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consider the matter; the moth eats away the gar
A FATHER. ment; the worm gnaws the wood. But of all the
| How delightful is a father, gentle and cheerful ills of life, the worst is envy, which has done, will
in his manners!
How pleasant a thing it is for brothers to dwell Whosoever lends a greedy ear to a slanderous together in unity! report is either himself of a radically bad disposi- So Psalms (cxxxiii. 1)" Behold, how good and how pleastion, or a mere child in sense.
ant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!" SILENCE.
FOLLY OF PRIDING ONESELF ON HIGH BIRTH. O boy hold thy tongue, silence has many advan- | My bigh birth suffocates me. If thou love me, tages.
mother, thou wilt not on all occasions quote my
high rank; it is those only who have no peculiar COUNTRY LIFE.
good in their own nature who have recourse to The life of those who live in the country pos- splendid monuments and their noble birth, and sesses pleasures, comforting the sorrows and an- who count up all their ancestors who have prenoyances of man with hope.
ceded them. But thou canst not see nor name a
man who has not had ancestors. For how otherLISTEN BEFORE DECIDING.
wise could they have come into existence? Those He who condemns before he has heard clearly who are not able to name them, from change of the case is himself a bad man, ready to believe ill country or want of friends, why are they less of his neighbor.
noble than those who can enumerate them? He
who is by nature good and virtuous, though he be IMPUDENCE.
a blackamoor, is noble-born. Is some Scythian a There is no better provision for life than impu- rascal? Yet was not Anacharsis a Scythian? dence and a brazen face.
THE WELL-BORN IN ADVERSITY.
Those who have been well born, and honorably
TRUE RICHES. Peace gives food to the husbandman, even in the It is the mind that ought to be rich: for the midst of rocks; war brings misery to him, even in riches of this world only feed the eyes, and serve the most fertile plains.
merely as a veil to cover the realities of life. A BARREN COUNTRY.
THE WIFE OUGHT TO GIVE WAY TO THE HUSBAND. The country which is cultivated with difficulty produces brave men.
The wife ought to play the second part, the hus
band ruling in everything; for there is no family WOMAN.
in which the wife has had the upper hand that Where are women, there are all kinds of mis- has not gone to ruin.
HAPPINESS AND PAIN EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED. AN ATTACHED SERVANT.
There are men who seem to the world around to When one has got an attached servant, there is be happy: but, inwardly, men are very much alike. bo nobler possession on earth.
AN OLD WOMAN. WIFE AND CHILDREN. To have a wife, and to be the father of children. It is much worse to irritate an old woman than brings many anxieties to life.
a dog. A WIFE IS A NECESSARY EVIL.
SANITARY LAWS. To marry a wife, if we regard the truth, is an The plague dwells where the sanitary laws are evil, but it is a necessary evil.
When a malicious man puts on a kind and to be pitied.
| agreeable manner, it is a mere trap set for his
neighbor. A FATHER.
TITTLE-TATTLE. It is not difficult to know a father, for he loves much; is also irritated at the smallest faults in There is nothing so pleasant to men as to talk
Tof the affairs of their neighbors.
those he loves.
THE DIVINE NATURE.
| buried with the silent dead; but it has appeared Do not search into the essence of the Divine good to the nymphs that the frog should croak fornature; for thou art impious, wishing to know
ever. Yet I do not envy him: for 'tis no pretty what God has not revealed.
song he sings.
In Job (xiv, 7) we find—“There is hope of a tree, if i tbe cut GOD IS TO BE PROPITIATED BY A PURE HEART. down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch
thereof will not cease. Though the root thereof wax old in If any one, offering sacrifices of numerous bulls the earth, and the stock thereof die in the ground; yet through and of goats, or, by Jupiter, of any such things, | the scent of water it will bud and bring forth boughs like a or making presents of gold or purple robes, or im- plant. But man dieth and wasteth away: yea, man giveth ages of ivory or emerald, think thereby to propiti
; up the ghost, and where is he?".
Spenser says ate God, he errs, and shows himself to be of a
“Whence is it that the flow'ret of the field doth fade silly understanding; for he ought to be a virtuous
And lieth buried long in winter's vale! and upright man, committing no crimes for the Yet soon as spring his mantle hath displayed, sake of gain. Thou shouldst not even covet a It flow'reth fresh, as it should never fail, needle, Pamphilus; for God, standing near thee,
But thing on earth that is of most avail,
As virtue's branch and beauty's bud, sees whatever thou doest.
Reliven not for any good.”
