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25). He is accused of having been much addicted Beauty is good for women, firmness for men.

to wine, and in other respects his private character was by no means reputable (Hor. Ep. i. 20, 21; Sch. Aristoph. Pax. 700). He wrote twenty-one plays,

and of these he gained the prize nine times (Suid.) CALLIMACHUS.

Athenæus gives the titles and some fragments of FLOURISHED FROM B.C. 260 TO B.C. 240.

eighteen plays. CALLIMACHUS was a member of the powerful

THE FOOL. house at Cyrene, named from its founder Battus, the Battiadæ. Born probably at Cyrene, he was a The fool goes like the sheep, saying, bab, bah! pupil of the grammarian Hermocrates, and flourİshed in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, dying in that of Euergites, his son and successor. He was chief librarian of the celebrated library at

Alexandria, being contemporary of Theocritus and
Aratus. Callimachi quæ supersunt recensuit et

BORN B.C. 382—DIED B.C. 322. um notarum delectu, edidit C. J. Blomfield, Lon

DEMOSTHENES, the most celebrated of the Greek lini, 1815.

orators, was a native of Athens, being the son of “LIFT UP YOUR HEADS, YE GATES."

Demosthenes and of Cleobulë, who was of Scythian

extraction. His father died when he was only Now ye bolts of your own accord fall back, and

seven years of age, and left to him a considerable re bars, for the god is at hand.

property, which he had amassed by the manufactSo Isaiah (vi. 4)—" And the posts of the door moved at the ure of warlike implements. He tell us (Demosth. roice of him that cried, and the house was filled with smoke."

Cor. 312-22) that his education was such as his fort And Psalm (xxiv. 7)"Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be

une entitled him to; though Plutarch states that je lift up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall me in."

it was much neglected through the foolish indul

gence of his mother. His property was, at all THE GOOD SHALL SEE GOD.

events, greatly mismanaged by his guardians, and Apollo is seen by none except the just; whoso he found himself obliged, as soon as he had reachlees him, great is he; little is the man who hathed the age of manhood, to call them to account. hot seen him.

It is said that he was first excited to devote himSo Matthew (v. 8)—"Blessed are the pure in heart, for they

self to the study of eloquence by listening to the hall see God."

speech of Callistratus in defence of the city Oropus,

and by observing his triumphant reception by the “HEALING IN HIS WINGS."

people. He studied under Isæus the art of oratory, The tresses of Apollo drop not mere oil, but heal though Isocrates was at this time the most eminent ng itself.

in his profession. His first attempt was in the So Malachi (iv. 2)—“ But unto you that fear my name shall

cause against his guardians, B.C. 366; and though the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in his wings." he gained it after some difficulty, he found that his

property was so much diminished that it would be necessary to apply his talents to business. In the

profession which he had chosen he had great diffiCRATES.

culties to surmount; his constitution was weak,

his manner awkward, and he had besides a very FLOURISHED ABOUT B.C. 450.

defective utterance. In'his first attempts he was CRATES, a comic poet of Athens, of the old com- repeatedly laughed at; but, by unflinching peredy, flourished B.c. 450, being originally an actor severance, he completely got the better of all his in the plays of Cratinus. He is highly praised by defects, and shone forth the most perfect orator Aristophanes for wit and abilities. He excelled the world ever produced. It was in his twentyehiefly in mirth and fun.

seventh year, B.C. 355, that he made his first ap

pearance in a political cause. Leptines had got a TIME.

law passed forbidding any citizen, except the deFor time has bent me, a wise workman no doubt, scendants of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, to be but making all things weaker.

exempted from certain magistracies which entailed very heavy expenses. Demosthenes attacked the justice of this law in the case of Ctesippus, who

considered the merits of his father, Chabrias, to CRATINUS.

confer on him a right of exemption. The same

year he composed the speech against Androtion, BORN B.C. 519—DIED B.C. 422.

