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thing has been seen, then it is carried off and an

GOD IS MERCIFUL. other comes in its place, and this will be carried

The gods, being immortal, are not annoyed, beaway also.

cause during so long a time they are obliged to RISE CONTENTED FROM THE FEAST OF LIFE. endure men such as they are, and so many of To conclude, see how ephemeral and worthless)

them bad; and, besides this, they also take care of human things are, and what was yesterday a little

them in all ways. mucus, to-morrow will be a mummy or ashes. So Psalm (ciii. 8)—"The Lord is merciful and gracious, slow Pass, then, through this little space of time suita-Ito anger, and plenteous in mercy.” bly to viature, and end thy journey in content, just as an olive falls off when it is ripe, blessing

THE LIAR. nature who produced it, and thanking the tree on He, too, who transgresses her will (i.e., who which it grew.

lies) is clearly guilty of impiety to the eldest of So Philippians (iv. 11/_“I have learned, in whatsoever state goddesses, for the universal nature is the nature of I am, therewith to be content."

things that are, and things that are have an intiNOTHING PERISHES UTTERLY.

mate relation to all things that come into exist

ence. Moreover, that universal nature is called I consist of figure and matter: neither of these truth, and is the first cause of all things that are will be annihilated, as neither of them were crea true. He, therefore, who lies intentionally, acts ted from nothing. Therefore, every part of me, I with impiety, inasmuch as he acts unjustly by dewhen a change shall take place, will go into some

ceiving, and he also who lies unintentionally, inasthing else in the world, and this again will be

much as he is at variance with universal nature, changed into some other thing, and so on ad infin

fighting against the nature of the universe; for he itum.

fights against it who is borne of himself to that MAN IS AS HIS MIND.

which is contrary to truth, for he had received

powers from nature, through the neglect of which Such as are thy habitual thoughts, such also lhe is not able to distinguish falsehood from truth. will be the character of thy mind; for the soul is dyed by the thoughts.

Do not despise death, but receive it with gladTHE REAL WORTH OF MAN.

ness, as one of those things which nature wills. Be aware, therefore, that every man is worth For as it is to be young and to grow old, to injust so much as the things are worth about which crease in size and reach maturity, to have teeth, a he busies himself.

beard, and gray hairs, and to beget and to be preg.

nant, and to bring forth, and all other operations OBLIVION OF ALL THINGS.

which the seasons of thy life bring, such also is The time is at hand when thou wilt forget and thy dissolution. be forgotten by all.


O death! mayest thou approach quiekly, lest LOVE YOUR ENEMIES.

perchance I too should forget myself. It is the duty of men to love even those who injure them.


He who does wrong, does wrong against himEVERYTHING IN CHANGE.

self; he who acts unjustly, acts unjustly to himNature, which rules the universe, will soon self by making himself bad. change all things which thou seest, and out of their So John (viii. 34)—" Whosoever committeth sin is the ser. substance will make other things, and again other ve

vant of sin." things from the substance of them, that the world

FORGIVENESS. may ever be fresh.

If thou art able, correct by teaching those who OBEY GOD AND LOVE THY NEIGHBOR.

sin; but if thou art unable, remember that indul

| gence is given to thee for this purpose; the gods. Be simple and modest in deportment, and treat

too, are indulgent to such. Keith indifference whatever lies between virtue and vice. Love the human race; obey God.

So Matthew (vi. 14)_"For if ye forgive men their tres

passes, your heavenly Father will also forgive you." WHAT HAS BEEN WILL BE.

ALL THINGS ARE THE SAME. Look at the past-at the innumerable changes of All things are the same, familiar in experience, governments. Thou mayest thus conjecture with ephemeral in time, and worthless in matter. Ersafety as to the future, for they will be altogether | erything now is just as it was in the time of those alike, and it will not be possible for them to devi- whom we have buried. ate from the order of the things which are at present. Wherefore, to contemplate human life for

ALL THINGS ARE CHANGING. forty years is the same as to have contemplated it! All things are changing; and thou thyself art in for ten tlrousand years. For what more wilt thou continuous mutation, and in a manner in constant see?

I wasting away; so also is the whole universe.

