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Just as they wear a more superb attire;-
Which, when I showed thee, thou hast done most


The only power that scorns our gifts is death.

THE ADVANTAGES OF WINE. Dost thou dare to find fault with wine as merely giving birth to ideas ? Why, canst thou point out anything more fully engaged in the practical affairs of life? Consider for a moment: when men drink, then they are rich, they traffic, are successful in lawsuits, are happy, give aid to their friends. Come, bring out quickly a stoup of wine, that I may moisten my brain, and say something clever.

Who knows but life is death, to breathe a feast,
To sleep nanght else but a warm coverlet?

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The other qualities requisite for a demagogue 0 King Jove! the voice of the bird! how has it

are thine-foul-mouthed, base-born, a low mean filled with melody the whole grove!

fellow. Thou possessest every quality necessary O Jupiter! the dear, delicious bird!

to make thy way with the mob.
With what a lovely tone she swells and falls,
Sweetening the wilderness with delicate air.


“To speak,” indeed! No doubt thou wouldst WE LEARN FROM OUR ENEMIES.

cleverly take up some case that had fallen to thee, You're mistaken; men of sense often learn from a

and handle it properly, tearing it in pieces like a

piece of raw flesh. But knowest thou in what their enemies. Prudence is the best safeguard.

way thou seemest to me to be placed ? Thou art This principle cannot be learned from a friend, but

like the rest of them. If thou hast anywhere an enemy extorts it immediately. It is from their

pleaded some paltry suit well against a residentfoes, not their friends, that cities learn the lesson of building high walls and ships of war. And this

alien, babbling the livelong night, and talking to

thyself in the streets, and drinking water, and lesson saves their children, their homes, and their

showing thyself off, and boring thy friends, thou properties.

thoughtst thyself a dab at oratory-thou silly * WHAT EYE HATH NOT SEEN NOR EAR HEARD.”

coxcomb! He speaks of a mighty bliss, which cannot be You're like the rest of 'em—the swarm of paltry, expressed in words nor believed to be possible; weak pretenders. for he will convince you by arguments that all / You've made your pretty speech, perhaps, and these things are yours, both what is here and there gained a little lawsuit and everywhere.

Against a merchant-foreigner, by dint of waterSo St. Paul (1 Cor. ii. 9

drinking, " But as it is written, Eye hath not seen nor ear heard, And lying long awake o' nights, composing and reneither have entered into the heart of man, the things which peating, God hath prepared for them that love Him."

And studying as you walked the streets, and wear

ing out the patience SLY AS A Fox.

Of all your friends and intimates with practising He's as sly as a fox; he's contrivance, adroit-! beforehand: ness, subtilty itself; he's so cunning that he'd And now you wonder at yourself, elated and deslip through your fingers like wild-fire.


At your own talent for debate-you silly, saucy MORTALS AND IMMORTALS CONTRASTED.

coxcomb.-FRERE. Mortals, that are condemned to live in darkness

“ TO BUILD THE LOFTY RHYME." -mortals, that fade like the leaves, emblems of Builders of ingenious songs. imbecility, images of clay, a race lightsome and

Milton, in “Lycidas" (v. 10), sayswithout substance, creatures of a day without

" Who would not sing for Lycidas ? he knew Fings-miserable mortals, men that flit away as

Himself to sing, and build the lofty rhyme." dreams! give ear to us who know no decay, to us who live forever, to us who dwell on high, who

AN AGED BARD. flourish in immortal youth, who harbor thoughts But now, when you see him in his dotage, you which perish not; that having received all accurate do not pity him, since the pegs fall out and the information from us on the subject of sublimity, I tone is no longer there, and the harmony is dissohaving learnt correctly the nature of birds, the nant. birth of the gods, of rivers, of Erebus, and of

Scott in his “Minstrel," says Chaos, ye may tell Prodicus, with his philosophy,

** His withered cheek and tresses gray to go hang.

Seemed to have known a better day."