A BIRD OVER HER YOUNG. Gold is tried by fire; so also the affections of a As when a bird bewails her callow brood as they friend is proved by time.
| perish, which, still young, a fierce snake devours
in the thick bushes, while she, kind mother, DUST WE ARE, AND TO DUST WE RETURN.
hovers over them, shrieking wildly, yet is not able, If thou wishest to know what thou art, look at I ween, to aid her children; for she, in truth, herthe monuments of the dead as thou passest along self is in great dread to come nearer to the cruel the road; there thou wilt find the bones and light| monster. dust of kings, and tyrants, and wise men, and of Virgil (Georg. iv., 512) has imitated this very closelythose who prided themselves on their blood and “As the sad nightingale under the shade of the poplar beriches, on their glorious deeds, and the beauty of
of wails the loss of her young, which a hard-hearted ploughman
has found unfledged in her nest and carried off, while she their person; but none of these things could re
laments the night long, and, sitting on the branch, renews sist the power of time. All men have a common her piteous song, and fills far and wide the woods with her grave. Looking at these things, thou mayest mournful complaints." understand what thou art.
WEEPING. So Genesis (iii. 19)—“For dust thou art, and unto dust shalt!
But thou meltcst away like water, weeping both thou return."
at night and as many days as are given by Jove.
Thus in Joshua (vii. 5) we find—“Wherefore the hearts of the people melted and became as water;" and in Psalms (xxii. 14)—-"I am poured out like water; my heart also in the midst of my body is like melting wax;" and Psalms (lvifi. 7)
_"Let them melt away as waters which run continually." MOSCHUS.
FLOURISHED ABOUT B.C. 210. MOSCHUS, a bucolic poet of Syracuse, lived about the close of the third century B.C., of whose personal history we know little more than that he
NICOSTRATUS. was a pupil of Bion, and was acquainted with the
FLOURISHED ABOUT B.C. 380. grammarian Aristarchus. Theocritus was his model; but he is far inferior to that poet in sim- NICOSTRATUS, the youngest of the three sons of plicity.
| Aristophanes, was also a comic poet; the titles of
nineteen of his plays have come down to us. THE DECEITFULNESS OF LOVE.
A CHATTERER. For he does not speak the same as he thinks; his word is honey; but, if he be enraged, he is
If to speak without ceasing, and much and ruthless, deceitful, never telling the truth. Wily
quickly, were the sign of sense, the swallows would child! he laughs at the beguiled.
| be regarded much wiser than we are.
NO MAN HAPPY IN EVERY RESPECT.
“No man is happy in every way." By Minerva,
beloved Euripides, thou hast described human Alas, alas! when the mallows have died in a life in on garden, or the green parsley, or blooming crisp dill, they revive and bloom another year. But we,
OLD THINGS BECOME NEW AGAIN. the great, the brave, the learned, soon as the hand Old things become new again in course of time of death has closed our eyes, unheard of, in hollow There is nothing more difficult to please than tombs sleep a right long and endless slumber, to Time. The same things never continue to please wake no more. Thou too in the earth wilt bel this god.
ADVICE. Dost thou know that freedom of speech is the It is easy for a man to give advice to his neigharms of poverty. If any one lose that, he has bor; but to follow it oneself is not so easy. As thrown away the shield of life.
a proof of this, I have known physicians lecturing their patients most eloquently on the benefits of abstinence; then, if they are themselves overtaken by disease, doing the very same things which they would not allow their patients to do. Theory and
practice are very different.
The husbandman is always to be rich the next O old age! how burdensome and grievous every- year. where art thou! only not in one thing; for when we fail in strength and power, thou teachest us at MAN AND OTHER ANIMALS CONTRASTED. that time to use our understanding with wisdom. Why, pray, did Prometheus, who, they say,
formed us and all other animals, give to each of the beasts his own peculiar nature ? All lions are brave, whereas all hares are timid. Then, as to the foxes, one is not cunning and another simple
in its nature; but if thou wert to collect three PHILEMON.
myriads of foxes, they would all have the same BORN ABOUT B.C. 360—DIED B.C. 262.
nature and the same habits. With man it is dif
ferent; whatever number of persons there are, the PHILEMON, a Greek dramatist, who stands next
next same will be found the number of minds and of to Menander among the poets of the new comedy, I charan was the son of Damon, and a native of Soli, in Cilicia. He flourished in the reign of Alexander,
THE JUST MAN. a little earlier than Menander, whom, however, he The just man is not he who does no man an inlong survived, and spent his life at Athens. His jury, but he who, being able to inflict it, does not career seems to have been singularly prosperous. wish to do so; nor yet is it the man who has abThough inferior to Menander, he was a greater stained from seizing petty gains, but who deterfavorite with the Athenians, and often conquered mines not to lay hold of great possessions, when his rival in the dramatic contests. He continued he might do so, and might hold them with imto write till he had produced ninety-seven com- punity; nor is it the man who observes all these edies. He died, it is said, from excessive laugh-things, but who, endued with a noble and ingenuter at a ludicrous incident.
| ous disposition, wishes to be just, and not merely
to seem so. NATURE OF MAN.
