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CHARACTER OF TYRANTS. It is the part of wisdom to wait to see the For insolence is the natural result of great prosSnal result of things; for God often tears up by perity, while envy and jealousy are innate the roots the prosperous, and overwhelms with qualities in the mind of man. When these two misery those who have reached the highest pin- vices are combined, they lead to the most nacle of worldly happiness.

enormous crimes: some atrocities are committed

from insolence, and others from envy. Princes HEAVY PUNISHMENTS FOR GREAT CRIMES.

ought to be superior to all such feelings; but, alas! The gods inflict heavy punishment on great we know that this is not the case. The noble and crimes.

the worthiest are the object of their jealousy, So Psalms (xlv. 18)—"Come, behold the works of the Lord merely because they feel that their lives are a what desolations He hath made in the earth. He maketh reproach to them; with the most abandoned they Fars to cease unto the end of the earth; He breaketh the

rejoice to spend their time. Calumny they drink bow. and cutteth the spear in sunder; fie burneth the charict in the fire. Be still, and know that I am God."

in with greedy ears. But what is the most par

adoxicai of all, if thou showest them merely ALL WORK AND NO PLAY MAKEI JACK A DULL respectful homage, they take umbrage because BOY.

thou art not sufficiently humble; whereas, if thou They who are skilled in archery bend their bow bend the knee with the most submissive looks, only when they are preparing to use it; when they thou art kicked away as a flatterer. do not require it, they allow it to remain unbent,

. ENVY. for otherwise it would be unserviceable when the

Envy is implanted by nature in man. time for using it arrived. So it is with man. If

So Proverbs (xiv. 80)-"Envy is the rottenness of the bones." he were to devote himself unceasingly to a dull round of business, without breaking the monotony

FORCE OF LITTLE AVAIL. by cheerful amusements, he would fall imperceptibly into idiocy, or be struck by paralysis. It is

For where wisdom is required, force is of little the conviction of this truth that leads to the proper division of my time.


WITH THE BODY. Such is the force of custom; and Pindar seems

For the powers of the mind gather strength with to me to have spoken with peculiar propriety those of the body; and in the same way, as old age when he observed that custom was the universal creeps on, they get weaker and weaker. till they Rovereign.

are finally insensible to everything. UPS AND DOWNS OF LIFE.

BENEFITS OF DISCUSSION. It is no doubt pleasant to hear of the prosperity

e y


Unless a variety of opinions are laid before us, of a friend and ally; but, as I know the envious

we have no opportunity of selection, but are bound nature of Fortune, and how jealous she is of our

of necessity to adopt the particular view which success, thou must not be surprised that I feel

may have been brought forward. The purity of some apprehensions respecting thee. In fact, if I

gold cannot be ascertained by a single specimen ; could be allowed to choose for myself, and for those dear to me. I should prefer that the galeers, we are able to fix upon the finest ore.

but when we have carefully compared it with othblew sometimes favorable and sometimes adverse. I would rather that my life was checkered with

So Thomson ("Liberty," Part ii.) good and evil than that I should enjoy an unin

* Friendly free discussion calling forth terrupted course of good fortune. I do not re

From the fair jewel Truth its latent ray. member of having ever heard of a man remarkable

DELIBERATION AND FORETHOUGHT. for a long run of good luck who did not in the end close his life with some extraordinary calamity. For my own part, I have found from experience II, then, thou wilt attend to my advice, thou wilt that the greatest good is to be got from forethought provide the following remedy against the excess

and deliberation; even if the result is not such as of thy prosperity. Consider in thy own mind on we exp

we expected, at all events we have the feeling that what thou placest the highest value, and the loss we have done all in our power to merit success, of which thou wouldst most deplore: cast this and therefore the blame must be attached to fortfrom thee, so that there may be no possibility of une alone. The man who is foolish and inconsidits return. If thy good fortune still continue,

erate, even when fortune shines upon him, is not thou wilt do well to repeat the remedy.

the less to be censured for his want of sense. Dost

thou not see how the thunderbolts of heaven lay BETTER TO BE ENVIED THAN PITIED. prostrate the mightiest animals, while they pass Thou hast learned by experience how much

over the weak and insignificant? The most splenbetter it is to be envied than pitied.

did palaces and the loftiest trees fall before these

weapons of the gods. For God loves to humble POWER IS PRECARIOUS.

the mighty. So also we often see a powerful army Power, which many so assiduously court, is in melt away before the more contemptible force. its nature precarious.

