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GREAT THOUGHTS FROM GREEK AUTHORS.
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. thors of Greece and Rome. It has been, therefore,
an agreeable task to award to those pure and On this new edition I have endeavored to bring thoughtful spirits of the olden times, their due all my previous knowledge to bear, in order that meed of praise, by trying to ascertain the exact it might be rendered more in keeping with my contributions which each has made to the intelother works. The poetical translations have been lectual riches of the world. thrown aside, and in every case I have given the Another peculiar feature in the present work is passage in prose.
the numerous references to the Holy Scriptures I have taken advantage of Duport's parallelisms for points of resemblance. It is impossible, infrom the Holy Scriptures to show the wonderful deed, to examine the heathen doctrines of religion resemblance that the language of Homer bears and ethics without being struck with their wondermore particularly to the sentiments found in the ful likeness to those which are sometimes considOld Testament. In the other Greek Authors Iered to be peculiar to Christianity; here may be have also attempted to show the similarity be- found many of the moral doctrines and sublime tween them and the Sacred Writers.
sayings of the Gospel, but there is always someThe volume has been nearly doubled by the addi-thing wanting to give them life, and bring them tion of new passages, and extracts from many writ- home to the heart and feelings of human beings. ers have been given, which did not appear in the Noble truths have always been taught by both former edition.
Eastern and Western sages; yet they want that WALLACE HALL, 1st May, 1873.
clear and perfect ring, which they possess when they are known to issue from Divine lips. The Editor has selected much from the writings of
Plato, to show how far this resemblance extends; PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION..
and, no doubt, he has omitted many passages
which would have borne equally strong testimony THE Editor is encouraged by the unexpected that it is not without good reason that Plato has favor with which his former work has been re
been called the “Atticising Moses." ceived to bring forward a companion volume from It has been well observed, that nothing can be ** Greek Authors,” which he ventures to hope will more useful to young minds having capacity and be found equally interesting. While many new high aspirations than such selections as the Editor topics have been introduced, the reader will here has brought together from the works of great have an opportunity of tracing the original source, men. Each quotation is a separate bait, a tempfrom which the master-spirits of Rome derived tation to feel greatly, and to do greatly; and a many of their finest thoughts. So true is the ob- friend, whose delicate health has obliged him to servation of Horace
retire from the busy haunts of men, very beauti
fully remarks that their charm for the old and in** Græcia capta ferum victorem cepit et artes
firm is scarcely less: to such “it is nothing short Intulit agresti Latio."
of delightful to have a book at hand which will To show how closely the Romans imitated their suit itself either to the exigencies or the deficienGreek masters, the Editor has introduced copious cies of the minute with an elastic power of adaptaillustrations from his former work, and has also bility which no living friend can possess.” It taken advantage of Mr. Grocott's valuable volume was for those of lofty aspirations among the young, of "Index of Quotations, Ancient and Modern," and for men of cultivated minds among the old, to point out how much the English classic authors that the Editor has attempted to make a selection are indebted to the ancients for many of those from a treasure that has continued to accumulate gems that are scattered so profusely through their from the earliest times, till it now comprehends a writings. Their bold flights of imagination, and brief abstract of the wisdom of all ages.. the volumes of wisdom compressed into a phrase,
CRAUFURD TAIT RAMAGE. are often but loans derived from the classical au-! WALLACE HALL, 1st October, 1864.
INDEX OF AUTHORS.
Simonides................... born B.C. 556
Æschylus.................. born B.c. 525...died. ......B.C. 45€
..... born B.c. 522...died. ......B.C. 442
Alceus..........flourished about B.C. 500
Sophocles........ ...born B.C. 495... died.......B.C. 406
...born B.C. 484...alive......B.C. 408
Thucydides ............ ...born B.c. 470...alive ......B.C. 403
Euripides..... . ..........born B.C. 481...died.......B.C. 406
Crates .......... flourished about B.C. 450
Aristophon..................born B.C. 444...died about B.C. 350
Xenophon............ born about B.C. 444...alive ......B.C. 857
Plato........................born B.c. 428...died.......B.C. 347
Archippus .......... .. flourished B.C. 415
Demetrius....... flourished about B.o. 412
Antiphanes...........born about B.C. 404... died about B.C. 330
Philiscus........ flourished about B.C. 400
Æschines....................born B.c. 389... died.......B.C. 814
Aristotle ....................born B.C. 384... died.... ...B.C. 822
Demosthenes............ ...born B.C. 382...died.......B.C.
