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GREAT THOUGHTS FROM GREEK AUTHORS.

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. thors of Greece and Rome. It has been, therefore,

an agreeable task to award to those pure and On this new edition I have endeavored to bring thoughtful spirits of the olden times, their due all my previous knowledge to bear, in order that meed of praise, by trying to ascertain the exact it might be rendered more in keeping with my contributions which each has made to the intelother works. The poetical translations have been lectual riches of the world. thrown aside, and in every case I have given the Another peculiar feature in the present work is passage in prose.

the numerous references to the Holy Scriptures I have taken advantage of Duport's parallelisms for points of resemblance. It is impossible, infrom the Holy Scriptures to show the wonderful deed, to examine the heathen doctrines of religion resemblance that the language of Homer bears and ethics without being struck with their wondermore particularly to the sentiments found in the ful likeness to those which are sometimes considOld Testament. In the other Greek Authors Iered to be peculiar to Christianity; here may be have also attempted to show the similarity be- found many of the moral doctrines and sublime tween them and the Sacred Writers.

sayings of the Gospel, but there is always someThe volume has been nearly doubled by the addi-thing wanting to give them life, and bring them tion of new passages, and extracts from many writ- home to the heart and feelings of human beings. ers have been given, which did not appear in the Noble truths have always been taught by both former edition.

Eastern and Western sages; yet they want that WALLACE HALL, 1st May, 1873.

clear and perfect ring, which they possess when they are known to issue from Divine lips. The Editor has selected much from the writings of

Plato, to show how far this resemblance extends; PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION..

and, no doubt, he has omitted many passages

which would have borne equally strong testimony THE Editor is encouraged by the unexpected that it is not without good reason that Plato has favor with which his former work has been re

been called the “Atticising Moses." ceived to bring forward a companion volume from It has been well observed, that nothing can be ** Greek Authors,” which he ventures to hope will more useful to young minds having capacity and be found equally interesting. While many new high aspirations than such selections as the Editor topics have been introduced, the reader will here has brought together from the works of great have an opportunity of tracing the original source, men. Each quotation is a separate bait, a tempfrom which the master-spirits of Rome derived tation to feel greatly, and to do greatly; and a many of their finest thoughts. So true is the ob- friend, whose delicate health has obliged him to servation of Horace

retire from the busy haunts of men, very beauti

fully remarks that their charm for the old and in** Græcia capta ferum victorem cepit et artes

firm is scarcely less: to such “it is nothing short Intulit agresti Latio."

of delightful to have a book at hand which will To show how closely the Romans imitated their suit itself either to the exigencies or the deficienGreek masters, the Editor has introduced copious cies of the minute with an elastic power of adaptaillustrations from his former work, and has also bility which no living friend can possess.” It taken advantage of Mr. Grocott's valuable volume was for those of lofty aspirations among the young, of "Index of Quotations, Ancient and Modern," and for men of cultivated minds among the old, to point out how much the English classic authors that the Editor has attempted to make a selection are indebted to the ancients for many of those from a treasure that has continued to accumulate gems that are scattered so profusely through their from the earliest times, till it now comprehends a writings. Their bold flights of imagination, and brief abstract of the wisdom of all ages.. the volumes of wisdom compressed into a phrase,

CRAUFURD TAIT RAMAGE. are often but loans derived from the classical au-! WALLACE HALL, 1st October, 1864.

865

387

387-332

394

INDEX OF AUTHORS.

Simonides................... born B.C. 556
Anacreon ..

..........B.C. 559-525
AUTHORS.
PAGES. AUTHORS.

Theognis.. ......

..........B.C. 348

PAGES.
Æschines...
311-312 Euripides ...........

846-360

Æschylus.................. born B.c. 525...died. ......B.C. 45€
Æschylus............
312-318 Herodotus ...........

360-862
Pindar.....

..... born B.c. 522...died. ......B.C. 442
Alcæus .............
818 Hesiod ......

362 364

Alceus..........flourished about B.C. 500
318-319 Hipparchus..........
Alexis .....

364

Sophocles........ ...born B.C. 495... died.......B.C. 406
319 Hipponax ...........

Herodotus.....
Amphis.......

...born B.C. 484...alive......B.C. 408
319
Anacreon............

Homer..............

365-386

Thucydides ............ ...born B.c. 470...alive ......B.C. 403
319-320 Longinus .
Anaxandrides

385-387

Euripides..... . ..........born B.C. 481...died.......B.C. 406
Anonymous ..... 820-321 Lucian.......

Crates .......... flourished about B.C. 450
Antiphanes........
321-322 Menander....

Aristophon..................born B.C. 444...died about B.C. 350
Antoninus .........
322-326 Moschus .....