which he did not deliver. It would appear that CRATINUS, one of the most celebrated of the Demosthenes was in the habit of writing speeches Athenian poets belonging to the old comedy, was for citizens, who themselves pronounced them. the son of Callimedes. He was born B.C. 519, be- In one case he actually composed both the accusaing six years younger than Æschylus, and died at tion and the defence. The fierce and impetuous the age of ninety-seven, B.C. 422 (Lucian. Macrob. I character of Demosthenes fitted him more peculiarly for the part of an accuser; and it has been sation with much vehemence, he was found guilty, accordingly remarked that, of the numerous and fined fifty talents. He escaped the payment speeches that have come down to us, scarcely any of this fine by retiring to the island Ægina, B.C. of them are written for the defendant. In the year 325; but he does not appear to have endured his B.C. 353 he delivered his speech in favor of Mega- banishment with the equanimity worthy of his lopolis, a colony protected by the Thebans, but character and high name. On the death of Alexwhich the Spartans, the allies of Athens, wished to ander he was recalled, and proceeded to organize destroy. It is one of the most striking examples a new league of opposition to the Macedonian not so much of his eloquence as of his art, in which power. Antipater, however, soon put an end to it, he did not less excel. The great leading idea and the death of Demosthenes was pronounced by which seems, from the moment he entered public his own citizens at the instance of Demades. Delife, to have directed his whole conduct, was op-mosthenes, with some of his friends who were inposition to Philip and his objects of aggrandize- volved in the same sentence, escaped from Athens ment. Fleven speeches, delivered within the space by the connivance even of his enemies, and he took of fifteen years, under the name of “Philippics” refuge in the small island of Calauria in the temand “Olynthiacs,” show the unwearied spirit with ple of Neptune. He was followed by some of the which he maintained what he considered to be the friends of Antipater, and, as he saw no means of interest of his country. He was one of the ambas- escape, he placed a poisoned pen in his mouth, sadors who proceeded to Macedon to negotiate a and died a short time afterwards. peace with Philip; and he was so dissatisfied with the conduct of his colleague, Æschines, that he THE ACTIVE AND INTREPID CONTRASTED WITH THE brought the matter B.C. 343, before the people in

SLUGGISH. one of his most able and powerful speeches. The dominions of the absent belong naturally to Æschines defended himself with equal ability, and those in the field; the property of the lazy and in- . was so ably supported by the party of Eubulus, active to those who are willing to undergo labor that he was acquitted. The battle of Chæronëa and danger. followed soon afterwards, B.C. 338, which placed Greece at the mercy of Philip; but though the or- MEN WILLING TO UNITE THEMSELVES WITH THE ator had not distinguished himself by his bravery

BBAVE. in the field, he did not despair of the cause of his for all are willing to unite and to take part with country. Philip fell by the dagger of an assassin, those whom they see ready and willing to put B.C. 336, and Demosthenes again conceived hopes forth their strength as they ought. of the entire independence of his country. The destruction, however, of Thebes by Alexander

CURIOSITY OF THE ATHENIANB. soon dispelled that illusion, and he found himself Or is it your greatest pleasure, tell me, wanderone of those ten orators whom that prince required ing through the public squares to inquire of each the Athenians to deliver up to him. This demand other, “What news?" Athens would have found no means of resisting, it! So Acts (xvii. 21_" For all the Athenians, and strangers Demades, the friend of Alexander, had not suc- which were there, spent their time in nothing else, but either ceeded in procuring its remission. During this to tell or to hear some new thing." period of Grecian servitude the energies of De

ALLIANCES WITH DESPOTS DANGEROUS TO FREE mosthenes were called forth in his own defence.

STATES. Even after the fatal battle of Chæronëa the war party at Athens still continued powerful, and it For those close and intimate alliances with was no doubt of importance to them that they despots are never safe to free states. should show it to the public by some decisive act. With this view Ctesiphon, one of the party, pro- DISTRUST OF DESPOTS THE GREATEST SECURITY posed the decree for crowning Demosthenes on ac

OF FREE STATES. count of his services; but as those had reference Various are the devices for the defence and chiefly to the late unsuccessful war, in was in fact security of cities, as palisades, walls, ditches, and an approval of all that had been done. This was other such kinds of fortification, all which are the felt by Æschines, who was at the head of the op-result of the labors of the hand, and maintained at posite party, and finding that the law had not been great expense. But there is one common bulwark, observed in every particular, he took advantage of which men of prudence possess within themselves this circumstance to bring the matter before the —the protection and guard of all people, especially people; but though the suit was commenced of free states, against the attacks of tyrants. against Ctesiphon the same year, it was not till / What is this? Distrust. B.C. 330 that it was tried. It was then that Demosthenes made that celebrated speech, Tepi Stepávov,