For thou art like those who fish for eels. When Bo Luke (x. 5)_"Peace be to this house."

the loch is tranquil, they catch nothing; but if

they stir the mud up and down, they take. Thou, I be deceived, for they themselves are accustomed too, catchest, if thou disturb the city. . to deceive.

| Then, for the ways and means, say who're more HEAR BOTH SIDES OF A QUESTION.

skilled Of a truth he was a wise man who said, “Thou Than women? They, too, are such arch-deceivers, shouldst not decide till thou hast heard what both That, when in power, they ne'er will be deceivhave to say.”


AGRICULTURE. O we! who once in days of old were active in 4. The faithful nurse, housewife, helper, guardances, brave in battle, and, on this very account

dian, daughter, sister of beloved, peace to all men, alone, most warlike men. This was of old; but all these epithets are applicable to me.-B. But now all that is gone, and these hairs now blossom

what is your name, pray ?-A. What, Agriculture. whiter than the swan.

-B. O day desired by the just and husbandmen!

having seen thee with pleasure, I wish to address O we! who once were ardent in the dance,

the vines. And brave in fight, of all men most courageous;

DEATH. But this is of old date-'tis pastand now

To fear death is very great folly, for it is fated These hairs of ours are whiter than the swan.

to all men to die. WHEELWRIGHT.

See Percy's “Reliques," vol. ii. p. 162—

“His reverend locks
In comelye curles did wave;

Apd on his aged temples grewe
The blossomes of the grave."

ARISTOPHON, a comic poet, who is supposed to

have belonged to the middle comedy, but nothing THE DAYS THAT ARE GONE BY.

| is known of his life or age. We know the titles of Truly then I was terrible so as to fear nothing; nine of his plays. and I subdued my foes, sailing thither with the

POVERTY. triremes; for we thought not how we should speak

The storm is evident; poverty, like a lamp, rightly nor how we should slander any one, but

shows everything bad and annoying. how we should be the best steersman. Oh the days that are gone by, oh the days that are

no more, When my eye was bold and fearless, and my

ARISTOTLE. hand was on the oar! Merrily then, oh merrily, I beat the brine to lath,

BORN B.C. 384—DIED B.C. 322. And the sea once crossed, sacked cities were the ARISTOTLE, the celebrated philosopher, was a foot-tracks of my path.

native of Stageira, a seaport town of the district

of Chalcidice, which became subject to Philip of Oh, the days that are gone by!

Macedon. He was son of Nicomachus, physician Then with none was care to find

to Amyntas II., King of Macedon. He lost his Dainty words and speech refined;

father at an early age, and was intrusted to the Reasoning much on taste and tact,

guardianship of Proxenus of Atarneus in Mysia, Quick of tongue, but slow to act.-MITCHELL.

who seems to have performed his duties in a way THE RESULTS OF DRINKING.

to entitle him to the grateful acknowledgments of

his pupil. Aristotle was attracted by his love of Drinking is bad; for it is from wine that spring learning to Athens, where Plato was in the zenith the breaking of doors, and the dealing of blows, of his fame, and that master soon discovered the and the throwing of stones; and then the paying abilities of his ardent disciple. On account of his of money after your drunken bout.

industry and unwearied efforts in search of the So Shakespeare (“Othello," act ii. sc. 3)

truth, Plato used to call him the “intellect of his “Every inordinate cup is unblessed, and the ingredient is a

school,” and say “that he needed a curb, while devil.”

Xenocrates needed the spur." For twenty years WOMAN'S TIME FOR MARRIAGE IS SHORT. he continued to be on intimate terms with Plato, For man, though he be gray-headed when he

though he had himself assembled around him a

circle of admiring followers; but at the death of comes back, soon gets a young wife. But a woman's time is short within which she can ex

Plato, B.C. 347, he left Athens, and joined his

former pupil, Hermias, who had become ruler of pect to obtain a husband. If she allows it to slip away, no one cares to marry her. She sits at

Atarneus and Assos. When Hermias was dehome speculating on the probabilities of her mar

stroyed by the Persians, Aristotle fled to Mitylene, riage.

and two years after, B.C. 342, we find him invited

by Philip, King of Macedon, to undertake the inTHE DECEIT OF WOMEN.

struction and education of his son, Alexander, A woman is most ingenious in providing money; then thirteen years of age. The young prince beand when she is at the head of a house, can never came so strongly attached to him that he valued his instructor above his own father. Aristotle WHAT CONSTITUTES AN ACTION VIRTUOUS. spent seven years in Macedon. In the year B.c.