CHANGES COME LIKE WAVE UPON WAVE. The following passages, which speak of the drama of life, soon will the earth cover us all; then, too, the philus, Similitudines, Moralia, i. 10, Orelli opera):

may serve as parallels to the sentiments of Antoninus (Demoearth will change; and so on things will change "Youth is the first part of life, like that of a drama; where forever and ever; for when a man reflects on the fore all attach themselves to it." chances and transformations which follow one an- | And again Aristonymus, in Stobous, cap. cvi. 14 (ed.

Meincke, 1855) other, like wave upon wave, and their rapidity, he

“Life is like a theatre, for the worst often occupy the best will despise everything that is mortal.

place in it."

And again one of the epigrams of Palladas (Anthol. Græc. THE VALUE OF A POSTHUMOUS NAME AND REPU- X.72) TATION.

| Life is a scene, and we are players; either learn to play,

| forgetting the labors, or suffer the pain of losing." Look down from above on the countless herds | Augustus, on his deathbed (Sueton. Aug. c. 99), saidof men and their countless solemnities, their va-" Whether did they think that he had acted the drama of life rious voyagings in storms and calms, and the con- | in a becoming manner." tests among those who are born, who live together and die. And consider also the life lived by oth

MEN ARE LIKE LEAVES., ers in the olden times, and the life of those who Thy children are like leaves. Leaves, too, are will live after thee, and the life now lived among they who bawl out as if they were worthy of barbarous nations, and how many know not even credit, and give praise, or, in the opposite way, thy name, and how many will soon forget it, and curse, or secretly find fault and sneer; and leaves, how they who are now praising thee will very soon likewise, are those who shall receive and transmit blame thee, and that neither a posthumous name

a man's fame to aftertimes. For all such things is of any value, nor reputation, nor anything else. I as these " are produced in the season of spring: "

then the wind throws them down; then the forest MEN CONSTANTLY PASSING AWAY.

produces others in their stead. But a brief existAll things which thou seest will soon perish, andence is common to all things, yet thou avoidest : those who have looked on them, as they pass away, and formest all things as if they would be eternal. will themselves soon perish; and he who dies at But a little while and thou 'shalt close thy eyes, the extremest old age will be brought into the and him who has attended thee to thy grave ansame condition with him who died prematurely. Jother soon will lament.


OTHER. to thee from all eternity; and the concatenation

ation. There is no one so fortunate to whom at his of causes was from eternity spinning the thread death there are not some who are pleased at the of thy being and of that which is incident to it.

calamity that has happened.


BE PREPARED TO DIE AT ANY MOMENT. Let the idea of the whole of time and of the

What a soul that is which is ready, if at any mowhole of substance be constantly before thy

ment it must be separated from the body, and thoughts, and thou wilt find that all individual

ready either to be extinguished or dispersed or things as to substance are a grain of fig, and as to

continue to exist! but so that this readiness comes time, the turning of a gimlet.

from a man's own judgment, not from mere obstiWHAT MEN ARE IN REALITY.

nacy, as with the Christians, but considerately

and with dignity, and in a way to persuade anConsider what men are when they are eating, sleeping, generating, easing themselves, and so

other, without tragic show. forth; then what kind of men they are when they bear themselves haughtily, or are angry and scold

THE VOICE TO BE WRITTEN ON THE FOREHEAD. from their lofty place. And then consider to The voice ought to be clearly written on the whom they were slaves a short time ago, and for forehead; according as a man's character is, he what things; and then think in what condition shows it forthwith in his eyes, just as he who is they will be after a little time.

beloved reads everything in the eyes of the lover.

So, also, ought the upright and good man to be THE DRAMAS OF LIFE.

like the strong-smelling goat, so that the byConsider, in a word, how all things, such as they stander, as soon as he comes near, should perceive are now, were so formerly, and consider that they

him, whether he wills it or not. But the affectawill be so again; and place before thy eyes whole

tion of honesty is like a crooked stick. Nothing dramas and stages of the same kind, whatever

is more disgraceful than a wolfish friendship. thou hast become acquainted with from thy own Avoid this most of all. The good, simple, and beexperience or from the history of olden times

nevolent, show these feelings in the eyes, and such as the whole court of Hadrian, and the whole there is no concealment of them. court of Antoninus, and the whole court of Philip, Alexander, and Crosus, for all these were such

EVERYTHING LIES NAKED BEFORE GOD. dramas as we see at present, only with differentGod sees the minds of all stripped bare of their actors.