392

Xenophon............ born about B.C. 444...alive ......B.C. 857
Apollodorus ....
826 Nicostratus ......... 392-393

Plato........................born B.c. 428...died.......B.C. 347
Aratus.........
3:26 Pharecrates.

393

Archippus .......... .. flourished B.C. 415
Archilochus ....
326 Philemon .....

Demetrius....... flourished about B.o. 412
Archippus .......
Philippides .......... 394

Antiphanes...........born about B.C. 404... died about B.C. 330
Aristophanes ... 327-339 Philiscus ....

394

Philiscus........ flourished about B.C. 400
Aristophon.
339 Pindar ....

394-397

Æschines....................born B.c. 389... died.......B.C. 814
Aristotle ...
330-337 Plato......

397-407

Aristotle ....................born B.C. 384... died.... ...B.C. 822
Arrianus ...
331-339 Plutarch ...........

407-414

Demosthenes............ ...born B.C. 382...died.......B.C.
Axionicus ..
333 Polybius .............

414-419

Anaxandrides .........flourished B.C. 876
Baton.....
338 Posidippus ...........

Philemon.............born about B.c. 360...died .......B.C. 242
Bibn ................
338-339 Simonides ...........

Alexis ............... flourisned B.C. 356
Callimachus..........
339 Sophocles............ 419-424

Timocles........ flourished about B.c. 850
Crates .......
839 Sosicrates .....

Menander. ..................born B.C. 842... died.......B.C. 291
Cratinus.............
Susarion.......

Philippides....... ....flourished B.c. 335
Dernosthenes ........ 339-313 Theocritus ...........

Amphis......... flourished about B.c. 382
Diogenes Laërtius... 343 Theognis. ..... 428-429 Nicostratus ...........flourished B.c. 830
313-345 Thucydides .........

Diphilus......
Dionysius............

........ flourished B.c. 820
Demetrius ...
345 Timocles........

433

Hipparchus ........... flourished B.C. 320
Diphilus ............. 315-346
345-346 Tyrtæus.

484 | Apollodorus...........flourished B.C. 290

Tyrius
Euphron..
346 Xenophon .......... 431-436 Posidippus ............flourished B.C. 289

Baton...........flourished about B.C. 280
Bion...................flourished B.c. 280
Callimachus................from B.c. 280 to B.O. 245

Theocritus.... ............about B.C. 272
CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX OF AU.

Aratus.................flourished B.C. 270
THORS.

Moschus ........flourished about B.c. 210

Polybius....born probably about B.c. 204...died. ... ...B.C. 122
Homer, flourished probably about B.C. 1184

Dionysius........ flourished from B.c. 29 to B.c. 7
Hesiod ..........flourished about B.c. 850

Plutarch............. born about A.D. 50..died about..A.D. 130
Archilochus .... flourished about B.C. 714-676

Antoninus. .................born A.D. 121..died........A.D. 180
Hipponax ....... flourished in the sixth century

Arrianus..............flourished A.D. 186
Tyrtæus.... ...................B.C. 685

Longinus.............born about AD. 218..died........A.D. 273

419

419

425

839

425-428

GREAT THOUGHTS

FROM

GREEK AUTHORS.

ÆSCHINES.

the latter it proceeds according to established

laws. Let none of you, therefore, be ignorant, BORN B.C. 389—DIED B.C. 314.

but let it be deeply engraven on the minds of all, ÆSCHINES, one of the most celebrated of the that when he enters the tribunal to give judgAthenian orators, was the son of Tromes, the ment on a case where the law has been violated, slave of a schoolmaster, Elpias, and Glaucia, who he is that day giving sentence on his own liberties. gained her livelihood by playing and singing at the sacred festivals. His father succeeded to the THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CHARACTER OF A school of Elpias, and Æschines, in his youth, was

STATESMAN. employed by his father to clean his schoolroom. He who hates his own children, he who is a bad When he was somewhat older he assisted his parent, cannot be a good leader of the people. He mother in her theatrical performances, being re- who is insensible to the duties which he owes to markable for a strong and sonorous voice; but in those who are nearest, and who ought to be dearthis he does not seem to have been successful, as est, to him, will never feel a higher regard for on one occasion, when he was performing in the your welfare, who are strangers to him. He who character of Enomäus, he was hissed off the stage. acts wickedly in private life can never be expected We then find him entering the military service, to show himself noble in his public conduct. He raining great distinction at the battle of Manti- who is base at home will not acquit himself with Deia, B.C. 362. It was, however, as an orator that honor when sent to a foreign country in a public he acquired the reputation which has handed capacity: for it is not the man, but the place down his name to posterity. At the commence- merely, that is changed. ment of his political career he took an active part against Philip of Macedon, though he became

