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ness distracts the soul with the feeling of former

TO DIE IS BETTER. happiness.

But death, a better fate, has befallen me.

So Philippians (1. 21)—"To die is gain."
With silence of the tongue and cheerfulness of

THE DEMAGOGUE. look I entertained my husband. I knew in what| A thankless race you are, who try to gain honor things I ought to command my husband, and how from the mob by oratory; would that you were to yield obedience in what it behooved me.

not known to me, who reck not of injuries done to

friends if your fine speech wins you favor with the A SECOND MARRIAGE.

people. And yet they say that short time changes a wo

WEIGHT OF COUNSEL. man's unwillingness to a new love. I abhor her who, discarding from her thoughts a former hus

It is not the counsel but the speaker's worth band, loves another. For not even the mare. I that gives weight to his eloquence. which has been separated from its fellow, will

NOBILITY. easily draw the yoke; and yet the race of beasts is without articulate voice, and fails in reason, being

To be born of noble parents is a great and disless excellent by nature,

tinguishing badge among men, and the name of nobility among the illustrious advances from great

to greater still. GOD RULES WITH JUSTICE. O Jove, who rulest this revolving globe, and

THE GOOD AND THE BAD. hast thy throne above it, whoever thou art, hard To all eternity the bad can never be but bad, to be known even by conjecture, whether the ne- the good but good; nor in misfortune does man cessity of nature or the ruling mind, I adore thee; degenerate from his nature, but he is always for, proceeding by a noiseless track, thou guidest good. Is this difference from parents or from edwith justice all mortal affairs.

ucation ? To be brought up well instils, indeed, So Psalms (cxlv, 17—“The Lord is righteous in all his ways, the principles of honor; and he that is thus and holy in all His works."

taught knows, by the law of honor, what is base.

O wretched one! how miserably have thy ances-

In a large army the rabble are riotous, and the

sailors' insolence runs like wildfire; not to join in tral walls, the towers by Phæbus raised, rent the

wickedness is a crime. crisped ringlets from thy head, which thy mother fondly cherished with kisses, whence, amidst the

THE GODS. crushed bones, murder grins out, to abstain from words more shocking! O hands! which once

The gods are strong, and powerful is their law;

for by the law we judge that there are gods, and bore the dear image of thy father's, but now lie with loosened joints. O thou dear mouth! which

form our lives, having right and wrong strictly.

defined. utteredst many a pleasantry, thou hast perished; thou hast deceived me, when, flinging thyself on

PERSUASION. my couch, thou wouldst exclaim, “O mother! I Wretch that I am, why should we poor mortals shall cut off these clustering locks for thee, and to strive after sciences of all kinds as matter of duty, thy tomb shall lead bands of compeers, hailing diving into them, while we slight, as nothing thee with dear address." Thou dost not bury me, worth, Persuasion, the sole mistress o'er the minds but I, old, reft of my children, of my country, of men, refusing to pay money for that by which bury thee, dead in thy early bloom, a wretched we might persuade and gain what we wish ? corse. Alas! those fond embraces, those nursing cares, those lullabies, have all vanished. And on

THE EVENTS OF LIFE. thy tomb what verse shall the bard inscribe ?- How strange the events of human life! laws con“ This boy who lies here the Greeks once slew, trol even the Fates, changing the sternest foe to a for they feared him,"-a vorse recording the dis-kind friend, and making enemies of those who begrace of Greece.

fore were on good terms. FORTUNE.

THE BOASTED LIBERTY OF MAN. Foolish I deem him who, thinking that his state. There is no man free; for he is a slave either to is blest, rejoices in security; for fortune, like a wealth or fortune, or else the populace of the city man distempered in his senses, leaps now this way, or the laws prevent him from acting according to now that, and no man is always fortunate.

the dictates of his will.


