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HONORABLE DESCENT OF GREAT ESTEEM. · But it is a matter of high commendation to The free-born and men of high birth will disknow how to command as well as to obey; to do pute the point with each other as being nearly on both these things well is the peculiar quality of a an equality; for citizens that are well born have a distinguished citizen. '

right to more respect than the ignoble. Honor

able descent is in all nations greatly esteemed; HUSBAND AND WIFE.

besides, it is to be expected that the children of The domestic employment of husband and wife men of worth will be like their fathers, for nobility differs in this, that the former tries to acquire | is the virtue of a family. subsistence, and the latter to keep it.


He, then, who orders the reasoning principle of The supreme power must necessarily be in the man to be supreme, seems to make God and the hands of one person, or of a few, or of the laws to be supreme, but he who gives the power many. When the one, the few, or the many direct to man gives it to a wild beast. For passion may their whole efforts for the common good, such be so called, and it is passion that brings ruin on states must be well governed; but when the ad- rulers, even though they be the very best of men: vantage of the one, the few, or the many is alone wherefore the law is reason free from passion. regarded, a change for the worse must be expected.


The moral law is much superior to the written

law, and treats of matters of greater weight; for For the law is an agreement, and, as Lycophron

the supreme ruler is more to be trusted than the says, a pledge given that citizens will do justice.

written law, though he be inferior to the moral. to each other; but yet the law is not able to make all the citizens good and just.


So that education and morals will be found to be Then it is evident that a state is not a mere

are almost the whole that goes to make a good man; community of place; nor is it established that ang

that and the same things will make a good statesman men may be safe from injury, and maintain an in- and good king. terchange of good offices. All these things, in

| THE CORRUPTION OF THE BEST IN THE WORST. deed, must take place where there is a state, and yet they may all exist and there be no state. A

The corruption of the best and most divine form state, then, may be defined to be a society of peo- 1 governme

per of government must be the worst. ple joining together by their families and children

A DEMOCRACY. to live happily, enjoying a life of thorough independence.

For when a democracy is controlled by fixed

laws, a demagogue has no power, but the best AN UNION OF THE MANY WITH THE FEW DESIR- citizens fill the offices of state: when the laws are ABLE.

not supreme, there demagogues are found. For For the multitude, when they are collected to the people act like a king, being one body; for the gether, have sufficient understanding for this pur- | many are supreme, not as individuals, but as a pose (of electing magistrates), and mingling with

whole. those of higher rank, are serviceable to the state;

THERE IS NO FREE STATE WHERE THE LAWS ARE as some kinds of food, which would be poisonous

NOT SUPREME. by itself, by being mixed with the wholesome, makes the whole good; in the same way, sepa- For there is no free state where the laws do not rately, each individual is unfit to form a judgment rule supreme; for the law ought to be above all. by himself.


For people do not change at once, but love their A pretension to offices of state ought to be ancient customs, making gradual changes; so that founded on those qualifications, which are part of ancient laws remain in force, while the power itself. And for this reason, men of birth, inde- continues with those who bring about a revolution pendence, and fortune are right in contending in the state. with each other for office; for those who hold offices of state ought to be persons of independence

THE MIDDLE STATE TO BE PREFERRED. and property. A state should no more consist en- In every state the people are divided into three tirely of poor men than it ought entirely of slaves. kinds: the very rich, the very poor, and, thirdly, But though such persons are requisite, it is evi- those who are between them. Since, then, it is dent that there must also be justice and military universally acknowledged that the mean is best, valor; for without justice and valor no state can it is evident that even in respect to fortune, a be maintained; just as without the former class a middle state is to be preferred; for that state is state cannot exist, and without the latter it can- most likely to submit to reason. For those who not be well governed.

I are very handsome, or very strong, or very noble,

or, on the hand, those who are very poor, or very

A HOUSE DIVIDED AGAINST ITSELF. weak, or very mean, are with difficulty induced to

For a government in a constant state of turmoil

o obey reason. And this because the one class is lis weak' supercilious, and “sin as it were with a cartrope," the other rascally and mean; and the

A FIRM STATE. crimes of each arise respectively from insolence

The only stable state is that where every one,

The and villany.

possesses an equality in the eye of the law, accordTHE BEST STATE WHERE THE MEAN OUTNUMBERS

ing to his merit, and enjoys his own unmolested. THE EXTREMES.

