses, nearly all production. Trace the history of is the order of knowledge underlying the the breakfast-roll. The soil out of which it right performance of all those processes by came was drained with machine-made tiles: which civilized life is made possible. Unde- the surface was turned over by a machine; niable as is this truth, and thrust upon us as the seed was put in by a machine; the wheat it is at every turn, there seems to be no liv- was reaped, thrashed, and winnowed by maing consciousness of it: its very familiarity chines; by machinery it was ground and boltmakes it unregarded. To give due weight to ed; and had the flour been sent to Gosport, our argument, we must, therefore, realize this it might have been made into biscuits by a truth to the reader by a rapid review of the machine. Look round the room in which facts.
you sit. If modern, probably the bricks in For all the higher arts of construction, its walls were machine-made; by machinery some acquaintance with Mathematics is in- the flooring was sawn and planed, the manteldispensable. The village carpenter, who, shelf sawn and polished, the paper-hangings lacking rational instruction, lays out his made and printed; the veneer on the table, work by empirical rules learnt in his appren- the turned legs of the chairs, the carpet, the ticeship, equally with the builder of a Bri- curtains, are all products of machinery. And tannia Bridge, makes hourly reference to the your clothing-plain, figured, or printed-is laws of quantitative relations. The surveyor it not wholly woven, nay, perhaps even on whose survey the land is purchased; the sewed by machinery? And the volume you architect in designing a mansion to be built are reading-are not its leaves fabricated by on it; the builder in preparing his estimates; one machine and covered with these words his foreman in laying out the foundations; by another? Add to which that for the the masons in cutting the stones; and the va- means of distribution over both land and sea, rious artisans who put up the fittings; are all we are similarly indebted. And then let it be guided by geometrical truths. Railway-mak- remembered that according as the principles ing is regulated from beginning to end by of mechanics are well or ill used to these ends, mathematics: alike in the preparation of comes success or failure-individual and naplans and sections; in staking out the line; tional. The engineer who misapplies his forin the mensuration of cuttings and embank- mulæ for the strength of materials, builds a ments; in the designing, estimating, and bridge that breaks down. The manufactbuilding of bridges, culverts, viaducts, tun- urer whose apparatus is badly devised, cannot nels, stations. And similarly with the har- compete with another whose apparatus wastes bors, docks, piers, and various engineering less in friction and inertia. The ship-builder and architectural works that fringe the adhering to the old model, is outsailed by one coasts and overspread the face of the coun- who builds on the mechanically-justified wavetry; as well as the mines that run under-line principle. And as the ability of a nation neath it. Out of geometry, too, as applied to to hold its own against other nations depends astronomy, the art of navigation has grown; on the skilled activity of its units, we see that and so, by this science, has been made possi- on such knowledge may turn the national ble that enormous foreign commerce which fate. Judge then the worth of mathematics. supports a large part of our population, and Pass next to Physics. Joined with mathe supplies us with many necessaries and most matics, it has given us the steam-engine, of our luxuries. And now-a-days even the which does the work of millions of laborers. farmer, for the correct laying out of his That section of physics which deals with the drains, has recourse to the level-that is, to laws of heat, has taught us how to economize geometrical principles. When from those di- fuel in our various industries; how to in visions of mathematics which deal with space, crease the produce of our smelting furnaces by substituting the hot for the cold blast; by consequence, knowledge of it concerns how to ventilate our mines; how to prevent every one who is directly or indirectly conexplosions by using the safety-lamp; and, nected with our industries. through the thermometer, how to regulate in And then the science of life-Biology: does numerable processes. That division which not this, too, bear fundamentally upon these has the phenomena of light for its subject, processes of indirect self-preservation? With gives eyes to the old and the myopic; aids what we ordinarily call manufactures, it has, through the microscope in detecting diseases indeed, little connection; but with the all-esand adulterations; and by improved light-sential manufacture—that of food-it is insephouses prevents shipwrecks. Researches in arably connected. As agriculture must conelectricity and magnetism have saved incal- form its methods to the phenomena of vegetaculable life and property by the compass; ble and animal life, it follows necessarily have subserved sundry arts by the electro- that the science of these phenomena is the ratype; and now, in the telegraph, have sup-tional basis of agriculture. Various biological plied us with the agency by which for the fu-truths have indeed been empirically estabture all mercantile transactions will be regu- lished and acted upon by farmers while yet lated, political intercourse carried on, and there has been no conception of them as sciperhaps national quarrels often avoided. ence: such as that particular manures are While in the details of indoor life, from the suited to particular plants; that crops of cerimproved kitchen-range up to the stereoscopetain kinds unfit the soil for other crops; that on the drawing-room table, the applications horses cannot do good work on poor food; of advanced physics underlie our comforts that such and such diseases of cattle and and gratifications.