• l bodily coverings and pollutions.


FORTUNE. I have often wondered how every man loves him- Fortune is a sore, sore thing; but we must bear self more than all the rest of men, yet sets less it in a certain way, as a burden. value on his own opinion of himself than on the opinion of others.


For if thou takest time into thy affairs, it will WHERE ARE NOW MEN OF THE GREATEST FAME? | allay and arrange all things.

Bring always to thy remembrance that those who have made great complaints about anything, those who have been most remarkable by

ARATUS. the greatest fame, or misfortunes, or enmities, or fortunes of any kind; then consider, where are

FLOURISHED B.C. 270. they all now? Smoke and ash and a tale, or not ARATUS, a Greek poet, of Soli, in Cilicia, floureven a tale.

ished B.c. 270, in the reign of Ptolemy Philadel. phus, and was the contemporary of Theocritus, by whom he is spoken of in honorable terms (vi. 1-45).

Aratus spent much of his time at the court of APOLLODORUS.

Antigonus Gonatas, B.C. 282–239. He was the

author of a work entitled “Phænomena," which FLOURISHED B.C. 290.

has been preserved, and which is a description of APOLLODORUS, a native of Gela, in Sicily, flour- the heavens in hexameter verse. It is a poem of ished between B.C. 300-260. He was a celebrated 732 lines, and contains rather a poetical than comic poet, of whose poetry some fragments have scientific account of the appearances in the heavbeen preserved.

ens. It seems to have been a great favorite with

the Romans, as it was frequently translated into A PLEASANT LIFE.

Latin verse. Cicero, in his youth, employed himIt is pleasant to lead an idle life; it is a happy self in translating it, but it adds little to the repuand delightful life if it be with other idle people: tation of the orator. Another work of Aratus with beasts and apes one ought to be an ape. Owhich we possess is entitled “Diosemeia," prog*the misery of life!

nostics of the weather, which was also translated


WE ARE THE OFFSPRING OF GOD. For to those overwhelmed in sorrow and grief every night is sure to appear long.

Let us begin our song from Jupiter; let us

never leave his name unuttered; all paths, all HOW DEATH APPEARS IN DIFFERENT STAGES OF haunts of men are full of Jove, the sea and heav. LIFE.

ens; we all everywhere require the aid of Jove, When I was a young man, I pitied those who

for we are his offspring Benevolent, he warns were carried off prematurely; but now when I see

mankind to good; urges them to toil with hope of the funeral of the old, I weep, for this is my con

food. cern, the other was not.


For God himself placed these signs in the THE HABITS OF THE OLD.

| heaven, having set apart the stars. Do not despise, Philinus, the habits of the old, So Genesis (i. 14)—“And God said, Let there be lights in the to which, if thou reachest old age, thou wilt be firmament of heaven, to divide the day from the night, ani subiect. But we, fathers, are greatly inferior in let them be for signs." this. If a father does not act kindly, you reproach

THE GOLDEN AGE. him in some such language as this—“Hast thou never been young ?" And it is not possible for! They were not then acquainted with miserable the old to say to his son, if he acts imprudently, / strute, nor

strife, nor dissensions, with complaints withou “Hast thou never been old ?".

end, nor tumults; thus they lived in simplicity

The boisterous sea lay aside, no ships brough FELLOW-SUFFERERS.

food from afar, but oxen and ploughs supplied it

and Justice herself, the bountiful giver of good is according to nature; every one in mis- furnished boundless gifts to nations; so it was s fortune grieves most pleasantly in company with long as the earth fed a golden race. those who are suffering in the same way.

Men, it is not right for him who is in misfortune

ARCHILOCHUS. to despair, but always to expect better fortune. ARCHILOCHUS of Paris, in Lydia, Sourishe WHO IS HAPPY?

about 714-676 B.C. and is regarded as the first

the lyric poets. For it is not right to call the man who possesses much riches happy, but the man who is not in


1. For it is not good to jeer at the dead.


| A tricking, quibbling, double-dealing knave; FLOURISHED B.C. 415.

A prating, pettifogging limb-o'-th'-law;

A sly old fox, a perjurer, a hang-dog, ABCHIPPUS, an Athenian comic poet of the old

A ragamuffin made of shreds and patches, comedy, gained a single prize, B.C. 415.