TAKE CARE THAT NOTHING BE DONE CONTRARY It is evident, then, that the most perfect politi

TO LAW. cal community is that which is administered by

For in states that are well blended particular the middle classes, and that those states are best

are best care ought, above all things, to be taken that nothcarried on in which these are the majority and

1a Jing be done contrary to law; and this should bu outweigh both the other classes, and if that can-chiefly los

chiefly looked to in matters of small moment: for not be, at least when they overbalance each sepa small violations of law advance by stealthy steps. rate. For, being thrown into the balance, it will

in the same way as, in a domestic establishment, prevent either excess from predominating. Where

trifling expenses, if often repeated, consume à fore it is the greatest happiness to possess a mod

man's whole estate. erate and competent fortune; since, where some possess too much, and others nothing at all, the

QUALIFICATIONS OF A STATESMAN. government must be either an extreme democracy or else a pure oligarchy, or, from the excesses of There are three qualifications which ought to be both, a tyranny; for this springs from a head-possessed by a man who aspires to fill the high ofstrong democracy or oligarchy, but far more sel- fices of state; first, he must be well disposed, and dom when the members of the community are prepared to support the established constitution nearly on an equality with each other.

of his country; next, he ought to have a special

aptitude for the office which he fills; and, thirdly, WHERE THE MIDDLE CLASS IS LARGE LESS SEDI-| he should tave the kind of virtue and love of jusTION.

tice which suits the particular state in which he But it is clear that the state where the middle lives. ranks predominate is the best, for it alone is free from seditious movements. Where such a state is

THE GOOD NEVER FLATTER. large, there are fewer seditions and insurrections On this account tyrants are fond of bad men; to disturb the peace; and for this reason extensive for they like to be flattered. No man of high and states are more peaceful internally, as the middle generous spirit is ever willing to indulge in this ranks are numerous. In small states it is easy to habit; the good may feel affection for others, but pass to the two extremes, so as to have scarcely any will not flatter them. Besides, bad men assist middle ranks remaining; but all are either very them in their evil deeds: “Like to like," as the poor or very rich.


For which reason they are always at variance Should the number of husbandmen be excessive,

with men of merit as disaffected to their governit will be of the best kind; if of mechanics and those who work for pay, of the worst.

ment, not only becausc they are unwilling to be

governed despotically, but because they are faithSOBILITY AND MERIT ARE ONLY AMONGST A FEW. /ful to their own principles and to their friends, For nobility and worth are to be found only

| refusing to inform against themselves or others. amongst a few, but their opposite amongst the

DEFINITION OF DEMOCRACY. many; for there is not one man of merit and high spirit in a hundred, while there are many desti

On the contrary, a democracy is a government tute of both to be found everywhere.

in the hands of men of low birth, poverty, and

vulgar employments. THE BEGINNING IS THE HALF OF THE BUSINESS. For the mischief lies in the beginning; for the

ORIGINAL SIN. beginning is said to be “half of the whole.”

For the power of doing whatever a man pleases

is not able to check that evil particle which is in WHENCE SEDITIONS ARISE IN A DEMOCRACY. every man. Democracies are chiefly subject to revolutions from the dishonest conduct of demagogues. For

UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE. partly by lodging informations against men of The last and worst form of democracy is where property, and partly by rousing the common every citizen has a share in the administration: people against them, they induce them to unite; few states can endure such a form, nor can it exist for a common fear will make the greatest enemies for any length of time unless it is well supported to join together.

by laws and purity of manners.