THE FOOL AND THE WISE MAN. How radically bad is the nature of man! for otherwise he would stand in need of no laws to ! The man who never utters a word of sense conrestrain him. Dost thou think that he differs insider to be tedious, even though he only give forth any respect from other animals? In nothing cer- two syllables. The
or two syllables. The man who speaks with prutainly, but in figure. Other animals are bent; but dence, a
dence, do not think him to be tedious, though he man is a wild beast upright in form.
speak much and long. Take Homer as a proof of
this: he writes myriads of words, yet no one ever OUR EVILS FOUND LIGHT WHEN COMPARED WITH called Homer todious. THOSE OF OTHERS.
THE SNAIL. If thou only knowest the evils which others suf
| How ingenious an animal is a snail, by God! fer, thou wouldst willingly submit to those which,
| When it falls in with a bad neighbor, it takes up thou now bearest.
its house, and moves off; for it dwells without HOW SELDOY MAN OBTAINS HIS WISHES. | anxiety, always flying the bad. If we were all to perish who did not succeed in
THE DIVINE NATURE. obtaining what we wished, all mankind would Believe that there is a God, worship Him, but die.
do not inquire too curiously into His essence; for TEARS.
thou wilt have nothing for thy trouble except the
labor of inquiry. Do not care to know whether 4. If tears proved a remedy for our misfortunes, He exists or not; worship Him as if He existed, and if he wbo wept always ceased to grieve, we and were present. would buy tears with gold. But, alas! our affairs are in no way influenced by tears, pursuing their
A SLAVE. own course whether we weep or not. What wilt Though a man be a slave, he is the same flesh as thou do, then ? B. I am in no way influenced by thyself; for no one has ever been born a slave by such thoughts; for grief, like a tree, has tears for nature; but Fortune subjected his body to serviits fruit.
We are all mad when we are in a passion; for it
FLOURISHED B.C. 335. is a difficult task to restrain anger.
PHILIPPIDES, one of the principal writers of the BYGONE EVILS.
new comedy, who flourished B.C. 335, and is said
to have written forty-five comedies. He is said to How pleasant it is to think of former evils! for
have died at an advanced age from excessive joy if I had not then been in difficulties, I would not at having con
at having conquered unexpectedly in a contest now be in joy.
with other poets. THE DIFFERENCES OF MEN.
TO COMMIT A FAULT. In this thing one man is superior to another, When thou hast committed some fault, be glad that he is better able to bear adversity and pros- that thou hast failed, for it is chiefly in this way perity.
that the becoming is preserved. WHAT WE OUGHT TO PRAY FOR.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SAYING AND DOING. I pray, first, for good health; then, for prosper. It is not difficult for one feasting to say to ity; thirdly, for happiness; and, lastly, to owe no another in a sorry plight, “Don't be miserable:" man anything.
it is not hard to find fault with a boxer fighting,
but it is no easy matter to fight; there is a great 80 Romans (xiil. 8)—“Owe no man anything."
difference between saying and doing. ANTICIPATION OF EVIL.
MAN IS BORN TO TROUBLE. Grief is apt to imagine to itself evils more than when it has happened to thee to be unfortunate, double the reality.
| master, remember the saying of Euripides, and A GIFT OF AFFECTION.
thou wilt be more easy—“There is no man who is
happy in every way.” Then imagine thyself to be Every gift which is given, even though it be one of the great crowd of mankind. small, is in reality great if it be given with affec
Time, the common physician, will heal thee. HONOR YOUR FATHER AND MOTHER. Before all things, pay respect to thy parents. So Exodus (xx. 12.)—"Honor thy father and mother." AN AFFECTIONATE FATHER.
PHILISCUS. A father is dear if he treat affectionately his
FLOURISHED ABOUT B.C. 400. children.
PHILISCUS, an Athenian comic poet of the THE SWALLOW.
middle comedy, of whom little is known. O woman! it is the swallow which announces
THE BED. the spring.
The bed usually possesses powerful reasons of GOD.
persuasion to obtain what one wishes. A. Tell me what thou understandest by God.
NOT EASY TO GAIN WITHOUT LABOR. B. The Being who sees all things, and yet is seen
O fool! it is not with ease that one can get by none.
without exertion the possessions of those who THE DEAD.