A TYRANT. which is considered as one of his finest specimens For every king and tyrant is an enemy to frete of eloquence. Æschines failed in proving his case, dom, and an opposer of equal laws. and as a heavy fine would have been the consequence, he preferred to leave his country. When

THE ADVANTAGES OF SOCIETY SHOULD BE SHARED Harpalus fled to Athens with the treasures of

BY ALL ITS MEMBERS. Alexander, Demosthenes was accused of accepting For, Athenians, all ranks of citizens should have a bribe from him, and though he denied the accu-I an equal share in the advantages of society: the

rich ought to feel secure, and have no dread of the

RESULT OF UNEXPECTED SUCCESS. confiscation of their property, thus being willing! For great and unexpected successes are often and ready to contribute of their wealth to the

to the the cause of the foolish rushing into acts of defence of their country; the rest of the citizens

extravagance. should look upon public property to belong to all, and be satisfied with their just share, but all

POWER CANNOT BE FOUNDED UPON INJUSTICE. private fortunes as the inalienable right of the possessors. Thus a small state may expect to rise

For it is not, O Athenians-it is not, I assure to eminence, and a great one to maintain its high you, possible for lasting power to be founded upon place in the world..

injustice, perjury, and treachery. These may,

indeed, succeed for once, and for a short time, THE BOND THAT UNITES CONFEDERATE POWERS. putting on the gay and gaudy appearance of hope; For I am well convinced that, when confederate

but they are at last found out, and bring to ruin

all who trust in them. For as in buildings of powers are united by affection and identical in

every kind the foundation ought to be the strongterests, their agreement may be expected to last;

est, so the bases and principles of actions should whereas, if the alliance has been formed to carry out fraudulent and rapacious objects, accompanied

be true and just. by deceit and violence (as has been the case on

THREATS WITHOUT CORRESPONDENT ACTIONS ARE this occasion), any slight pretext or accident will

CONTEMPTIBLE. serve to give it a shock, from which it will not easily recover.

For words and threats, if they are not accompa

nied by action, cannot but appear vain and conSUCCESS VEILS MEN'S EVIL DEEDS.

temptible. For success has a great tendency to conceal and

HELP YOURSELF AND YOUR FRIENDS WILL HELP throw a veil over the evil deeds of men.

YOU. RESULT OF A REVERSE OF FORTUNE IN GOVERN No man, who will not make an effort for himMENTS.

self, need apply for aid to his friends, and much It happens as in our bodies: when a man is in less to the gods. sound and vigorous health, none of the weak parts of his body are felt; but when he is laid up by ill

MAN IS APT TO BLAME EVERY ONE BUT HIMSELF. ness, every ailment is made worse, whether it be a For in the emergencies of war no one of those fracture, or a dislocation, or any other member who fly ever think of accusing himself; he will that has been injured. So in kingdoms and gov- rather blame the general, or his fellow-soldiers, ernments: as long as they are favored by victory, or anything else; yet the defeat was certainly little notice is paid to the disorders in the state by occasioned by the cowardice of each individual the mass of the people; but when a reverse of For he who accuses others might have maintained fortune takes place, what is unsound becomes his own post, and if each had done so, success palpable to every eye.

must have been the result.



So that nothing is so easy as to deceive one's In short free states, in my opinion, ought to self; for what we wish, that we readily' believe; have a wholesome dread of absolute monarchies, but such expectations are often inconsistent with especially if they are situated in their immediate the real state of things. neighborhood.

We find the same idea in “ Achilles Tatius de Leucippes et

Clitophontis Amoribus " (lib. vi. 17)--"For the words which THE ULTIMATE EVENT DETERMINES MAN'S JUDG-show the hope of obtaining the wished-for object are readMExт.

ily believed; which arises from this, that the simple desire

aiding the wishes excites the hope." If a man succeeds in preserving what he has And again, in " Heliodorus ” (lib. viii.), we findacquired, he is willing enough to acknowledge the

" For what the mind wishes, that it also believes." kindness of fortune; but if he squanders it foolishly, in parting with it he parts with any feeling of gratitude. So also in political affairs, those

LOW PURSUITS ENGENDER LOW SENTIMENTS. who do not make a good use of their opportunitiesIt is impossible for those who are engaged in forget the favors which they may have received | low and grovelling pursuits to entertain noble from the gods. For it is the end which generally and generous sentiments. No; their thoughts determines man's judgment of what has gone must always necessarily be somewhat similar to before.

their employments.