For when God in His wrath sends His terrors among them, they perish in a way that is little! So Luke (vi. 83)_"And if ye do good to them which do good worthy of their former glory. The Supreme Being to you, what thank have yer for sinners also do even the

same." allows no one to be infinite in wisdom but Him

ENVY. self.

One man envies the success in life of another, So Psalms (cxlvii. 5, 6)—“Great is our Lord, and of great power: His understanding is infinite. The Lord lifteth up the land hates him in secret; nor is he willing to give meek: He casteth the wicked down to the ground." And him good advice when he is consulted, except it be Mark (x. 27)—“With God all things are possible."

by some wonderful effort of good feeling, and

there are, alas! few such men in the world. A real CALUMNY.

friend, on the other hand, exults in his friend's Calumny is a monstrous vice; for, where parties happiness, rejoices in all his joys, and is ready to indulge in it, there are always two that are actively afford him his best advice. engaged in doing wrong, and one who is subject to

So James (iii. 16)—“Where envying is, there is confusion injury. The calumniator inflicts wrong by slan-Land every evil work » dering the absent; he who gives credit to the calumny, before he has investigated the truth, is

PRUDENCE AND RASHNESS. equally implicated. The person traduced is doubly | injured-first by him who propagates, and secondly

Those who are guided by reason are generally by him who credits, the calumny.

successful in their plans; those who are rash and

precipitate seldom enjoy the favor of the gods. DREAMS.

So Ecclesiastes (v. 2)—"Be not rash with thy mouth, and Dreams, in general, take their rise from those in

m let not thine heart be hasty to utter anything before God: for

| God is in heaven, and thou upon earth; therefore let thy 'cidents which have most occupied the thoughts words be few." during the day.


| For the power of a king is superhuman, and his Brief as this life is, there is no one in the multi-ha

- hand is very long. tude, nor yet in the whole universe, that has been so happy at all times as not repeatedly to have THE WILL OF PROVIDENCE CANNOT BE RESISTED. prayed for death rather than life. Heavy trials in

My friend, it is vain for man to contend with the worldly affairs, the pangs of disease, render the

will of Providence; though the words of the wise short span of life of too long duration. Thus

are seldom listened to. Many of the Persians death, when life becomes a burden, is a delightful hiding-place for wearied man; and the Divinity, 1)

think as I do, but, forced by necessity. they yield

to what they find it impossible to avoid. This is by giving us pleasures, and thereby inducing us to

one of the saddest evils to which mankind is subwish for length of days, may in reality be consid

ject, that the advice of the wise is little attended ered as doing us an injury.


So Hebrews (xii. 5)—“My son, despise not thou the chasten ing of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him."

CIRCUMSTANCES COMMAND MEN. Remember that men are dependent on circumstances, and not circumstances on men.

GREAT RESULTS FROM GREAT DANGERS. Great results usually arise from great dangers.

80 Acts (xiv, 22)—“That we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God."


AND CLIMATE OF THE COUNTRY. It is a law of Nature that faint-hearted ner should be the fruit of luxurious countries, for we never find that the same soil produces delicacies and heroes.

“WE KNOW IN PART." Can one who is mortal be infallible ? I believe

HESIOD. that he cannot. So 1 Corinthians (xiii. 9)—"For we know in part and we

FLOURISHED PROBABLY ABOUT B.C. 850. prophesy in part.”

HESIOD, a celebrated poet, was a native of Ascra

in Bæotia, whither his father had emigrated fron INACTIVITY CONDEMNED.

the Æolian Cuma, in Asia Minor. The early year It is better by a noble boldness to run the risk of the poet were spent in the mountains of Bæd of being subject to half of the evils which we an- tia, in the humble capacity of a shepherd; but bi ticipate, than to remain in cowardly listlessness circumstances seem to have improved, as we fin for fear of what may happen.

him engaged on the death of his father, in a law So 1 Thessalonians (i. 6)—"Having received the Word in suit with his brothers, respecting the property let much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost."

| by his father. The judges of Ascra gave judgmen

against him, and in consequence of this he left hi A WISE MAN RECEIVES A KINDNESS.

native city, and retired to Orchomenos, where h Wherefore it is not to be supposed that a wise spent the remainder of his life. The ancients al man should refuse a kindness that is offered to tributed to Hesiod a variety of works, but few d him, but rather be anxious to embrace it.