But the prudent and discreet wife will very For if human society cannot be carried on with properly regard the behavior of her husband as out actions at law, it is impossible that it should the pattern which she ought to follow and the law exist without the infliction of penalties.

of her life, invested with a divine sanction from

the marriage tie; for if she can induce herself to HAPPINESS DEPENDS ON VIRTUE AND WISDOM. submit patiently to her husband's mode of life,

she will have no difficulty to manage her houseLet us be well persuaded that every one of us possesses happiness in proportion to his virtue

hold affairs; but if not, she will not find it so and wisdom, and according as he acts in obedience

easy. to their suggestion, taking God himself as our ex PARENTS SHOULD SET A GOOD EXAMPLE TO ample, who is completely happy and blessed, not

THEIR CHILDREN. from any external good, but in Himself, and be

For unless parents set a good example to their cause He is such by nature.

children, they will furnish a plain reason to be

used by them against themselves. And this is to IMPORTANCE OF GOOD WATER.

be feared, that, if they have not lived an honoraSince every attention should be given to the ble life, their sons will despise them and abandon health of the inhabitants, it is of great importance them in their old age. that the city should have a good situation, and, next, that the inhabitants should have good water

MAN AN IMITATIVE ANIMAL. to drink; and this must not be regarded as a mat | For imitation is natural to man from his infancy. ter of secondary moment. For what is used Man differs from other animals particularly in chiefly and in great quantities for the support of this, that he is imitative, and acquires his rudithe body must, above all, contribute to its health. ments of knowledge in this way; besides, the de And this is the influence which the air and the light in it is universal. water exercise over the body. Wherefore, in all wise governments the water ought to be appor

THE RIDICULOUS. tioned to different purposes, if all is not equally For the ridiculous is produced by any defect good, and if there is not abundance of both kinds, that is unattended by pain or by fatal consethat for drinking should be separated from that quences; thus an ugly and deformed countenance which is used for other purposes.

does not fail to cause laughter, if it is not occa



But the principal of these parts is the combinaMen are made good and honorable in three

tion of the incidents; for tragedy is imitation not ways,-by nature, by custom, and by reason. For,

of individuals but of actions in general, of human in the first place, each individual ought to be a

| life, of good and bad fortune, for happiness man, and not any other animal; that is, that he

springs from action; the main purpose of life is should possess a particular character both of body

action and not quality, and though the manners of and soul. In some things, however, it is of no

men spring from their qualities, their happiness of consequence to be born with them, for custom

misery depends on their actions. makes great changes, there being some things in nature capable of change either for the better or NO VERY SMALL OR VERY LARGE ANIMALS CAN the worse. Now, other animals live chiefly a life

BE VERY BEAUTIFUL. of mere nature, and in very few things according

Then as to size, an animal, or any other thing to custom, but man lives also according to reason,

that has constituent parts, in order that it may be with which he alone is endowed, wherefore he

beautiful, must not only have those justly conought to make all these accord with each other;

nected, but should also have a certain proper size: for, if they are persuaded that it is best to follow

for beauty depends on size as well as symmetry; some other way, men often act contrary to nature for

for which reason no very small animal can be and custom.

beautiful, for the view being made in almost an A MASTER SHOULD SUPERINTEND ALL THINGS. imperceptible space of time, will be confused: The saying of the Persian and of the African

nor could a very large one, for, as the whole view

cannot be taken in at once, the unity and comare both to be highly commended; for the former

pleteness that should result from it will escape being asked what was best for fattening a horse, said, “ The eye of the master;" and the African

the spectator. being asked what was the best manure, answered,

MAN EASILY AFFECTED TO GRIEF OR JOY. The footsteps of the master."

As far as it is possible, the poet should enter

into the spirit of the subject while he is compos EARLY TO RISE.

ing; for those who are roused by passions are It is also well to be up before daybreak, for most likely to express those passions with force: such habits contribute to health, wealth, and wis- he who is really agitated storms, and he who is

I really angry upbraids most naturally.



GOD IS A SPIRIT. Moral character nearly, so to say, carries with In regard to the Deity we must consider Him it the highest power of causing a thing to be be- as (a spirit) the most powerful, immortal, and lieved

perfection itself; wherefore, being invisible to

mortal eyes, He is seen by his works. A DEMOCRACY.