Then, again, it is not the same in regard to the 356. soon after Alexander succeeded to the throne, l arts and the virtues, for works of art have their Aristotle returned to Athens, where he collected

excellence in themselves; it is sufficient, therefore, a large number of pupils from the cities of Eu-|

that they should themselves possess such a charmpe and Asia. There he continued for thirteen acter. Whereas virtuous deeds are just and temyears to teach his doctrines to those who after

perate, not if the deeds themselves have this charwards became distinguished as philosophers, his

acter, but if the agent, who does them, has in torians, statesmen, and orators. On the death of himself this character: first. if he does them Alexander, he was accused of impiety, which was

Sknowingly; then, if with deliberate choice, and the usual prelude to an unjust condemnation.

: To deliberate choice on their own account; thirdly, if

To deprive the Athenians, as he said, of sinning a

img a he does them on a fixed and unchangeable princi. second time against philosophy, he left Athens,

ple. Now, with regard to all other arts these and spent the remainder of his life at Chalcis, in

ideas are not taken into account, with the excepEubea, where the Macedonian influence afforded

tion of knowledge; whereas, with regard to virtues, him protection and security. Out of four hundred

mere knowledge has little or no weight, while the treatises which he is said to have composed, only

other qualifications are not of small but of infinite forty-eight have been transmitted to the present

importance, since they spring from the habit of age:

just and temperate actions. HAPPINESS. But concerning happiness, men cannot agree as

TO HIT THE MEAN IS DIFFICULT. to its true nature, and the vulgar by no means Virtue, then, is a kind of mean state, being ati hold the same opinion respecting it with the edu-l least apt to strike the mean. Again, it is possible cated; for some are inclined to apply it only to to go wrong in many ways (for evil. as th

to apply it only to to go wrong in many ways (for evil, as the Pythawhat is distinct and marked in its essence, such as goreans imagined, is of the nature of the infinite, pleasure, wealth, or honor; each man thinking but good of the finite), whereas we can go right differently of it from his neighbors, and often the only in one way; therefore the former is easy, the same person entertains different opinions respect-I latter is difficult; it is easy to miss a mark, difficult ing it at different times. For, when he is ill, hel to hit it; and for these reasons the excess and dethinks it to be health; when poor to be riches;

iches; fect belong to vice, but the mean to virtue; “ for but, being conscious of their own ignorance, men we are good in one way only, but bad in all kinds are apt to be struck with admiration at those who lof way, say that it is something great and above them.


Death is the most terrible of all things; for it is For one swallow does not make spring, nor yet a limit, and it is thought that there is nothing one fine day; so, also, neither does one day, nor a good or bad beyond to the dead. short time, make a man blessed and happy.


| If he fear nothing, neither earthquake nor the For the principle seems to be more than the hallwaves, as they say of the Celts. of the whole question.


To die in order to avoid the pains of poverty, Happiness is the best, most honorable, and most, pleasant of all things; nor are these qualities to

love, or anything that is disagreeable, is not the be disjoined, as in the inscription at Delos, where

part of a brave man, but of a coward; for it is it maintains “that the most just is the most

cowardice to shun the trials and crosses of life, honorable, that health is what is most to be de

not undergoing death because it is honorable, but sired, and the most pleasant thing is to obtain

to avoid evil. what we love:" for all these qualities exist in the | THE CONDUCT OF REGULAR TROOPS AND MILITIA best energies, and we say that these, or the best

CONTRASTED. one if them, is happiness.

Regular troops lose their courage when they see HAPPINESS A DIVINE GIFT.

the danger greater than they expected, and when

they find themselves surpassed in numbers and If, then, there is anything that is a gift of the

equipments. For they are the first to turn their gods to men, it is surely reasonable to suppose

backs. But the militia of a country die at their that happiness is a divine gift, and more than any

posts, as happened at Hermæum. For in their thing else of human things, as it is the best.

eyes it is disgraceful to fly, and death is regarded

as preferable to safety procured at such a cost. DMPORTANCE OF EARLY EDUCATION.