I them have come down to us. The “Works an

Days” is considered the most valuable, not so scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. He much from its own intrinsic worth as for having hath put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them suggested to Virgil the idea of the Georgics. Its

of low degree. He hath filled the hungry with good things;

and the rich He hath sent empty away."
style is plain and homely, without much poetical
imagery or ornament; but it must be looked upon
as the most ancient specimen of didactic poetry.


Emulation is good for mankind.
The people all look up to him as he administers

THE ENVIOUS. justice with impartial judgment; with wise words quickly he calms even the wildest tumult, for The potter envies the potter, the carpenter the kings are endued with wisdom that they may carpenter, the poor is jealous of the poor, and the easily quell factious deeds when the people are bard of the bard. misled by demagogues, soothing them with soft words; as he goes through the city all hail him as

HALF BETTER THAN THE WHOLE. a god, with gentlest awe, and he stands conspicuous midst the assembled council.

Fools that they are, they know not how much

the half is better than the whole, nor how great THE BARD.

pleasure there is in wholesome herbs-the mallow Blessed is he whom the Muses love! sweetly do and the asphodel. his words flow from his lips. Is there one afflicted with fresh sorrow, pining away with deep grief ?

GOD LAUGHS AT VAIN DESIGNS. then if the minstrel, servant of the Muses, sings Thus he spoke; and the sire of men and gods the glorious deeds of men of yore, the praise of out-laughed. the blessed gods who dwell in Olympus, quickly! So Psalms (ii. 4)—“He that sitteth in the heavens shall does he forget his sorrows, nor remembers aught laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.” And Milton, of all his griefs; for the gifts of these goddesses “Paradise Lost " (Bk. v. 735) swiftly turn his woes away.

“Mighty Father, thou my foes

Justly hast in derision, and secure,

Laugh'st at their vain designs and tumults vain."
As when bees in close-roofed hives feed the
drones, partners in evil deeds, the former all day

THE WORLD FULL OF ILLS. long, to the setting sun, their murmuring labors For the earth is full of woes, and also the sea; ply, filling the pure combs; while the drones, re-diseases go about noiselessly, bearing of themmaining within, reap the labors of others for their selves sorrows to mortals night and day, since Jove own waws.

has taken from them the power of speech; so im

possible is it to avoid the will of Jove. SLEEP AND DEATH. There dwell Sleep and Death, dread gods, the

EASY DEATH. progeny of gloomy Night; the sun never looks

They died as if overcome with sleep. upon them with its bright rays, neither when he mounts the vault of heaven nor when he descends;

GUARDIAN SPIRITS. the former in silence passes over the earth and the wide expanse of sea, giving pleasure to mortals;

These are the aërial spirits of great Jove, benof the other. iron is the heart, and his brazen | eficent, walking over the earth, guardians of manbreast is merciless; whomsoever of men he first kind; they watch our actions, good seizes he holds, and is hostile even to the immortal passing everywhere over the earth, invisible to gods.

mortal eyes; such royal privilege they possess.

So Psalms (xci. 11)_"For He shall give His angels charge FATE OF MAN DETERMINED BY GOD. over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways." By whom mortal men are raised to fame or live obscurely, noble or ignoble, by the will of Jove;

JUSTICE AND RIGHT PREVAIL. with ease he lifts or brings low, with ease he dims For insolence is unsuited to wretched mortals, the brightest name and ennobles the meanest; often even the high and powerful allow themselves with ease bigh-thundering Jove, who dwells on to be carried away by arrogance, and, yielding to high, makes the crooked straight and unnerves the this feeling, subject themselves to misery and

losses. On the other hand, the road leading to

justice is the safer; justice at last gets the better 80 1 Samuel (ii. 7, 8)—“The Lord maketh poor, and maketh

over wrong: this truth even the fool knows by rich: He bringeth low, and lifteth up. He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from


the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the

THE UPRIGHT GOVERNOR. Lord's, and he hath set the world upon them.” And Psalms Those who administer the laws with justice to (cxiii. 7, 8)—"He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and Lifteth the needy out of the dunghill; that He may set him

strangers and natives, never transgressing what is with princes, even with the princes of His people." And Luke, right, by the

right, by these the city flourishes in peace, and the (1.51–53)" He hath showed strength with His arm: He hath people prosper. Peace is a good nursing-mother


to the land, nor does far-seeing Jove send among

EVIL GAINS EQUAL TO A LOS8. them troublous war.