Anaxandrides .........flourished B.C. 876
Philemon.............born about B.c. 360...died .......B.C. 242
Alexis ............... flourisned B.C. 356
Timocles........ flourished about B.c. 850
Menander. ..................born B.C. 842... died.......B.C. 291
Philippides....... ....flourished B.c. 335
Amphis......... flourished about B.c. 382
........ flourished B.c. 820
Hipparchus ........... flourished B.C. 320
484 | Apollodorus...........flourished B.C. 290
Baton...........flourished about B.C. 280
Theocritus.... ............about B.C. 272
Aratus.................flourished B.C. 270
Moschus ........flourished about B.c. 210
Polybius....born probably about B.c. 204...died. ... ...B.C. 122
Dionysius........ flourished from B.c. 29 to B.c. 7
Plutarch............. born about A.D. 50..died about..A.D. 130
Antoninus. .................born A.D. 121..died........A.D. 180
Arrianus..............flourished A.D. 186
Longinus.............born about AD. 218..died........A.D. 273
the latter it proceeds according to established
laws. Let none of you, therefore, be ignorant, BORN B.C. 389—DIED B.C. 314.
but let it be deeply engraven on the minds of all, ÆSCHINES, one of the most celebrated of the that when he enters the tribunal to give judgAthenian orators, was the son of Tromes, the ment on a case where the law has been violated, slave of a schoolmaster, Elpias, and Glaucia, who he is that day giving sentence on his own liberties. gained her livelihood by playing and singing at the sacred festivals. His father succeeded to the THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CHARACTER OF A school of Elpias, and Æschines, in his youth, was
STATESMAN. employed by his father to clean his schoolroom. He who hates his own children, he who is a bad When he was somewhat older he assisted his parent, cannot be a good leader of the people. He mother in her theatrical performances, being re- who is insensible to the duties which he owes to markable for a strong and sonorous voice; but in those who are nearest, and who ought to be dearthis he does not seem to have been successful, as est, to him, will never feel a higher regard for on one occasion, when he was performing in the your welfare, who are strangers to him. He who character of Enomäus, he was hissed off the stage. acts wickedly in private life can never be expected We then find him entering the military service, to show himself noble in his public conduct. He raining great distinction at the battle of Manti- who is base at home will not acquit himself with Deia, B.C. 362. It was, however, as an orator that honor when sent to a foreign country in a public he acquired the reputation which has handed capacity: for it is not the man, but the place down his name to posterity. At the commence- merely, that is changed. ment of his political career he took an active part against Philip of Macedon, though he became
A DEFEAT IS NOT THE GREATEST OF CALAMITIES. convinced, ere long, that nothing but peace with For a defeat in war is not the greatest of all Philip would avert utter ruin from his country. evils; but when the defeat has been inflicted by His opponents accused him of having been bribed enemies who are unworthy of you, then the by the king to support his measures; but there calamity is doubled. does not appear any reason to believe that he acted treacherously towards his country. He was the
CHARACTER OF BOASTERS. opponent of Demosthenes; and though he failed For other boasters, when they lie, try not to in his attacks, it was to him that we owe the cele- speak too particularly or plainly, from fear of bebrated speech of Demosthenes on the crown, ing disproved afterwards. which is considered one of the finest bursts of eloquence which the world has ever produced. The
INTEGRITY. three great speeches of Æschines which still re Integrity is to be preferred to eloquence. main were called by the ancients the Graces. They are distinguished by great felicity of diction,
A PRODIGAL. wonderful boldness and vigor of description, so For no wealth can enrich a vicious prodigal. that it is generally allowed that he was only second to Demostbenes.