The others only expose themselves to danger while Therefore it is necessary to be in a certain de- they think themselves superior, but when they gree trained from our very childhood, as Plato find that they are mistaken, they at once run says, to feel pleasure and pain at what we ought; away, fearing death more than dishonor. This for this is education in its true sense.

certainly is not the character of the brave man.


THE PAST. For to eat or drink till a man is surfeited is go- Therefore well does Agathon say, “Of this ing beyond the natural desire in quantity; for alone is even God deprived, the power of making the object of natural desire is the satisfying our that which is past never to have been." wants. Therefore these are called belly-gods, as they satisfy their wants more than they ought;

FRIENDSHIP. people of excessively slavish dispositions are apt In poverty and the other misfortunes of life, to do this.

men think friends to be their only refuge. The So Philippians (iii. 19)—"Whose god is their belly, and glory young they keep out of mischief, to the old they in shame."

are a comfort and aid in their weakness, and those THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE MAGNANIMOUS MAN.

in the prime of life they incite to noble deeds. It is the characteristic of a magnanimous man to

FRIENDS. ask no lavo', or scarcely any, but to be ready to When men are friends, there is no meed of jus. do kindness to others, to be haughty in demeanor tice; but when they are just, they still need friendtowards men of rank and fortune, kindly towards shiv. those of the middle classes, for to rise superior to the former is difficult and honorable, over the

FRIENDSHIP REQUIRES TIME. latter it is easy; among the former there is noth-1 According to the proverb, it is impossible for ing ungenerous in showing pride, among those of friends to know each other till they have eaten a humble rank it is bad taste, just like making a certain quantity of salt with each other. Nor can show of strength to the weak.

they be on friendly and familiar terms till they ap

pear worthy of each other's friendship and confiFLATTERERS.

dence. All flatterers are mercenary; and low-minded men are flatterers.


The wicked have no stability, for they do not MEN-PLEASERS AND THE CROSS-GRAINED CON

remain in consistency with themselves, they conTRASTED.

tinue friends only for a short time, rejoicing in In the intercourse of society and life, in conver- each other's wickedness. sation and the affairs of the world, some men appear to be parasites, who praise everything, for

TYRANNY. the sake of giving pleasure, and never contradict The defection of monarchy is tyranny; for both an opinion, but think that they ought to give no are monarchies, but the difference between them opinion to those with whom they happen to be; | is very marked: for a tyrant thinks only of his own others, the very opposite characters to these, who interests, while a king attends to those of his suboppose everything, and are altogether regardless jects. For he is not a king who is not uncon- * of the feelings of their neighbor, are called cross-trolled, and who is not possessed of all kinds of grained and quarrelsome.

goods, for such a one stands in need of nothing

more; therefore he does not require to be looking TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD.

after his own interests, but devotes himself to his Falsehood is bad and blamable; truth honor-subjects. able and praiseworthy.


For a tyrant pursues his own peculiar good, and Now the refined and gentlemanly man will so it is more manifest for this very reason, that it is act, being as it were a law unto himself; and such the worst form of government, for that is worst is he who is in the mean, whether he be called a which is opposite to the best. man of tact or of graceful wit.

BE JUST BEFORE YOU ARE GENEROUS. A RULER IS NOT A TERROR TO GOOD WORKS. We ought rather to pay a debt to a creditor than Wherefore we do not allow man to rule but rea-| give to a companion. son, because man rules for himself, and becomes a

GIVE EVERY ONE HIS DUE. tyrant. A ruler is the protector of the just, and, if of the just, then, also, of what is equitable to,

| But, since we owe different services to parents, all,

brothers, companions, and benefactors, we ought

to take care to pay every one his due, and that RIGOR OF LAW.

which is suitable to his character. From this it is evident what is the character of the equitable man; for he who is disposed to do THE INTELLECTUAL PART CONSTITUTES EACH MAN'S

SELF. such things, and is active in their performance, who does not assert his rights to the uttermost, For the good man agrees in opinion with himbut is willing to take something less, even though self, and desires the same things with all his sonl; he may have law on his side, is a man of equity: therefore he wishes what is good for himself, and this habit is equity, being a kind of justice, and what appears so, practising it: for it is the part of not a different habit from justice.