For this is for the general good of all-individuI deem that it is of little importance to the dead als and states, that punishment should overtaka, whether he obtain costly obsequies; this is the the wicked, and that the virtuous should enjoy vain affectation of the living,

| happiness.



dren arise from vile parents, meanness grovelling To be brief, if any one in past times has reviled in the rich man's mind and generous fe

in the rich man's mind and generous feelings in women, if any one now does, or hereafter shall re

the poor. How, then, shall we discern and judge vile them, in one brief sentence I shall comprise

aright? By wealth ? we shall make use of a bad the whole: it is a breed which neither sea nor earth criterion. By poverty ? poverty has this disadvanproduces the like; he who is always with them

ith them tage: it prompts a man to evil deeds. Shall it be knows them best.

by arms ? But who, by looking to the spear, could thereby discern the dauntless heart? It is best to

leave these things to be decided as they may. For In adversity the friendship of the good shines

this man, neither great among the Argives nor most clearly; prosperity never fails in friends.

puffed up by the honors of his house, being ple

beian, has proved his nobility by nature. Will ye MAN'S EVIL MANNERS.

not, then, learn wisdom, ye who wander in the

paths of vanity ? Will ye not learn to judge the Would that the Greeks had forgotten the evil

noble by manners and by deeds ? For such men fortune 'which I now endure, but preserved the

as these discharge their duties with honor to the good in memory as they preserve my bad.

state and to their house. Mere flesh without a Shakespeare (" Henry VIII.," act iv. sc. 4) says

spirit is nothing more than statues in the Forum. "Men's evil manners live in brass; their virtues

For the strong arm does not abide the shock of We write in water."

battle better than the weak: this depends on na A RUDE HUSBAND.

ture and an intrepid mind. When a husband treats a woman roughly, it is better to die.


They are noble in appearance, but this is mere Not mine

outside; for many noble-born are base. This saying, but the sentence of the sage, Nothing is stronger than necessity.


And among all the Argives thou didst hear such

words as these-" The man obeys the wife, and My daughter, how God assigns to different men

not the wife her husband." This is shameful for fortunes different and inscrutable! But well I

the woman, that the man should not rule the ween He turns affairs upside down, bearing them

ring them household; and I hate those children who are hither and thither: one toils, another knows not

spoken of as sprung from the mother, not the toil, but ruin overwhelms bim, having no firm hold

father. For he who weds a wife of higher rank on fortune.

and nobler blood sinks into nothing, lost in her PRUDENCE.

superior splendor. No one ever grew rich on hallowed flames by idly gazing: discernment and prudence are the best

UNJUST WEALTH. of prophets.

Nature is immovable, not riches; she remains LIGHT LIES THE EARTH ON THE BRAVE.

forever and uplifts her head: but wealth unjustly

acquired, and in the possession of the base, is For, if the gods be wise, they will lay the earth

wont to flit from the house, having flourished for lightly on the grave of the brave, but cast the

some short space. craven beneath a hard mound of earth. THE UNRIGHTEOUS.

A WOMAN. No one that is unrighteous has ever prospered,

When a wrong idea possesses a woman, much but hopes of safety never forsake the just.

bitterness flows from her tongue.


WOMAN. Whether it was a god, or not a god, or something. The woman who, in her husband's absence, seeks between, who of mortals by searching to the end to set her beauty forth, mark her as a wanton; can find out?

she would not adorn her person to appear abroad

unless she was inclined to ill. THE LABORER. It is pleasant for a laborer returning from a dis

VICE HOLDS A MIRROR TO THE GOOD. tance to find things in his house aright.

Evil deeds hold up an example and mirror to the



WED NOT A VICIOUS WOMAN. There is no outward mark to note the noble, for Whoever, allured by riches or high rank, marries the inward qualities of man are never clearly to be a vicious woman is a fool; for an humble yet mod. distinguished. I have often seen a man of no est partner is better in our house than a noble worth spring from a noble sire, and worthy chil-lone.



upon us, trusting to thoughtless tumult, and Fortune rules in nuptials; for some I see to be prompt to lead with empty words the populace to a source of joy to mortals, others turn out badly.

mischief. For the smooth tongue that charms to

ill brings great evil on the city. Whereas those THE HAPPY.

who give good advice with forethought, though Whoever is able to pass through life calmly, and not i

ble to pass through life calmly and not immediately, yet eventually are of use to the labors not under affliction, we deem to be blest.

state; but the far-seeing ruler ought to look to AN UNBRIDLED TONGUE.