A DEFEAT IS NOT THE GREATEST OF CALAMITIES. convinced, ere long, that nothing but peace with For a defeat in war is not the greatest of all Philip would avert utter ruin from his country. evils; but when the defeat has been inflicted by His opponents accused him of having been bribed enemies who are unworthy of you, then the by the king to support his measures; but there calamity is doubled. does not appear any reason to believe that he acted treacherously towards his country. He was the

CHARACTER OF BOASTERS. opponent of Demosthenes; and though he failed For other boasters, when they lie, try not to in his attacks, it was to him that we owe the cele- speak too particularly or plainly, from fear of bebrated speech of Demosthenes on the crown, ing disproved afterwards. which is considered one of the finest bursts of eloquence which the world has ever produced. The

INTEGRITY. three great speeches of Æschines which still re Integrity is to be preferred to eloquence. main were called by the ancients the Graces. They are distinguished by great felicity of diction,

A PRODIGAL. wonderful boldness and vigor of description, so For no wealth can enrich a vicious prodigal. that it is generally allowed that he was only second to Demostbenes.

AMNESTY.

Amnesty, that noble word, the genuine dictate DUTIES OF A JUDGE IN A FREE STATE.

of wisdom. For you ought to be well aware that there are three different forms of government established

A MERE CRAFTSMAN OF WORDS. in the world-monarchy, oligarchy, and democ- A fellow, whose tongue is his sole merit, and rey. In the two former the government is con- without it, like a flute, all that there is of him beducted at the will of the ruling powers, while in sides, were good for nothing.

THE POWER OF A PRIVATE INDIVIDUAL IN A || NECESSITY NOT TO BE RESISTED.
REPUBLIC.

But I must endure my doom as easily as may be, For in a republican state every private individ- knowing, as I do, that the power of necessity is ual shares regal power by means of the laws and irresistible. his vote; but when he surrenders these to another,

So Shakespeare (“ Richard II.," act v. sc. 1) he annuls his own sovereignty.

"I am sworn brother, sweet,

To grim Necessity; and he and I
VAUNTING.

Will keep a league till death."
For men of real merit, and whose noble and glo-

A TYRANT DISTRUSTS. rious deeds we are ready to acknowledge, are yer For somehow, there is this disease in tyranny, not to be endured when they vaunt their own

not to put confidence in friends. actions.

So Shakespeare (" Pericles," act i. sc. 2)—
EDUCATION BY EXAMPLE.

“Tyrants' fears

Decrease not, but grow faster with their years." For you are well aware that it is not only by bodily exercises, by educational institutions, or by EASY TO GIVE ADVICE TO THE AFFLICTED. lessons in music, that our youth are trained, but 'Tis easy for any man who has his foot unentanmuch more effectually by public examples. gled by sufferings both to exhort and to admonish

him that is in difficulties.

AFFLICTION.

Hence in the same way does affliction, roaming ESCHYLUS.

to and fro, settle down on different individuals. BORN B.C. 525—DIED B.C. 456.

TRUTI. ÆSCHYLUS, the son of Euphorion, a native of And thou shalt know that these words are sinEleusis, in Attica, was the father of the Athenian cere, and not the false glozings of a flattering drama. He was present at the battle of Marathon, tongue. B.C. 490, in which he was greatly distinguished along with his brothers; and in a picture repre

TO KICK AGAINST THE PRICKS. senting this batt.e he was placed in the foreground, If thou takest me for thy instructor, thou wilt and was thus associated in the honors which were not kick against the pricks. paid to Miltiades. Six years afterwards, B.C. 484, the same year in which Herodotus was born,

PETULANT TONGUE. Æschylus gained his first victory as a competitor What! knowest thou not as certain, highly intelfor the prize of tragedy; and he was successful ligent though thou art, that purtishment is inflicted thirteen times during an interval of sixteen years. He visited the court of Hiero, king of Syracuse, who was a distinguished patron of the learned, SOFT SPEECH TURNETH AWAY WRATH. and who had induced such men as Pindar and

Oc. Knowest thou not this, then, Prometheus, Simonides to reside with him. There is a power

that words are the physicians of a distempered in the language, a sublimity in the imagery, with

mind? which the poet bodies forth the creations of his

Prom. True, if one soften properly the heart, genius, that makes him rank among the master

and do not with rude violence exasperate the spirits of the world.

troubled mind. TIES OF KINDRED ARE STRONG.

So Milton (“Samson Agonistes ")

" Apt words have power to suage Strong are the ties of kindred and long converse.

The tumors of a troubled mind."
ALL HAVE THEIR LOT APPOINTED.

And Proverbs (xv. 1)—“A soft answer turneth away wrath

but grievous words stir up anger.” Everything has been accomplished except for

THE WISE. the other gods to rule; for no one is free save Jove.

Since it is of the highest advantage for one that WAVES.

| is wise not to seem to be wise, And countless dimpling of the waves of the deep.