Dost thou think that the dead who have enjoyed the good things of this life have escaped the notice of the Divinity, as if they were forgotten ? Nay, there is an eye of Justice which sees all things; for we believe that there are two roads to
PINDAR. the lower regions, one for the just and one for the
BORN B.C. 522-DIED B.C. 442. impious. For if the just and the impious are to have one and the same road, and if the grave PINDAR, the greatest lyric poet of Greece, wat covers them both forever, then thou mayest rob, a native of Bæotia, born either at Thebes, the steal, plunder, and do every mischief thou capital of that country, or at Cynoscephalæ, 1 choosest. Yet do not be mistaken, for there is a village in the territory of Thebes. We know very place of judgment below, which God the Lord of little of his private history, but he belonged to all shall occupy, whose name is terrible, and one of the noblest families of his country. I which I dare not utter, who gives a long license was sent by his father to Athens, where, unde to sinne s.
| the celebrated dithyrambist, Lasos of Hermione he learned music, dancing, and all the mysteries | THE WICKED PUNISHED IN THE INFERNAL REof the chorus requisite for his training as a lyric
GIONS. poet. He also attended the school of Agathocles
But he who possesses wealth is well aware of and Apollodorus. Between the age of twenty and what is in store for him,--that the guilty souls of twenty-two Pindar began his professional career I those who die here have to dree their penance in as a poet, but in the great events that took place I another life,for there is one beneath the earth in Greece during his time, Pindar seems to have
e during his time, Pindar seems to have who judges the crimes committed in this empire taken no share.
of Zeus, passing sentence by a hateful constraint. WATER AND GOLD.
THE GOOD IN ELYSIUM. Water is the best of all things: gold, like a But the good, enjoying eternal sunshine night blazing fire that gleams conspicuous from afar in and day. på
picuous trom afar in and day, pass a life free from labor, never stirring the night, shines prominently amidst lordly I the earth by strength of hand, nor yet the waters riches.
of the sea in that blessed abode, but with the POETICAL FICTIONS.
honored of the gods, all such as took pleasure in
keeping their plighted faith, spend a tearless exTruly many things are wonderful: and it is not listence while the imnion
is not istence, while the impious have to endure woes too unlikely that in some cases fables decked out in horrible to look upon. cunning fictions beyond the truth give false accounts of the traditions of man. But Poesy, that
THE MAN OF GENIUS. smooth enchantress of mankind, by causing credit
That man is a true poet who knows much by into be given to these myths, ofttimes makes the in-herent genius, while those who have acquired credible to appear credible: the rolling years, their knowledge, loquacious, like crows, chatter however, are the surest test of truth. Now it is vainly against the divine bird of Zeus. wise for man to speak nothing unseemly of the gods, and thus he will be free from guilt.
DEEDS OF VALOR WITHOUT RISK.
Deeds of valor without risk are unhonored either
| among menor in hollow ships; whereas many Ofttimes slanderers get no good for their pains. I speak of it if a noble action has been done with GOD IS NOT TO BE DECEIVED.
labor. If a man expects that his deeds will escape the
UNCERTAINTY OF HUMAN LIFE. all-seeing eyes of God, he is mistaken.
Countless mistakes hang about the minds of LIFE NOT TO BE PASSED INGLORIOUSLY. men; and it is a difficult thing to discover what
now and also in the end is best to happen to a A danger that is great does not allow man to be
man. a coward. Since death is the fate of all men, why should we sit in the dark, and spend to no purpose MAN TURNED FROM HIS PURPOSE. a nameless life, taking no part in any glorious Now it is respectful obedience arising from foredeeds?
thought on which the merit and success of men DIFFERENCES IN MANKIND.
depend; but it sometimes happens, in an incom
prehensible way, that a cloud of forgetfulness Some are great in this, others in that; but the
others in that; but the comes over the mind, and causes the right way of highest point of glory is reached in kings.
doing things to be unattended to, and to pass WHAT IS DONE CANNOT BE UNDONE.
from the memory. Of deeds that have been done, whether rightly
THE UPS AND DOWNS OF LIFE. or wrongly, not even Time, the sire of all things, But at one and the same point of time different can annul their accomplishment; yet oblivion may breezes go rapidly in different directions. come with prosperity. For by success a rankling sore is got the better of and put an end to, when
VARIOUS FORTUNES OF MEN. kind Heaven causes happiness to spread from far. Still different blessings come to different people,
and many are the roads to fortune by the favor of OUR FUTURE LOT UNKNOWN
the gods. There is no appointed term to men for their death; nor do we know when we shall pass through TO REPROACH THE GODS IS WISDOM MISAPPLIED. a quiet day, the child of the sun, with never-fail- To reproach the gods is wisdom misapplied. ing good; for currents run now this way, now that, bringing both pleasures and sorrows to mor
WHAT COMES BY NATURE IS THE BEST. tals.
That which comes by nature is in all cases the
best, though many men have tried to gain glory WEALTH WITH VIRTUE.
by taking lessons in valor. Whatsoever is done It is wealth, when adorned by virtues, that without the aid of the god had better be kept brings the attainment of our different aims, sug- quiet. For there are different roads to glory, one gesting to the mind a deep care for them, a con- better than another, yet one training will not lead spicuous star, the brightest lamp to men.
us all alike. Perfect skill is difficult to attain.