THE MAN OF INTEGRITY AND PRUDENCE. He had an unbridled tongue, the worst of diseases.

But another rose altogether different, not made

to please the eye, but of manly form, one who NATURE.

rarely joined the city circles, a yoeman, which O nature, how great an ill thou art among the class of men alone preserve the country, prudent, bad, but in the virtuous a safeguard.

wishing his conduct to be in harmony with bis

words, passing a pure and blameless life. BLEEP. O precious balm of sleep, thou that soothest dis

THE WISE FRIEND. ease, how pleasant thou camest to me in the time

There is no blessing like a prudent Ejend, of need! O divine oblivion of my sufferings, how

neither riches nor the power of monarchs: popular wise thou art, and a goddess to be invited by all

applause is of little value in exchange for a goverin distress!

ous friend. Shakespeare ("Henry IV.,” part ii. act iii. sc. 1) . “O sleep, O gentle sleep:

LIFE IS SWEET. Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,

To every man, even though he be a slave, the That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down,

| light of heaven is sweet. And steep my senses in forgetfulness." MAN THAT IS FORTUNATE IN HIS CHILDREN.

WOMEN. Happy the man who is blest in his children, and! For women are formed by nature to feel some hath not in them experienced grievous calamities. consolation in present troubles, by having them

always in their mouth and on their tongue. A HAPPY MARRIAGE.

WOMAN BROOKS NOT A RIVAL. Life is blest to those whose connubial state is well arranged; but to those to whom it falls not! Woman is prone by nature to jealousy, and out well, their affairs are unfortunate at home and brooks not a rival in the nuptial bed. abroad.


For those who are puffed up with pride ill
Friends should assist friends in misfortunes; brook the speech of their inferiors though urged
when fortune smiles, what need of friends ? For with reason.
God himself sufficeth, being willing to assist.


Strange that one of the gods should have given When the excited populace is in full fury, it is healing medicines against the venom of savage seras difficult to control them as it is to extinguish a pents, yet none have found a cure against a bad rolling flame; but if we yield to their violence as woman, more noxious than the viper or fire itself; it is spreading, watching our opportunity, they so pestilent an ill are we to men. may perhaps exhaust their rage, and, as their fury abates, thou may then turn them as thou pleasest.

GLORY. Their passions vary, now melting to pity, now! Glory, O glory! thou hast uplifted high in life rough with rage, affording an excellent advantage countless mortals who were naught: those I deem to one who watches carefully his opportunity to be happy who have acquired glory truthfully;

but those who have it falsely I consider to have it A FRIEND IN NEED.

not; it is the mere wantonness of fortune that has In distress a friend comes like a calm to the tem-given it to them. pest-tossed mariner.


Those who only wear the semblance of worth Since the man who melts with social sympathy, have splendid outsides, but within are found like though not allied in blood, is more valuable as a other men, unless they gain some eminenc for friend than ten thousand kinsmen.

wealth; this, indeed, hath mighty power. THE SMOOTH TONGUE.

THE DAUGHTER OF A BAD MOTHER, After him rises up a man of licentious tongue, Before his nuptials, I warned my son not to intemperate, an Argive, yet not an Argive, forced | form alliance with thee, nor receive within his

house the foal of a bad mother, for such bring

VIRTUOUS LIFE. with them their mother's faults; wherefore re-l Virtuous and noble deeds are better than high member this, ye wooers, make your brides daugh-I descent. ters of a virtuous mother.


| If thou wilt not restrain thy tongue, it will From a small beginning the tongue excites bring evil upon thee. mighty strife among men; but the prudent guard against contention with their friends.