LET THE PROSPEROUS SHOW KINDNESS TO THE To find fault, some one may say, is easy, and in

UNHAPPY. every man's power; but to point out the proper Those enjoying prosperity should always be course to be pursued in the present circumstances, ready to assist the unfortunate, for no one can say that is the proof of a wise counsellor.

what the future may bring forth.

IN POLITICAL TRANSACTIONS THE POWERFUL | The former openly declares his opinion on the PRESCRIBE TO THE WEAK.

proper course to be pursued before the event, and For in civil society the rights of individuals, makes himself responsible for his advice without reference to their power or weakness in une, to the times, and to those whom he has inthe state, are determined by the laws. But in na

fluenced. The latter is silent when he ought to tional concerns the powerful always prescribe to speak; but if anything unfortunate takes place, he the weaker.

dwells on it with in vidious earnestness.


MISFORTUNES. It is the natural disposition of all men to listen Misfortunes are the lot of all men, whenever it with pleasure to abuse and slander of their neigh- may please Heaven to inflict them. bor, and to hear with impatience those who utter praises of themselves.

OUR FATHERLAND COMPREHENDS EVERY ENDEARSo Proverbs (xxvii. 2)—“Let another man praise thee, and

MENT. not thine own mouth; a stranger, and not thine own lips." Each of them was firmly convinced that a man THE TRUE BOND OF FRIENDSHIP.

was born not merely for his parents but also for

his country. You may ask what is the difference. For it is not words that give strength to friend

It is very clear, for he who thinks himself born ship, but a similarity of interests.

only for his parents awaits the fated hour with So Proverbs (xvii. 24)—"A man that hath friends must calm submission, whereas the other will boldly show himself friendly; and there is a Friend that sticketh

meet his fate that he may not see his country encloser than a brother."

slaved, and will consider those insults and disA TRAITOR.

graces which he must endure in a state of slavery It is not the benefit of the traitor that is looked as inuch more to be dreaded than death itself. to by the man who bribes him, nor, after he has obtained what he bargained for, is he ever after

MAN PROPOSES, GOD DISPOSES. wards taken into confidence. If it were so, no Whatever was the duty of brave men, they were one would be happier than a traitor. How should all ready to perform, but the sovereign Lord of it be so? It is impossible. For when the ambi- | the universe decided the fate of each. tious man has once succeeded in gaining his object, then knowing the utter baseness of the man, he

1 AN ACCUSER. holds him in detestation, distrusts, and treats him

A false accuser is a monster, a dangerous monwith supreme contempt.

ster, ever and in every way malignant and ready ON WHAT MEN'S CONDUCT SHOULD BE MODELLED. | to seek causes of complaint. Private individuals and public bodies should

A MINISTER OF STATE. take as their pattern those actions by which they have acquired their fame.

What, then, are the duties of a minister of state ?

- to watch the rise of every event, to look into the THE TRULY BRAVE.

future and forewarn his fellow-citizens of what For death is the inevitable close of every man's may happen. This is precisely what I have done. life, however much he may try to save it by skulk- And then, again, to confine within the narrowest ing in some obscure corners; but the truly brave limits the fatal results that naturally arise from should not hesitate to draw the sword on all hon- irresolution, lukewarmness, prejudices, and party orable occasions, armed with fair hopes of success, spirit; and, on the other hand, to lead men's and, whatever may be the result, to bear with minds to peace, good understanding, and to rouse resignation the will of Providence.

them to a vigorous defence of their just rights. A STATESMAN.

BRIBES. And, doing this, you proceed to draw the portrait of a statesman, as if having given a model

| By resisting his bribes, I conquered Philip; for

as the purchaser conquers when a man sells himfor a statue, you found that the artist had not

self, so the man who refuses to be sold, and disattended to your directions, forgetting that the

dains to be corrupted, conquers the purchaser. character of a statesman is to be shadowed forth not by words but by actions, and the success of


The man who is in the highest state of prosper THE SOWER OF MISCHIEF.

lity, and who thinks his fortune most secure, knows For the sower of the seed is assuredly the author not if it will remain unchanged till the evening. of the whole harvest of mischief.