Amnesty, that noble word, the genuine dictate DUTIES OF A JUDGE IN A FREE STATE.
of wisdom. For you ought to be well aware that there are three different forms of government established
A MERE CRAFTSMAN OF WORDS. in the world-monarchy, oligarchy, and democ- A fellow, whose tongue is his sole merit, and rey. In the two former the government is con- without it, like a flute, all that there is of him beducted at the will of the ruling powers, while in sides, were good for nothing.
THE POWER OF A PRIVATE INDIVIDUAL IN A || NECESSITY NOT TO BE RESISTED.
But I must endure my doom as easily as may be, For in a republican state every private individ- knowing, as I do, that the power of necessity is ual shares regal power by means of the laws and irresistible. his vote; but when he surrenders these to another,
So Shakespeare (“ Richard II.," act v. sc. 1) he annuls his own sovereignty.
"I am sworn brother, sweet,
To grim Necessity; and he and I
Will keep a league till death."
A TYRANT DISTRUSTS. rious deeds we are ready to acknowledge, are yer For somehow, there is this disease in tyranny, not to be endured when they vaunt their own
not to put confidence in friends. actions.
So Shakespeare (" Pericles," act i. sc. 2)—
Decrease not, but grow faster with their years." For you are well aware that it is not only by bodily exercises, by educational institutions, or by EASY TO GIVE ADVICE TO THE AFFLICTED. lessons in music, that our youth are trained, but 'Tis easy for any man who has his foot unentanmuch more effectually by public examples. gled by sufferings both to exhort and to admonish
him that is in difficulties.
Hence in the same way does affliction, roaming ESCHYLUS.
to and fro, settle down on different individuals. BORN B.C. 525—DIED B.C. 456.
TRUTI. ÆSCHYLUS, the son of Euphorion, a native of And thou shalt know that these words are sinEleusis, in Attica, was the father of the Athenian cere, and not the false glozings of a flattering drama. He was present at the battle of Marathon, tongue. B.C. 490, in which he was greatly distinguished along with his brothers; and in a picture repre
TO KICK AGAINST THE PRICKS. senting this batt.e he was placed in the foreground, If thou takest me for thy instructor, thou wilt and was thus associated in the honors which were not kick against the pricks. paid to Miltiades. Six years afterwards, B.C. 484, the same year in which Herodotus was born,
PETULANT TONGUE. Æschylus gained his first victory as a competitor What! knowest thou not as certain, highly intelfor the prize of tragedy; and he was successful ligent though thou art, that purtishment is inflicted thirteen times during an interval of sixteen years. He visited the court of Hiero, king of Syracuse, who was a distinguished patron of the learned, SOFT SPEECH TURNETH AWAY WRATH. and who had induced such men as Pindar and
Oc. Knowest thou not this, then, Prometheus, Simonides to reside with him. There is a power
that words are the physicians of a distempered in the language, a sublimity in the imagery, with
mind? which the poet bodies forth the creations of his
Prom. True, if one soften properly the heart, genius, that makes him rank among the master
and do not with rude violence exasperate the spirits of the world.
troubled mind. TIES OF KINDRED ARE STRONG.
So Milton (“Samson Agonistes ")
" Apt words have power to suage Strong are the ties of kindred and long converse.
The tumors of a troubled mind."
And Proverbs (xv. 1)—“A soft answer turneth away wrath
but grievous words stir up anger.” Everything has been accomplished except for
THE WISE. the other gods to rule; for no one is free save Jove.
Since it is of the highest advantage for one that WAVES.
| is wise not to seem to be wise, And countless dimpling of the waves of the deep.