sheep are caused by such and such conditions. Still more numerous are the bearings of These, and the every-day knowledge which the Chemistry on those activities by which men agriculturist gains by experience respecting obtain the means of living. The bleacher, the right management of plants and animals, the dyer, the calico-printer, are severally oc- constitute his stock of biological facts; on the cupied in processes that are well or ill done largeness of which greatly depends his sucaccording as they do or do not conform to cess. And as these biological facts, scanty, inchemical laws. The economical reduction definite, rudimentary, though they are, aid from their ores of copper, tin, zinc, lead, sil- him so essentially; judge what must be the ver, iron, are in a great measure questions of value to him of such facts when they become chemistry. Sugar-refining, gas-making, soap- positive, definite, and exhaustive. Indeed, boiling, gunpowder manufacture, are opera- even now we may see the benefits that rations all partly chemical; as are also those tional biology is conferring on him. The by which are produced glass and porcelain. truth that the production of animal heat Whether the distiller's wort stops at the al- implies waste of substance, and that, therecoholic fermentation or passes into the ace-fore, preventing loss of heat prevents the need tous, is a chemical question on which hangs for extra food-a purely theoretical concluhis profit or loss and the brewer, if his busi- sion-now guides the fattening of cattle: it is ness is sufficiently large, finds it pay to keep found that by keeping cattle warm, fodder is a chemist on his premises. Glance through a saved. Similarly with respect to variety of work on technology, and it becomes at once food. apparent that there is now scarcely any proc- The experiments of physiologists have ess in the arts or manufactures over some shown that not only is change of diet benefipart of which chemistry does not preside. cial, but that digestion is facilitated by a mixtAnd then, lastly, we come to the fact that in ure of ingredients in each meal: both which these times, agriculture, to be profitably car- truths are now influencing cattle-feeding. The ried on, must have like guidance. The analy- discovery that a disorder known as “the stagsis of manures and soils; their adaptations to gers," of which many thousands of sheep have each other; the use of gypsum or other sub-died annually, is caused by an entozoon stance for fixing ammonia; the utilization of which presses on the brain; and that if the coprolites; the production of artificial ma- creature is extracted through the softened mures--all these are boons of chemistry which place in the skull which marks its position, the it behoves the farmer to acquaint himself sheep usually recovers; is another debt which with. Be it in the lucifer match, or in disin- agriculture owes to biology. When we obfected sewage, or in photographs-in bread serve the marked contrast between our farmmade without fermentation, or perfumes ex- ing and farming on the Continent, and rememtracted from refase, we may perceive that ber that this contrast is mainly due to the far chemistry affects all our industries; and that, greater influence science has had upon farm
ing here than there; and when we see how, / esses with which he is concerned as maker daily, competition is making the adoption of or distributor; but it is often of much mo scientific methods more general and necessary; ment that he should understand the how and we shall rightly infer that very soon, agricult- the why of various other things and processes. ural success in England will be impossible In this age of joint-stock undertakings, nearly without a competent knowledge of animal and every man above the laborer is interested as vegetable physiology.
capitalist in some other occupation than his Yet one more science have we to note as own; and, as thus interested, his profit or bearing directly on industrial success—the loss often depends on his knowledge of the Science of Society. Without knowing it, men sciences bearing on this other occupation. who daily look at the state of the money-mar- Here is a mine, in the sinking of which many ket, glance over prices current, discuss the shareholders ruined themselves, from not probable crops of corn, cotton, sugar, wool, knowing that a certain fossil belonged to the silk, weigh the chances of war, and from all old red sandstone, below which no coal is those data decide on their mercantile opera- found. Not many years ago, 20,0001, was lost tions, are students of social science: empirical in the prosecution of a scheme for collecting and blundering students it may be; but still, the alcohol that distils from bread in baking: students who gain the prizes or are plucked of all which would have been saved to the subtheir profits, according as they do or do not scribers, had they known that less than a hunreach the right conclusion. Not only the dredth part by weight of the flour is changed manufacturer and the merchant must guide in fermentation. Numerous attempts have their transactions by calculations of supply been made to construct electro-magnetic enand demand, based on numerous facts, and gines, in the hope of superseding steam; but tacitly recognizing sundry general principles had those who supplied the money, underof social action; but even the retailer must do stood the general law of the correlation and the like: his prosperity very greatly depend- equivalence of forces, they might have had ing upon the correctness of his judgments re- better balances at their bankers. Daily are specting the future wholesale prices and the men induced to aid in carrying out inventions future rates of consumption. Manifestly, all which a mere tyro in science could show to who take part in the entangled commercial ac- be futile. Scarcely a locality but has its histivities of a community, are vitally interested tory of fortunes thrown away over some imin understanding the laws according to which possible project. those activities vary.
