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CHARACTER OF GOD. Surely, then, he who lives well is both blessed Ay, and more than that, God is simple and truc and happy, and he who does not, the opposite. in word and deed, never changes, never deceives So James (i. 25)—" This man shall be blessed in his deed.” any one by words, or by the suggestion of visions


OVER-ATTENTION TO HEALTH. Some, however, extend still further than these the rewards of the gods: for they say that chil

But what is more particularly to be remarked is

that this attention to health is a hindrance to learndren's children, and a future generation of the

ing of any kind, to invention, and to diligent study, holy and pious, are left behind them.

as we are always feeling suspicious shootings and IMPOSTORS WHO DECEIVE MANKIND. swimmings of the head, and blaming our learned Itinerant mountebanks and priests, hanging studies, as the cause, so that

ng studies as the cause, so that it is a great stumabout the doors of the rich, are able to persuade bling-block

ade bling-block, when virtuous objects are aimed at the foolish that they possess a power, conferred and pursued

nferred and pursued, for it makes us always think ouron them by the gods, of atoning, by means of sac

selves ill, and never to cease feeling pain in our rifices and spells, in the midst of pleasures and

body. revellings, for crimes committed by themselves or

ALL MEN ARE BRETHREN, BUT SOME ARE OF forefathers; and if they wish to crush an enemy, they may, at small expense, oppress the just

FINER CLAY. equally with the unjust; while they are able, as For all you in the state are undoubtedly brethren they say, to persuade the gods, by coaxing and (as we shall say, speaking in parables); but God, magic charms, to aid them in their objects.

who made you, has mixed gold in the composition

of as many as He found able to be governors of DIVISION OF LABOR RECOMMENDED, men; wherefore they are deemed the most honorFrom these things it follows that more will be able. In such as are merely assistants, He put accomplished, and better, and with more ease, if silver; in husbandmen and other craftsmen, iron each individual does one thing, according to the and copper. Since, then, they are all related to bent of his genius, at the proper time, being en- each other, you will, in general, beget children like gaged in no other pursuit.

to yourselves. Sometimes silver would be gener

ated out of gold; and from silver sometimes there HOW THE YOUNG OUGHT TO BE EDUCATED. might spring a golden race; and in this way they Much less must we tell legends, in highly orna- are all generated from one another. mental language, about the battles of giants, and many other and various bickerings of gods and

EXCELLENT THINGS ARE RARE. heroes with their relatives and intimate friends; For, Socrates, perhaps the common proverb is but it we expect to persuade them that no one true, that excellent things are rare. ought, on any pretext, to hate his neighbor, and that it is impious to do so, such principles are

VIRTUE. rather to be impressed upon them in their boy- Virtue is a kind of health, beauty, and good hood by old men and women, and those advanced habit of the soul. in years; and the poets ought to be compelled to

So Titus (1. 13)—“That they may be sound in the faith.” write with such views before their eyes.



Sin is disease, deformity, and weakness. God is good-and no other must be assigned as

So John (viii. 34)-“Whosoever committeth sin is the serthe cause of our blessings; whereas of our sor- I vant of sin," and 2 Corinthians (iii. 17 “ Where the Spirit of rows we must seek some other cause, and not the Lord is, there is liberty." God.


And as those who play at talus with the skilful, If they should say that the impious, as wretched,

| if they themselves know little of the game, are at require chastisement, and, being punished, receive

last driven into a corner and cannot move a piece, benefit from God, such assertion must be allowed

so also your hearers have nothing to say, being to pass.

driven into a corner at this different kind of play, CHILDREN SHOULD NOT BE FRIGHTENED BY FEAR- not with the dice, but your reasonings. FUL STORIES.

THE GOOD MAN IN AN EVIL WORLD. Nor let mothers, persuaded by them, frighten their children, telling them foolish stories, how cer- Taking all these matters quietly into consideratain gods go about by night, assuming the appear- tion, and minding his own business, like a man takance of many and various strangers, lest they ing refuge under a wall in a storm of dust and spray should be both speaking insultingly of the gods, carried forward by the wind, the good man, seeing and at the same time be making their own children his neighbors overwhelmed by lawless proceedings, cowards.

| is delighted if he may in any way lead a life here

below free from injustice and unholy deeds, taking / who grant them every license, accusing them as
his departure from this life with good hopes, oligarchs, and corrupt.
cheerfully, and in joyous spirits.


As the proverb goes, dogs are like to their And as regards the man, who is, as completely mistresses. as possible, squared and made consistent with

EXCESS CAUSES REACTION. virtue in word and deed ?