I a good man to labor for what is good, and for his

own sake; for it is for the sake of his intellectuals slave. Hence the interest of master and slave is part, which is considered to be a man's own self. identical.


THE DOMESTIC TIE IS THE FIRST. And the thinking principle-or, at least, that Hesiod is right when he says, “First house, rather than any other-must be considered to be then wife, then oxen for the plough;" for the ox each man's self.

stands in place of slave to the poor. A GOOD MAN IS WITHOUT REPENTANCE. MAN ALONE HAS PERCEPTION OF GOOD AND Besides, the good man has abundant subjects

EVIL. for reflection; he sympathizes most with himself For this is the distinguishing mark between man in joys and sorrows; for the same always gives to and the lower animals, that he alone is endowed him the same pain or sorrow, and not sometimes with the power of knowing good and evil, justice one thing and sometimes another. For he is, if and injustice. It is a participation in these that we may be allowed to say so, without repentance. constitutes a family and a city.


THE FREEMAN AND THE SLAVE. For the counsels of good men remain fixed, and Some think that the power of one man over ando not ebb and flow like the Euripus; they desire other is contrary to nature; for they maintain that what is just and proper.

it is only human law that makes one man a slave

and another a free man. But in nature there is no WHY MOTHERS ARE FOND OF THEIR CHILDREN. such distinction; wherefore it is an unjust ar

rangement, for it is the result of force and comFor this reason, also, mothers are more fond of their children than fathers are; for the bringing them forth is more painful, and they have a more

See Milton, “Paradise Lost," xii,

“But man over men certain knowledge that they are their own.

He made not lord: such title to Himself

Reserving-human left from human free." TIE MASSES LED BY FEAR. (Treatises) have no power to persuade the mul- | WORSE SERVED BY MANY SERVANTS THAN BY titude to do what is virtuous and honorable. For

FEW. the masses are formed by nature to obey, not a As in a family we are often served worse when sense of shame, but fear; nor do they refrain from we have many servants than a few. vicious things on account of disgrace, but of punishment; for they live in obedience to passion, AFFECTION FOR ONE'S SELF IS NATURAL. pursuing their own pleasures and the means of

And also in regard to pleasure it is not to be exgratifying them; they fly also from the contrary

I pressed what a difference it makes for a man to pains; but of what is honorable and really delight

think that he has something his own. For possiful, they have not the slightest idea, inasmuch as

bly it may not be in vain that each person has an they never had a taste for them. What power of

affection for himself, for this is natural, but selfreasoning, then, could bring about a change on

ishness is justly blamed. This is not merely to such men as these? For it is not possible, or at least

love one's self, but to love one's self more than not easy to change what has been impressed for a

we ought. long time upon the moral character.


MORAL MEANS. It would therefore be best that the state should But a state consisting of a multitude of beings, pay attention to education, and on right principles, as we have before said, ought to be brought to and that it should have the power to enforce it; unity and community by education; and he who but if it be neglected as a public measure, then it is about to introduce education, and expects would seem to be the duty of every individual to thereby to make the state excellent, will act abcontribute to the virtue of his children and friends, surdly if he thinks to fashion it by any other or at least to make this his deliberate pur- means than by manners, philosophy, and laws. i pose.

DIFFERENT SPECIES OF MEN. Sir Thomas More ("Utopia," page 21) says "If you suffer your people to be ill educated, and their manners to be cor- or that golden particle, which God has mixed rupted from their infancy, and then punish them for those up in the soul of man, flies not from one to the crimes to which their first education disposed them,-you other, but always continues with the same; for he first make thieves, and then punish them."

says that some of our species have gold, and SOME COMMAND AND SOME OBEY.

others silver, blended in their composition from

the moment of their birth. By nature some command and some obey, that all may enjoy safety; for the being that is able to ! WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF A CITIZEN? foresee coming events is a ruler of nature's own The truest definition of a complete citizen that appointment; whereas he who is only able to as- can be given is probably this, that he shares in the sist by bodily service, is a subordinate and naturall judicial and executive part of the government.

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