Do you think that a land can prosper where the SOCIAL INTERCOURSE.

whole government is in the hand of the poor, Social intercourse is the teacher of all things to l without any admixture of the rich? The rich mortals.

and poor should not be separate; but there should OLD AGE.

be a mixture, that the country may prosper. For The race of old men is by nature hasty and im

the rich supply what the poor have not; and what patient of control, through choler.

we rich men do not possess, we can obtain by em

ploying the poor. THE PASSIONATE.

WICKED ACTIONS OF MEN. If he be passionate, he will meet with passion,

u, Do you think that the evil deeds of men fly on and shall receive deeds in return for deeds.

wings to heaven, and are there registered in the So Matt. (v. 21)—“Ye have heard that it was said by them books of Jove, and that he, examining each, inflicts of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill punishment on men ? If it were so, the whole shall be in danger of the judgment: but I say unto you, that

expanse of heaven would not be sufficient to conwhosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment."

tain the sins of mankind, nor could Jove have

time to read and punish each. Yet Vengeance, if A VOICE AND NOTHING MORE.

we only carefully watch, dwells always near us. What thou sayest I bear unmoved; for thou

O woman, the gods send this to take vengeance on

woman, the hast a voice void of power, like a shadow: thou / those men whom they hate, for no bad man is be

loved by them. canst do naught but talk. CALAMITIES SOONER OR LATER.

VENGEANCE OVERTAKES THE WICKED. Calamities sent by the gods come to all mortals! Whoever

mortals! Whoever thinks that he can go on committing sooner or later.

sin without the knowledge of the gods, acts fool80 Proverbs (xvi. 33)—“The lot is cast into the lap; but

ishly; he will be overtaken, when Vengeance finds the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord.”

leisure, and will suffer for all his former misdeeds.


VENGEANCE SLOW OF FOOT. But never, never (for I shall repeat it more than Vengeance comes not openly, either upon you once), should the wise allow females to frequent or any wicked man, but steals silently and impertheir house; they are instructors to evil deeds. ceptibly, placing his foot on the bad. One corrupts the wife to make gain by it; another, who has fallen from virtue, wishes to make her

FORTUNE ATTENDS ON THE WISE. vile like herself; and many do this from mere

Experience has shown that whoever first uttered wantonness; hence the homes of men are ruined. I the proverb was right when he said “ that Fortune Against such let him guard well his gates with l is the constant attendant on the wise and prubolts and bars; for these visits of women from dent." without do no good, but abundant ill.


Various are the inclinations of man: one desires Seest thou not what various fates the Divinity makes man to pass through, changing and turning high birth, but wishes to be possessed of much

to be considered noble; another cares nothing for them from day to day.

wealth. Others, long for eloquence to persuade

their audience to anything, however audacious. TIME.

Others, again, prefer gain to honor; so dissimilar Time will discover everything to posterity: it is

18 are men. For my own part, I care for none of a babbler, and speaks even when no question is these, but pray for a good name and reputation. put. FATHERLAND.

A BAD BEGINNING BRINGS A BAD ENDING. What is more dear to a man than his fatherland ? A bad ending follows a bad beginning.

DEATH THE FATE OF ALL. The debt of nature must be paid, even by the All must die; it is wisdom to submit with paman who remains at home, away from all dangers. tience to the common lot.