| And if already the loss from want of sciThus, to all such as are occupied in the pro-ence is so frequent and so great, still greater duction, exchange, or distribution of commod- and more frequent will it be to those who ities, acquaintance with science in some of its hereafter lack science. Just as fast as prodepartments, is of fundamental importance. ductive processes become more scientific, Whoever is immediately or remotely impli- which competition will inevitably make them cated in any form of industry (and few are do; and just as fast as joint-stock undertaknot) has a direct interest in understanding ings spread, which they certainly will; so something of the mathematical, physical, and fast will scientific knowledge grow necessary chemical properties of things; perhaps, also, to every one. has a direct interest in biology; and certainly That which our school courses leave almost has in sociology. Whether he does or does entirely out, we thus find to be that which not succeed well in that indirect self-preserva- most nearly concerns the business of life. All tion which we call getting a good livelihood, our industries would cease, were it not for depends in a great degree on his knowledge that information which men begin to acquire of one or more of these sciences: not, it may as they best may after their education is said be, a rational knowledge; but still a knowl- to be finished. And were it not for this inedge, though empirical. For what we call formation, that has been from age to age aclearning a business, really implies learning cumulated and spread by unofficial means, the science involved in it; though not perhaps these industries would never have existed. under the name of science. And hence a Had there been no teaching but such as is grounding in science is of great importance, given in our public schools, England would both because it prepares for all this, and be- now be what it was in feudal times. That in cause rational knowledge has an immense su- creasing acquaintance with the laws of pheperiority over empirical knowledge. More- nomena which has through successive ages over, not only is it that scientific culture is enabled us to subjugate Nature to our needs, requisite for each, that he may understand and in these days gives the common laborer the how and the why of the things and proc-comforts which a few centuries ago kings could not purchase, is scarcely in any degree with constitutions not so strong as they owed to the appointed means of instructing should be; and you will have some idea of the our youth. The vital knowledge-that by curse inflicted on their offspring by parents which we have grown as a nation to what we ignorant of the laws of life. Do but consider are, and which now underlies our whole ex- for a moment that the regimen to which istence, is a knowledge that has got itself children are subject is hourly telling upon taught in nooks and corners; while the or- them to their life-long injury or benefit; and dained agencies for teaching have been that there are twenty ways of going wrong to mumbling little else but dead formulas. one way of going right; and you will get
some idea of the enormous mischief that is We come now to the third great division of almost everywhere inflicted by the thoughthuman activities—a division for which no less, haphazard system in common use. Is it preparation whatever is made. If by some decided that a boy shall be clothed in some strange chance not a vestige of us descended flimsy short dress, and be allowed to go playto the remote future save a pile of our school- ing about with limbs reddened by cold? The books or some college examination papers, we decision will tell on his whole future existence may imagine how puzzled an antiquary of -either in illnesses; or in stunted growth; the period would be on finding in them no in- or in deficient energy; or in a maturity less dication that the learners were ever likely to vigorous than it ought to have been, and conbe parents. “This must have been the cur- sequent hindrances to success and happiness. riculum for their celibates," we may fancy Are children doomed to a monotonous diethim concluding. “I perceive here an elabo- ary, or a dietary that is deficient in nutrirate preparation for many things: especially tiveness? Their ultimate physical power and for reading the books of extinct nations and their efficiency as men and women, will inevof co-existing nations (from which indeed it itably be more or less diminished by it. Are keems clear that these people had very little they forbidden vociferous play, or (being too worth reading in their own tongue); but I ill-clothed to bear exposure), are they kept find no reference whatever to the bringing up in-doors in cold weather? They are certain of children. They could not have been so to fall below that measure of health and absurd as to omit all training for this gravest strength to which they would else have atof responsibilities. Evidently then, this was tained. When sons and daughters grow up the school course of one of their monastic or sickly and feeble, parents commonly regard lers."
the event as a misfortune—as a visitation of Seriously, is it not an astonishing fact, that Providence. Thinking after the prevalent though on the treatment of offspring depend chaotic fashion, they assume that these evils their lives or deaths, and their moral welfare come without causes; or that the causes are Fruin; yet not one word of instruction on supernatural. Nothing of the kind. In some he treatment of offspring is ever given to cases the causes are doubtless inherited; but those who will hereafter be parents? Is it not in most cases foolish regulations are the nonstrous that the fate of a new generation causes. Very generally parents themselves should be left to the chances of unreasoning are responsible for all this pain, this debility, pustom, impulse, fancy-joined with the sug- this depression, this misery. They have unrestions of ignorant nurses and the preju- dertaken to control the lives of their offspring liced counsel of grandmothers? If a mer- from hour to hour; with cruel carelessness hant commenced business without any they have neglected to learn anything about knowledge of arithmetic and book-keeping, these vital processes which they are unceaswe should exclaim at his folly, and look for ingly affecting by their commands and prolisastrous consequences. Or if, before study-hibitions; in utter ignorance of the simplest ng anatomy, a man set up as a surgical op- physiologic laws, they have been year by rator, we should wonder at his audacity and year undermining the constitutions of their sity his patients. But that parents should children; and have so inflicted disease and Begin the difficult task of rearing children premature death, not only on them but on without ever having given a thought to the their descendants. rinciples physical, moral, or intellectual — Equally great are the ignorance and the which ought to guide them, excites neither consequent injury, when we turn from phystrprise at the actors nor pity for their vic- ical training to moral training. Consider the
young mother and her nursery legislation. To tens of thousands that are killed, add But a few years ago she was at school, where iundreds of thousands that survive with fee- her memory was crammed with words, and ole constitutions, and millions that grow up'names, and dates, and her reflective faculties