The leavings of a dunghill. Let'em rail,

Yea, marry, let 'em turn my guts to fiddle-strings, How sweet it is, mother, to see the sea from May my bread be my poison, if I care! the land, when we are not sailing!


Oh! as for that,

My memory is of two sorts, long and short: ARISTOPHANES.

With them who owe me aught it never fails;

My creditors, indeed, complain of it
BORN B.C. 444–DIED ABOUT B.C. 380.

As mainly apt to leak and lose its reckoning. ARISTOPHANES, the only writer of the old com

OLD AGE A SECOND CHILDHOOD. edy of whom any entire works are left, was son of Euphorion, an Athenian. Of his private history But I would say, in reply, that old men are boys we know nothing, except that he was fond of twice over pleasure, and spent much of his time in drinking And grant they were, the proverb's in your teeth, and the society of the witty. There are eleven of Which says old age is but a second childhood. bis plays still remaining. The period during

WE ARE THE CAUSE OF MISFORTUNES TO OURwhich he exhibited his plays was one of the most

SELVES. brilliant, and at the same time the most unfortunate, that Athens ever witnessed. It was in the Nay, rather, thou art thyself the cause of these fourth year of the Peloponnesian War, B.C. 427, things to thyself, having had recourse to wicked that he brought on the stage his first play, and courses. for the long period of thirty years he continued Evil events from evil causes spring. to produce a series of caricatures on the leading And what you suffer flows from what you've done. men of the day, which give us more insight into the private history of the times than we could EVERYTHING SUBSERVIENT TO RICHES. have got from any other source. The evils of

And by Jove, if there be anything grand, beauti

Andh war, the folly of his countrymen in being led by Amor

ea by ful, or pleasing to men, it is through thee (riches); loud-mouthed demagogues, the danger of an edu-lf

for all things are subservient to riches. cation in which scepticism took the place of religion, and the excessive love for litigation, to

SELFISHNESS OF MANKIND. which the Athenians were addicted, are the sub-1 But to me it is a prodigy, that a man, who hath jects against which he inveighs, with a power and

| any good luck, should send for his friends to a boldness which show him to have been an honest,

nest; share it. Surely he hath done a very unfashionathough not always a wise, patriot. Plato called

ble thing. the soul of Aristophanes a temple for the Graces, and has introduced him into his “ Symposium."

NO MAN RIGIITEOUS. His lyrical powers were of a high order, as may I know..i. that there is no man truly honest; be seen in many of his choruses, where his fancy we are none of us above the influence of gain. takes the widest range: frogs chant choruses, and the grunt of a pig is formed into an iambic | ADVANTAGE OF POVERTY TO THE HUMAN RACE. terse. The coarseness and indecency which are Should this which you long for be accomplished, mixed up with some of his finest passages must I say it would not be conducive to your happiness; be referred more to the age in which he lived than for should Plutus recover his sight, and distribute to his own mind.

his favors equally, no man would trouble himself

with the theory of any art, nor with the exercise A ROGUE.

of any craft; and if these two should once disapIf I get clear of my debts, I care not though pear, who afterwards will become a brasier, a men call me bold, glib of tongue, audacious, im- shipwright, a tailor, a wheelwright, a shoemaker, pudent, shameless, a fabricator of falsehoods, in- a brickmaker, a dyer, or a skinner? Or who will rentor of words, practised in lawsuits, a law tab- plough up the bowels of the earth, in order to let, a rattle, a fox, a sharper, a slippery knave, a reap the fruits of Ceres, if it was once possible for lissembler, a slippery fellow, an impostor, a you to live with the neglect of all these things? rogue that deserves the cat-o'-nine-tails, a blackguard, a twister, a troublesome fellow, a licker-up

POVERTY IS SISTER OF BEGGARY. of hashes. If they call me all this, when they

Therefore we say, certainly, that poverty is meet me, they may do so if they please.

sister of beggary. Bo that I may but fob my creditors, Let the world talk; I care not though it call me

THE EFFECT OF POVERTY AND RICHES ON MAN. A bold-faced, loud-tongued, overbearing bully; And knowing that I (Poverty) furnish men betA shameless, vile, prevaricating cheat;

Iter than Plutus (Riches) both in mind and body;

for with him they are gouty in feet, pot-bellied, 1 Of a divided city, by corruption
thick-legged, and extravagantly fat; but with me Is led away from th' even path of justice;-
they are thin and wasp-like, and annoying to their Whoe'er betrays the fortress he commands,

Gives up his ship, or from Ægina sends

Forbidden stores, as late that vile collector,

Shameless Thorycio, did to Epidaurus; For thou shalt not convince me, even if thou Whoe'er persuades another to supply shouldst convince me.

| The enemy with money for their fleet. Gay says,

“Convince a man against his will,
He's of the same opinion still."