So 1 Timothy (i. 17)—“ Now, unto the King eternal, immorThus a democracy, not only when relaxed, buttal, invisible, the only wise God, be honor and glory forever if overstrained, becomes weaker, till at last it will and ever." pass into an oligarchy in the same way as hookedness or flatness of the nose not only when they GOD FROM ETERNITY TO ETERNITY. relax approach the mean, but also when they be God extends from eternity to eternity. come excessively hooked or flat dispose the nos

So Psalms (xc. 2)—“Before the mountains were brought trils in such a way as no longer to resemble the forth, or ever Thou hadst formed the earth and the world, nasal organ.

even from everlasting to everlasting, Thou art God." DEFINITION OF HAPPINESS,

GOD IS HAPPY AND BLESSED. Let happiness be defined to be good fortune in God is happy and blessed from nothing external union with virtue-or independency of life-orl to Himself but Himself from Himself. the life that is most agreeable attended with

So 1 Timothy (vi. 15)—“Who is the blessed and only Potensecurity-or plenty of property and slaves, with

1 tate, the King of kings and Lord of lords." the power to preserve and augment it; for all mankind agree that one or more of these things

GOD IS SELF-SUFFICIFNT. amount nearly to happiness.

It is evident that God stands in need of nothing. EVILS BRING MEN TOGETHER.

So Psalms (1. 9, 10)—“I will take no bullock out of thy Whence it is said that misery brings men to- house, .... for every beast of the forest is mine." gether, when the same thing happens to be hurtful to both.

ONE GOD WITH VARIOUS NAMES. So Shakespeare ("Tempest," act i. sc. 2)

Though he be one Being, God has many names, "Misery acquaints a man with strange bedfellows."

being called according to the variety of outward

conditions of things, which he is always changing. « A SOFT ANSWER."

So 1 Corinthians (viii. 4)—“There is none other God but Towards such as acknowledge themselves to be one." justly punished we cease from our wrath. So Proverbs (xv. 1)—“A soft answer turneth away wrath."


ARRIANUS. For no one loves the man whom he fears. 80 1 John (iv. 18)—“There is no fear in love; but perfect love

FLOURISHED A.D. 136. casteth out fear."


Bithynia, flourished in the reign of Adrian, when

we find him, A.D. 136, governor of Cappadocia. Again, to talk about one's self, and to be one's He was one of the most celebrated pupils of the own trumpeter, and to assert that to be one's own

philosopher Epictetus, under whom he studied at which belongs to another, these are proofs of ar-I Nicopolis in Epirus. The first work which rogance.

he published was called “Encheiridion” (The

Manual), and contains the moral doctrines of his ALL THINGS FULL OF GOD.

master, being still preserved. He also wrote a All things are full of the gods.

work entitled “The Philosophical Disquisitions of 80 Psalms (lxxii. 197—“Let the whole earth be full of His Epictetus,” of which four books still remain. glory."

But the work by which he is best known to us is

the “History of Alexander's Campaigns in Asia," ALL MEN HAVE AN IDEA OF GOD.

in seven books, for which he derived the materials All men have some knowledge of the gods. chiefly from the histories of Ptolemy, son of Lagus, So Fphesians (iv. 6)_" One God and Father of all." and Aristobulus, who both accompanied Alexan

der. As a continuation to his history, he wrote a THE WORLD WAS CREATED. TO

little work, still extant, entitled “On India." All say that the world was created.

| Another treatise ascribed to him is, “ The Peri..

plus of the Erythræan Sea.” THE UNIVERSE. The Power that extends over everything has ar

THE WISH FATHER TO THE THOUGHT. ranged the whole universe, compelling the most When men are doubtful of the true state of opposite natures to harmonize, and by these en- things, their wishes lead them to believe in what suring safety to all.

I is most agreeable.