So Proverbs (xxvii. 1)" Boast not thyself of to-morrow So Proverbs (vi. 14)—" Frowardness is in his heart, he devis, for thou knowest not what a day may bring forth." eth mischief continually; he soweth discord."


For the true counsellor and the flattering syco-! For it is in accordance with my principles to be pbant differ from each other particularly in this. lieve that he who receives a favor must retain



recollection of it for all time to come, but that he So Matthew (xxii. 13)—"Bind him hand and foot, and take who confers should at once forget it, if he is not him away, and cast him into outward darkness.” to show a sordid and ungenerous spirit. To re

HEAVEN OUR FATHERLAND. mind a man of a kindness conferred on him, and to talk of it, is little different from reproach.

To one who said to Anaxagoras, “Hast thou no

regard for thy fatherland ?” “Softly,” said he, “I THE LOYAL STATESMAN.

have great regard for my fatherland," pointing to It is not the language, it is not the tone of voice heaven. of a public speaker that is to be considered, but So John (xiv. 2)-“In my father's house are many mansuch an approximation of feelings and interests sions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to pre with his fellow-citizens, that both his enemies and

pare a place for you." friends are the same with those of his country,

CURSE NOT YOUR ENEMY. For he who is thus animated, he it is who will speak his sentiments with an honest zeal. But he

Speak not ill of your friend, and curse not your who pays court to those who threaten danger to

enemy. the state, is not embarked in the same vessel with

LAW OF GOD. his fellow-citizens, and therefore does not look

He (Plato) regarded justice as God's law. forward to the same results for his safety.

There are two divisions of law, the one written, THE GODS.

the other unwritten: the one arising from nature

and habit is called unwritten. Chance to despise, and fortune to control, Doth to the immortal gods alone pertain;

This is referred to by Seneca (Controv. 1)_"Laws not writ

ten, but more certain in their influence than laws that are Their joys unchanged, in endless currents roll;

written." But mortals combat with their fate in vain. So Romans (ii. 14, 15)—"For when the gentiles, which have

not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, THE VIRTUOUS CITIZEN.

these having not the law, are a law unto themselves: which There are two qualities which ought always to

show the work of the law written in their hearts, their con

science also bearing witness, and their thoughts the meandistinguish a virtuous citizen: he ought, in the while accusing or else excusing one another." high offices of state, to maintain the honor and pre-eminence of his country, and in all times and

WHAT IS GOOD IN THEE IS OF GOD. circumstances to show kindly feelings; these are

Most men are bad; whatever good thing thou dependent upon nature, but abilities and successo

doest, ascribe to God. are the gifts of another power.

So Philippians (ii. 18)—"For it is God which worketh in you, both to will and to do of His good pleasure;” and Sirach (vi. 37)—" Let thy mind meditate continually on God's com. mandments: He shall establish thine heart, and give theo

wisdom at thine own desire."
DIOGENES surnamed Laërtius, from the town of
Laerta in Cilicia wrote the “Lives of the Philoso-
phers." When he lived is unknown, but probably DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS.
he belonged to the second century of our era.


DIONYSICS, a celebrated writer on Latin antiqui. God is the creator of the universe, and also the ties, was a native of Halicarnassus, and came to father of all things, in common with all, and a

Rome about B.C. 29, at the close of the civil wars. part of him penetrating all thing

Here he continued for twenty-two years, making CHAOS.

himself acquainted with the customs and trans

actions of the Romans. His work is entitled There was once a time when all things were “ Roman Antiquities," and goes back to the origin huddled together.

of the nations of Italy. It closed with the year So Genesis (1.1)-"In the beginning God created the heaven B.C. 265, the year before the first Punic war, when and the earth."

the history of Polybius properly begins. It conGRANDEUR OF THE WORLD.

tains many details on the laws and customs of

Rome, which are valuable, as they are nowhere The world is perfectly beautiful, for it is a work

else to be found. It was contained in twenty of God.

books, of which eleven only have come down to us, THE WAY TO THE GRAVE.

with some fragments of the others. They bring The way to the world below is easy, for men go the history of Rome down to B.C. 440. to it with shut eyes. So 1 Samuel (xx. 3)—"There is but a step between thee and



For the general observation is strictly correct, The impure souls are bound by the Furies in that the works of an author may be considered the chains that cannot be broken.

| representation of his mind.

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