CHILDREN LIKE THEIR FATHER. - Of his private history very little information, on Son of Creon, how true is the observation, that which reliance can be put, has come down to us. noble children spring from noble fathers; and that

s: and that He was the son of Lyxes and Dryo, being descended the children of the bad are like in nature to their

from a family not less distinguished for its wealth parents.

and political influence than for its love of litera

ture. His uncle, Panyasis, was highly esteemed as NEVER DESPAIR.

an epic poet. The tyranny of Lygdamis drove him The wise should possess their lives in hope. from his native town, and though he assisted in

delivering his country, the disputes among the citGOD DEPRIVES OF REASON HIM WHOM HE WISHES izens after their liberation were so little to his TO DESTROY.

taste that he withdrew again, and settled at Thurii, When God is contriving misfortunes for man, in the south of Italy, where he spent the remainder He first deprives him of his reason.

of his life, and wrote, according to Pliny, his work

in his old age. According to Lucian, Herodotus PLEASANT TO REMEMBER PAST LABORS. read his work to the assembled Greeks at Olympia, How pleasant it is for him who is saved to re- B.C. 456, with the great applause of the audience, member bis danger.

in consequence of which the nine books of the

work have been honored with the name of the A FATHER'S ADVICE TO HIS SON.

Nine Muses. He also states that Thucydides, In the first place, thou must have a gentle dispo- then about fifteen or sixteen years of age, was sition: pay respect to all, giving the rich not more present at this recitation, and was moved to tears, than an equal portion: be not opinionative when To this work we are indebted for our knowledge one of two things must be determined: get not of the origin and progress of the Persian monarchy; riches by unjust means, if thou wishest them to of that of the Medes and Assyrians. continue in thy family, for riches unjustly acquired quickly vanish; yet try to get them, for riches and

SEEING BETTER THAN HEARING. high descent enable a man to marry well: in pov- I am satisfied that we are less convinced by erty there is dishonor, even though a man be wise, what we hear than by what we see. and also disgrace: get friends who are not willing to yield to thy wishes, and shut the bars of thy

ATTEND TO OUR OWN AFFAIRS. doors against the wicked, who are anxious to gratify thy desires: love the conversation of those

Many are the precepts recorded by the sages for

our instruction, but we ought to listen to none who are older than thyself, and hate those of in

with more attention than that, “It becomes a man temperate habits, only pleasant to joke with; the

to give heed to those things only which regard enjoyment of unholy pleasure is of short duration.

" himself.” ENVY.

LIFE IS NOTHING BUT MISERY. Who was the mother or father that produced ill- | Thng. Crosus, does our nature appear an uninomened envy, such a great ill to mortals? Where terrupted

terrupted series of misfortunes. does she dwell, and in what part of the body? Is

So Ecclesiastes (1. 14)—"I have seen all the works that are she in our hands, or heart, or eyes ? What a dread- done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity and Fexation of ful labor for physicians to remove this greatest of spirit.” all diseases in men, whether by the knife, by potions, or drugs!


The man of affluence is not, in fact, more happy PEACE.

than the possessor of a bare competency; unless, Peace, thou richest and most beautiful of the lin addition to his wealth, the end of his life be happy gods, the envy of all, why dost thou,loiter ? | fortunate. We often see misery dwelling in the I fear lest old age overtake me with its ailments midst of splendor, whilst real happiness is found before I behold thy delightful produce, songs with in humbler stations. the dance and garland-crowned revellings. Thou benignant goddess, visit my city, and drive off

THE HAPPY MA from my house bloody sedition and frantic contention, delighting in the sharp-pointed sword.

The rich man, indeed, is better able to indulge

his passions, and to bear up against any harm that GOD HELPS THEM THAT HELP THEMSELVES. may befall him. The poor man's condition preCall in self-help, then ask the gods to aid,

vents him from enjoying such advantages; but For the gods aid the man who helps himself.

then, as a set-off, he may possess strength of body, freedom from disease, a mind relieved from many of the ills of life, is blessed in his children, and

active in his limbs. If he shall, besides, end his HERODOTUS.

life well, then, O Cræsus, this is the happy man,

about whom thou art curiously inquiring. Call BORN B.C. 484-WAS ALIVE B.C. 408.

no man happy till thou knowest the end of his HERODOTUS, the father of history, was a native life; up till that moment he can only be called of Halicarnassus, a town of Caria, in Asia Minor. I fortunate.

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