MAN IN A BARBAROUS STATE. So Milton ("Paradise Lost," iv. 165)—

But as to the ills of men, hear how I made those “Cheered with the grateful smell, old Ocean smiles."

who were before senseless as children, intelligent

and possessed of wisdom. I shall tell you, not Lord Byron (opening of the “Giaour ')—

with the view of throwing blame upon them, but “There mildly dimpling ocean's cheek

I to show my kindly feelings from what I gave them
Reflects the tints of many a peak,
Caught by the laughing tides that lave

who at first seeing, saw not, and hearing, heard Those Edens of the eastern wave."

not. But like to the baseless fabric of a dream

for a long time they used to huddle together all

DEAF AS THE BILLOWS. things at random: naught they knew about brick

Thou troublest me with thy advice as vainly as built houses, sun-ward, nor the raftered roof; but, I thou wouldst do the billows. like tiny ants, they dwelt in the excavated earth, in sunless depths of caves. They had no certain Shakespeare (“Merchant of Venice," act iv. se. 1) sayssign of winter, or flower-perfumed spring, or fruit “You may as well go stand upon the beach, ful summer; but they did everything without

And bid the main flood bate his usual height." judgment till I instructed them to mark the ris

And Milton (* Samson Agonistes") ing of the stars and their setting, a harder science Dalilah. I see thou art implacable, more deaf yet. And verily I discovered for them numbers, To prayers than winds or seas." the most surprising of all inventions, and the union of letters, and memory, the active mother of

OBSTINACY. all wisdom. I also first taught the patient steer! For obstinacy in a man that is not gifted with to bear the yoke; and in order with their bodies wisdom, itself by itself, is worth less than nothing. they might assist mortals in their severest toils, I taught steeds to whirl cars obedient to the reins,

GOD KNOWS NOT TO BE FALSE. to grace the pride of wealth. And no one else The mouth of God knows not to utter falsehood, than I invented the canvas-winged chariots of but brings everything to pass. mariners that roam over the ocean.

So Numbers (xxiii. 19)—“God is not a man, that He should So Vatthew (xli 142_" And in them is fulalled the prophecy lie; neither the son of man, that He should repent; hath He of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall

said, and shall He not do it? or hath He spoken, and shall He not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not per

not make it good?" And 2 Corinthians (i. 20)-"For all the ceive."

promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, unto the

glory of God by us." NECESSITY. Necessity is stronger far than art.

THE WISE.

For it is base for the wise to err.
PLEASURES OF HOPE.

THE LOWLY. It is pleasant to lengthen out a long life with confident hopes, making the spirits swell with For it is unbecoming in inferiors to assume boldbright merriment.

ness of speech. FEEBLENESS OF MORTALS.

VARIOUS ILLS OF MEN. Sawest thou not the powerless weakness, like a King of the Pelasgians, various are the ills of dream, in which the blind race of men is entan- men: nowhere canst thou behold the same wing of gled? Never at any time shall the plans of mor- trouble. tals get the better of the harmonious system of

GOD REGARDS THE AFFLICTED. Jove.

Look up to him that beholds from on high, the REWARD OF SYMPATHY.

protector of suffering mortals, who address their Since to weep and lament over misfortunes, kindred in suppliant tones, but obtain not what when it draws the sympathizing tear, brings no justice demands. Therefore the wrath of Jove, light recompense.

guardian of the suppliant, waits on the groans of

the sufferers, and is not to be appeased. So Shakespeare (Poems) ** Companionship in woe, doth woe assuage."

SLANDER.

But every one bears a ready evil tongue against THE SICK.

a stranger, and to speak slander is an easy thing. To the sick, indeed, some gleam of hope flows from a clear knowledge beforehand of the result

DANGERS OF BEAUTY. of their pains.

But I charge you not to disgrace me, as thou art

in the bloom of youth that excitest desire. It is MARRY IN YOUR OWN RANK.

not easy to guard the tender ripe fruit; for beasts Wise was the man, ay, wise indeed, who first and men injure it in some way, and winged insects weighed well this maxim, and with his tongue and four-footed animals. Venus proclaims their published it abroad, that to marry in one's own opening bloom. I say that rapine is their fate, class is best by far, and that a peasant should woo however much they try to avoid it. And on the the hand neither of any that have waxed wanton fair-formed beauty of virgins every one that passes by riches, nor of such as pride themselves in high- sends forth a melting dart from his eye, overcome traced lineage.

by desire.

A PROSPEROUS STATE,
THE WISH IS FATHER TO THE THOUGHT.
Thou indeed art predicting against Jove the

For a state that is prosperous honors the gods. things thou wishest.

WOMAN. Shakespeare (" Henry IV.,” Pt. il. act iv. sc. 4) says

Neither in adversity nor in the joys of prosperity * Thy wish was father, Harry, to that thought." I may I be associated with womankind; for when

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