In every way, by tying him to a ladder, by hang

|ing, by scourging with a whip, by playing, by A MAN'S COUNTRY WHERE HE LIVES BEST.

racking, and besides by pouring vinegar into his That is every man's country, where he lives best. I nostrils, by heaping bricks upon him, and in every

other way; only don't beat him with leek or young ELYSIUM.

onion. After that the breath of flutes shall encompass

By every methodthee, and thou shalt see a most beautiful light, as Tie him upon the ladder,-hang him up, here, and myrtle groves, and happy bands of men Give him the bristly strap,-flog, torture him,and women, and much clapping of hands.

Pour vinegar up his nostrils,-t his feet

Apply the tiles; question him as thou wilt,
Onward the dulcet harmony of flutes

So 'tis not with a rod of leeks and onions.
Shall breathe around thee, while thou shalt behold
Light's gayest beams, such as we here enjoy,

And myrtle groves, and troops of either sex

Good folks are scarce; and so it is with us.
Moving in mystic choruses, and marking
With plausive hands their holy ecstasy.


For it becomes poets to practise this. For see MYSTERIES.

how useful noble poets have been from of old. For It is right that he should abstain from ill-omened

Orpheus made known to us noble mysteries and to

abstain from bloodshed; Musæus, complete cures, words, and retire from our choirs, whoever is un

of diseases and oracular responses; Hesiod, agriskilled in such words, or is not pure in mind, and

culture, seed-time, and harvest; and by what did has neither seen nor cultivated with dances the

the divine Homer gain honor and glory except in orgies of the noble Muses, and has not been ini

this way, that he taught what was useful, military tiated in the Bacchanalian orgies of the tongue of

skill, and all the various use of arms? Cratinus, the bull-eater, or takes pleasure in buffoonish verses, exciting buffoonery at an improper

POETS AND SCHOOLMASTERS. time, or does not repress hateful sedition, and is not kind to the citizens, but, desirous of his private

Yet it is right for a poet to throw a veil over evil advantage, excites and blows it up; or, when the deeds, not to bring them unto the light o commonwealth is tempest-tossed, being a magis- produce them on the stage; for he who directs littrate, yields to bribes, or betrays a garrison, or

tle children is their teacher, while poets are to ships or imports from Ægina forbidden goods, be

those who are grown up. In truth it is our proving another Thorycion, a vile collector of tolls, I ince, above everything, to instruct men in virtue sending across to Epidaurus car-paddings, sail- and truth. cloth and pitch, or who persuades any one to sup

But horrible facts ply money for the ships of the enemy.

Should be buried in silence, not bruited abroad,

Nor brought forth on the stage, nor emblazoned Hushed be each lawless tongue, and, ye profane, in poetry. Ye uninitiated, from our mysteries

Children and boys have a teacher assigned themFar off retire! Whoe'er a bosom boasts not The bard is a master for manhood and youth, Pure and unsullied, nor has ever learned

Bound to instruct them in virtue and truth. To worship at the Muses' hallowed shrine,

FRERE. Or lead in sportive dance their votaries, Nor in Cratinus' lofty sounding style

NOBLE THOUGHTS PRODUCE NOBLE DICTION. Has formed his tongue to Bacchus' praise;-who But you, wretch, it is necessary also to produce e'er

words that may correspond with great thought Delights in flattery's unseemly language;

and noble sentiments; and besides, it is natura Who strives not to allay the rising storm

| that demigods should employ language grande That threats the public weal, nor cultivates

than ours, for they use a more magnificent attire The sweets of private friendship, but foments Intestine discord, blows the rancorous flame Elevated thoughts and noble sentiments, Of enmity 'twixt man and man, to serve

Of course, produce a corresponding diction; Some sordid purpose of his narow soul;

Heroes, besides, with much propriety, Whoe'er intrusted with the government

| May use a language raised above the vulgar,

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