1 Do not make unjust gains; they are equal to a

loss. A SINNER. Oft a whole state suffers for the acts of a bad

EVERY LITTLE ADDS TO THE HEAP. man, who breaks the laws of heaven and devises For if thou addest little to little, and doest 80 evil. On them Jove brings great calamity, both often, soon it will become a great help to him famine and pestilence, and the people perish. who gathers, and he will thus keep off keen hun


“ONE SOWETH AND ANOTHER REAPETH." What calamities does a man contriving evil for

They reap the labors of others, for their own his neighbor bring upon himself! An evil design |

belly. is worst for the contriver. The eye of Jove, that

Callimachus, the poet of Alexandria (circ. 200 B.C.), has a sees and knows all things, looks upon these things

| line in his “Hymn to Ceres " (137) if he wills it, nor is it concealed from him what

"And those who ploughed the field shall reap the corn." kind of justice a state administers..

Thomas Fuller, an excellent quoter of and commentator on

proverbs, better than any moralist we know, purveys an antiROAD TO WICKEDNESS EASILY FOUND.

dote to bitterness at seeing others reap what we ourselves It is easy for thee to get associates in wicked- have sown, in his “Holy State." "The preacher of the

Word," he says, “is in some places like the planting of ness; the road is smooth, and the dwellers are all

woods, where, though no profit is received for twenty years around thee. But the immortal gods have placed

together, it comes afterwards. And grant that God honoreth the sweat of the brow before virtue: long and not thee to build His temple in thy parish, yet thou mayest steep is the path that leads to it, and rough at with David provide metals and materials for Solomon thg first; but when the summit is reached, then it is

successor to build it with.” easy, however difficult it may have been. That

MONEY IS LIFE. man is by far the wisest who is able of himself, to

| Money is life to us wretched mortals. determine what is best both for the present moment and for the future: next, he is wise who

HOW TO CHOOSE A WIFE. yields to good advice; but he that is not wise him- In the spring-time of life, neither much above self, nor can hearken to wisdom, is a good-for-nor below thirty, lead home thy wife. Marriage nothing man.

at this age is seasonable. Thy wife should be in

her nineteenth year. Marry a virgin, that thou Milton, in his “Essay on Education," seems to have im. itated this passage-"I shall detain you now no longer in the

mayest teach her discreet manners, and be sure to demonstration of what we should not do, but straight conduct marry thy neighbor's daughter, acting with all you to a hill-side, where I will point you out the right path of prudence, lest thou niarry one who may prove a a virtuous and noble education; laborious indeed at the first

source of pleasure to thy neighbors. For there is ascent, but also so smooth, so green, so full of goodly pros

nothing better than a good wife, and nothing pect and melodious sounds on every side, that the harp of Orpheus was not more charming."

worse than a bad one, who is fond of gadding

about. Such a one roasts her husband, stoutTHE SLUGGARD.

hearted though he may be, without a fire, and Both gods and men are indignant with him who hands

iront with him who hands him over to a premature old age. lives a sluggard's life like to the stingless drones,

A SPARING TONGUE. who lazily consume the labors of the bees.

The best treasure among men is a frugal tongue, LABOR NO DISGRACE.

and that which moves measurably is hung with

most grace. Work is no disgrace, but idleness is a disgrace.

So Proverbs (xv. 23)—“A word spoken in due season, how

good is it!" SHAME.

AN EVIL REPORT. It is not well for false shame to accompany the There is also an evil report; light, indeed, and needy, shame that both injures greatly and aids easy to raise, but difficult to bear, and still more mankind; false shame leads to poverty, but con- Loifficult to get rid of. fidence to wealth; wealth should not be got by plunder: what is given by God is far better.

So Ecclesiasticus (iv. 21)—“For there is a shame that bringeth sin; and there is a shame which is glory and grace."



FLOURISHED ABOUT B.C. 320. A bad neighbor is as great a misfortune as a

HIPPARCHUS, an Athenian comic poet of the

new comedy, was a contemporary of Diphilus and good one is a blessing.


SKILL. Return love for love, and assist him who assists By far the most valuable possession of all to all thee; give to him who gives to thee, and give not men for life is skill. Both war and the chances of to him who gives not.

fortune destroy other things, but skill is preserved.