MAN IN A BARBAROUS STATE. So Milton ("Paradise Lost," iv. 165)—
But as to the ills of men, hear how I made those “Cheered with the grateful smell, old Ocean smiles."
who were before senseless as children, intelligent
and possessed of wisdom. I shall tell you, not Lord Byron (opening of the “Giaour ')—
with the view of throwing blame upon them, but “There mildly dimpling ocean's cheek
I to show my kindly feelings from what I gave them
who at first seeing, saw not, and hearing, heard Those Edens of the eastern wave."
not. But like to the baseless fabric of a dream
for a long time they used to huddle together all
DEAF AS THE BILLOWS. things at random: naught they knew about brick
Thou troublest me with thy advice as vainly as built houses, sun-ward, nor the raftered roof; but, I thou wouldst do the billows. like tiny ants, they dwelt in the excavated earth, in sunless depths of caves. They had no certain Shakespeare (“Merchant of Venice," act iv. se. 1) sayssign of winter, or flower-perfumed spring, or fruit “You may as well go stand upon the beach, ful summer; but they did everything without
And bid the main flood bate his usual height." judgment till I instructed them to mark the ris
And Milton (* Samson Agonistes") ing of the stars and their setting, a harder science “ Dalilah. I see thou art implacable, more deaf yet. And verily I discovered for them numbers, To prayers than winds or seas." the most surprising of all inventions, and the union of letters, and memory, the active mother of
OBSTINACY. all wisdom. I also first taught the patient steer! For obstinacy in a man that is not gifted with to bear the yoke; and in order with their bodies wisdom, itself by itself, is worth less than nothing. they might assist mortals in their severest toils, I taught steeds to whirl cars obedient to the reins,
GOD KNOWS NOT TO BE FALSE. to grace the pride of wealth. And no one else The mouth of God knows not to utter falsehood, than I invented the canvas-winged chariots of but brings everything to pass. mariners that roam over the ocean.
So Numbers (xxiii. 19)—“God is not a man, that He should So Vatthew (xli 142_" And in them is fulalled the prophecy lie; neither the son of man, that He should repent; hath He of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall
said, and shall He not do it? or hath He spoken, and shall He not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not per
not make it good?" And 2 Corinthians (i. 20)-"For all the ceive."
promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, unto the
glory of God by us." NECESSITY. Necessity is stronger far than art.
For it is base for the wise to err.
THE LOWLY. It is pleasant to lengthen out a long life with confident hopes, making the spirits swell with For it is unbecoming in inferiors to assume boldbright merriment.
ness of speech. FEEBLENESS OF MORTALS.
VARIOUS ILLS OF MEN. Sawest thou not the powerless weakness, like a King of the Pelasgians, various are the ills of dream, in which the blind race of men is entan- men: nowhere canst thou behold the same wing of gled? Never at any time shall the plans of mor- trouble. tals get the better of the harmonious system of
GOD REGARDS THE AFFLICTED. Jove.
Look up to him that beholds from on high, the REWARD OF SYMPATHY.
protector of suffering mortals, who address their Since to weep and lament over misfortunes, kindred in suppliant tones, but obtain not what when it draws the sympathizing tear, brings no justice demands. Therefore the wrath of Jove, light recompense.
guardian of the suppliant, waits on the groans of
the sufferers, and is not to be appeased. So Shakespeare (Poems) ** Companionship in woe, doth woe assuage."
But every one bears a ready evil tongue against THE SICK.
a stranger, and to speak slander is an easy thing. To the sick, indeed, some gleam of hope flows from a clear knowledge beforehand of the result
DANGERS OF BEAUTY. of their pains.
But I charge you not to disgrace me, as thou art
in the bloom of youth that excitest desire. It is MARRY IN YOUR OWN RANK.
not easy to guard the tender ripe fruit; for beasts Wise was the man, ay, wise indeed, who first and men injure it in some way, and winged insects weighed well this maxim, and with his tongue and four-footed animals. Venus proclaims their published it abroad, that to marry in one's own opening bloom. I say that rapine is their fate, class is best by far, and that a peasant should woo however much they try to avoid it. And on the the hand neither of any that have waxed wanton fair-formed beauty of virgins every one that passes by riches, nor of such as pride themselves in high- sends forth a melting dart from his eye, overcome traced lineage.
A PROSPEROUS STATE,
For a state that is prosperous honors the gods. things thou wishest.
WOMAN. Shakespeare (" Henry IV.,” Pt. il. act iv. sc. 4) says
Neither in adversity nor in the joys of prosperity * Thy wish was father, Harry, to that thought." I may I be associated with womankind; for when