A LUXURIOUS LIFE. To lead a virtuous life is pleasant, and to die is Lay him down on those soft vestments, in which by no means bitter to these who look forward to he slept the livelong night with thee, on a golden immortal fame.

couch. Long thou for Adonis, a sad sight though

he be; and lay him amid chaplets of flowers; all THE EVENTS OF FORTUNE ARE UNEXPECTED.

with him, since he is dead, ay, all flowers have beThe events of fortune are unexpected, and come withered. therefore can never be guarded :'gainst by men. In St. Luke (vii. 25) we find—“Behold, they which are gor

geously apparelled, and live delicately, are in king's courts."

Milton in his “Comus," near the end, says-

“ Beds of hyacinths and roses

Where young Adonis oft reposes, AXIONICUS, an Athenian poet of the middle

Waxing well of his deep wound, comedy, of whom some fragments have been pre

In slumber soft; and on the ground served.

Sadly sits th' Assyrian queen."

When a man lends money to the wicked, he

Around him the weeping Loves set up the wail,

having their locks shorn for Adonis; and one was justly gets pain for his interest.

trampling on his arrows, another on his bow, and another was breaking his well-feathered quiver.

In Ezekiel (xxvii. 31) we find the same customs-" They BATON.

shall make themselves utterly bald for thee." And in Ovid.

(Amor. iii. 9, 7)—"Behold the son of Venus bears his upturned FLOURISHED ABOUT B.C. 280.

quiver, and broken bow and quenched torch." . Baton, an Athenian comic poet of the new comedy, flourished about B.C. 280, of whom we have


Hymenæus has quenched every torch at the

door-posts, shredded and flung the marriage TO ERR IS HUMAN.

wreath away; and no more is Hymen, no more is Being a man, thou hast erred; but in life it is a sung Hymen the song, but alas! alas! is chanted: wonder if a man has been prosperous through life. alas, alas! for Adonis wail the Graces far more

than Hymenæus.

In Lamentations (v. 15) we find—“The joy of our heart is

ceased; our dance is turned into mourning."


But the old man, smiling, shook his head, and Bion, a bucolic poet, was born at Phlossæ, on answered the boy. the river Meles, near Smyrna, but little is known

In Ecclesiasticus (xii. 18) we find~" He will shake his head of his history except what is told us in the third

istory except what is told us in the third and clap his hands and whisper much and change his counIdyll of Moschus, who laments his untimely death tenance.” by poison. Some of his poems are extant entire,

BRIEFNESS OF TIME. but of others we have only fragments.

For if Saturn's son or Fate had assigned us a “ THE KING OF TERRORS."

two-fold lifetime, so that one portion might be Thou fliest far, 0 Adonis, and comest to Acher-passed in joys and pleasures, and one in woes, it on and its gloomy and cruel king, but I live in might be possible that be who had his woes first misery, and am a goddess, and cannot follow thee.

should have his joys at last. But since the gods

have allotted but one life to man, and this a brief Virgil (Georg. iv. 469) says--" And he approached the Manes and their fearful king, hearts not to be softened by the

one-too brief for all we have to do-why should prayers of men."

we, ah! wretched men, toil and moil over neverIn Job (xviii. 14) we find—“ His confidence shall be rooted ending labors? To what end should we waste our out of his tabernacle; and it shall bring him to the King of health on gains and arts, sighing always for more Terrors." Spenser, in his “Faërie Queen,” says

wealth? We surely all forget our mortal state

how brief the life allotted us by Fate. “O what avails it of immortal seed

Job (xiv. 1) says—"Man that is born of a woman is of fer To been ybred, and never born to die;

days and full of trouble." And in the Epistle of James (iv. 13) For better I it deem to die with speed,

-“Go to now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we will go Than waste with woe and wailful miserie."

into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, “HE ETALL FLEE AWAY AS A DREAM."

and get gain; whereas ye know not what shall be on the mor

row: for what is life? It is even a vapor, that appeareth for Art thou dying, O thrice-regretted ? Away my a little time and then vanisheth away." love did fly, even as a dream; and widowed is Cytherea, and idle are the Loves along my halls.

THE DROP. Thus Job (xx. 8)--" He shall fly away as a dream, and shall

From the frequent drop, as the proverb says, not be found, yea, he shall be chased away as a vision of the ever falling, even the stone is worn at last into 3 night."


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