I his heart it still is nursed till the time arrive for HIPPONAX of Ephesus flourished in the 6th his revelige. century B.C. He is placed third, after Archilochus and Simonides, among the classic iambic

A PROPHET OF ILL. poets of Greece.

Thou prophet of ill, thou never speakest what

| is pleasing; ever dost thou take delight to augur THE TWO PLEASANTEST DAYS OF WOMEN. The two pleasantest days of a woman are her! So also in 1 Kings (xxii. 8)—"And the King of Israel said marriage day and the day of her funeral.

unto Jehoshaphat, There is yet one man, Micaiah the son of Imlah, by whom we may inquire of the Lord: but I hate him; for he doth not prophesy good concerning me, but evil."


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I wish rather my people's safety, than that they at so remote a period that his existence is consid- should perish ered by some as a myth. At all events, he lived

So Ezekiel (xxxiii. 11)-"Say unto them, As I live, saith the beyond what may be regarded the strictly histor

Lord God, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked; but ical epoch of Greek literature, the date of the pe- that the wicked turn from his way and live;" and 2 Peter (iii. riod when he flourished varying no less than 5009)—"The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some years (from B.C. 1184-684). Many towns claimed men count slackness: but is long-suffering to us-ward, not to be his birth-place, but Smyrna seems to have

willing that any should perish, but that all should come to


repentance; " and 1 Timothy (ii. 4)—"Who will have all men established the best claim: he is said to have died to

aid to have died to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth." at Ios, one of the Cyclades.


If thou art stronger, some deity, I believe, has O goddess! sing of the deadly wrath of Achilles, bestowed this gift on thee. son of Peleus, which brought unnumbered woes

The idea is found in Jeremiah (ix. 23)—"Thus saith the upon the Greeks, and hurled untimely many val- | Lord, Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let iant heroes to the viewless shades.

the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man So Proverbs (xxvii. 4)—"Wrath is cruel, and anger is out

glory in his riches;” and in 1 Corinthians (iv. 7)—"For who rageous."

maketh thee to differ from another? and what hast thou

that thou didst not receive? now if thou didst receive it, why “THE COUNSEL OF THE LORD.”

dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?" And yet the will of Jove was being accom

. THE GODS. plished. So Psalms (xxxiii. 11)_"The counsel of the Lord standeth

Those who revere the gods, the gods will bless. forever, the thoughts of His heart to all generations."

So Proverbs (XV. 29)—"The Lord is far from the wicked: but He heareth the prayer of the righteous;" and John (ix, 31)

** Now we know that God heareth not sinners; but if any man A PESTILENCE.

be a worshipper of God, and doeth His will, him He heareth." For Apollo, enraged at the king, sent throughout the host a deadly pestilence, and the people


Yea, by this sceptre, which shall never again So 2 Samuel (xxiv. 15)—“So the Lord sent a pestilence upon put forth leaves and branches, since first it left Israel, from the morning even to the time appointed, and its parent trunk upon the mountain-side, nor will there died of the people, from Dan even ti Beersheba, seventy lit blossom more, since all around, in very truth. thousand men.”

has the axe lopped both leaf and bark; and now

'tis borne emblem of justice by the sons of the A DREAM.

Greeks, those who watch over the laws received Come now let us consult some prophet or priest, from Jove. or some vision-seer, since even visions are from Jove.

WORDS SWEETER THAN HONEY. 80 Numbers (xii. 6)/" And he said, Hear now my words: From whose tongue, also, flowed the stream of if there be a prophet among you, I the Lord will make my

speech sweeter than honey. self known unto him in a vision, and will speak unto him in a dream."

So Psalms (cxix. 103)—“How sweet are thy words unto my

| taste! yea, sweeter than honey to my mouth!" TO KNOW THE PAST, THE PRESENT, AND FUTURE.

Who knew the present, the future, and the past.
In Isaiah (xli. 23) we have-"Shew the things that are to

In very truth, what joy for Priam, and the sors come hereafter, that we may know that ye are gods." of Priam, and what exultation for the men of

Troy, if they should hear of feuds between you! THE ANGER OF A KING.

So Psalms (lxxxix. 42)—"Thou hast set up the right hand of

his adversaries; thou hast made all his enemies to rejoice; " For a king is the more powerful of the two when

and 2 Samuel (i. 20—"Publish it not in the streets of Askelon; he is enraged with a man of low degree; for I lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters though he may veil his wrath for awhile, yet in of the uncircumcised triumph."

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