For it is a fact that to do anything in excess DESCRIPTION OF THE NATURE OF MAN IN THIS usually causes reaction, and produces a change WORLD, AS CONFINED IN A DARK CAVE. in the opposite direction, whether it be in the

seasons, or in plants, or in animal bodies; but this After these things, said I, compare our nature,

is still more the case in forms of government. as to education, or the want of it, to a state somewhat like the following: for behold, as it were,

THE WEALTHY, men in an underground, grotto-like dwelling, hav

Such wealthy people, I think, are called the ing the doors opening towards the light, and ex

pasture of the drones. tended the whole length of the cavern; in it see men immured from their childhood, with their legs

FEW MEN HEROES TO THEIR VALETS. and necks loaded with chains, so that, remaining

| If, then, I thought that we should all listen toi ever there, they can only direct their eyes forward,

the man, who having dwelt in the same house with being unable to turn their necks round by reason of their chains; then suppose the light they re

him, and joining in his domestic transactions, is ceive to arise from a fire burning above, afar off,

able to judge how he acts towards each of his

domestics, on which occasions a man especially, and behind, while there is a road above between the fire and those in chains, along which you may

appears stripped of his actor's finery; and so also

in public dangers we would order him who has see a little wall built, very much like the raised platforms of conjurers in front of the audience, on

observed all this to declare how the tyrant stands

as regards happiness and misery in comparison, which they exhibit their tricks.


THE CHARACTER OF THE LARGER NUMBER OF Do not, then, said I, my best of friends, train

MANKIND boys to learning by force and harshness; but di- Those, then, who have no knowledge of wisdom rect them to it by what amuses their minds, I and virtue, but spend their lives in banquetings so that you may be the better able to discover and things of that nature, are carried downwards, with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of as it appears, and back to the middle space, there each.

wandering all their lives; wherefore, never getting

| beyond this, they do not raise their eyes nor direct A DRONE IN THE STATE.

their steps to the true upper regions, nor do they He was nothing else but a consumer of the ever really fill themselves with real being, nor yet fruits of the earth. Dost thou then, said I, mean have they ever tasted solid and unadulterated that we should call such a person as this, as we do pleasure: but always looking downwards, like a drone in a bee-hive, the annoyance of the hive, a brutes, bending to the earth and their dinner mere drone in his house, and the cause of ailment tables, they wallow in the feeding-trough and in in the state? Quite so, Socrates, he replied. And sensuality; and, from their wish to obtain such has not God, Adimantus, made all the winged pleasures, they kick and butt at one another, as drones without any sting-and those that have with iron horns and hoofs, perishing from their feet, some without stings, and some with dreadful very inability to be satisfied. stings ? And do not those without stings continue poor to old age? whereas those that have stings "WHAT, IF A MAN

“WHAT, IF A MAN GAIN THE WHOLE WORLD ?" are those that we called mischievous.

Is there any one, whom it avails to take gold

unjustly, if some such thing as the following A DEMOCRACY.

happens; if, while he is taking the money, he is at This, then, is a democracy, in my opinion, when the same time subjecting the best part of his the poor, getting the upper hand in the state, kill nature to the worst ? some and banish others, sharing equally among the remaining citizens the magistracies and high ALL THINGS WORK TOGETHER FOR GOOD TO THE offices, which are usually divided among them by

JUST. lot.

We must thus think of the just man, that, if he

fall into poverty or disease, or any other of these OVERBEARING CHARACTER OF A DEMOCRACY.

seeming evils, all these things work together for When a state under democratic rule, thirsting good to him, either alive or dead. For the man is after liberty, chances to have evil cupbearers never neglected by the gods, whosoever exerts appointed, and gets thoroughly drunk with an himself to the utmost to become just, and to undiluted draught of it, then it punishes even its practise virtue, so far as it is possible for a man to rulers, unless they be poor, mean-spirited beings, 'resemble God.



It is impossible to discover the Creator and Such are the prizes which the just man receives Father of this universe, as well as His work, and from the gods. What do they receive from men ? when discov

when discovered to reveal Him to mankind at Do not cunning and unjust men do the same thing Large as those racers who run well at the beginning, but not so at the end ? For at first they leap briskly ; GOD CREATED MAN AFTER HIS OWN IMAGE. but at last they become ridiculous, and, having! When the Creator, the Father of all things, saw their ears on their neck, they run off without any that this created image of the everlasting gods reward. But such as are true racers, coming to had both motion and life. He pronounced it to be the goal, they both receive the prize, and are

good; and, being delighted with the workmanship Towned.

of His own hands, He proceeded to consider bow

He might make it still more to resemble its proTHE JUDGMENT-DAY.

totype. Having come to life again, he told what he had | THE NOBLEST VICTORY IS TO CONQUER ONESELF. een in his deathlike state. He said that when his

For a man to conquer himself is the first and oul was separated from his body it proceeded with many others, and reached a certain hallowed noblest of all victories, whereas to be vanquished pot, where were two chasms in the earth close to

by himself is the basest and most shameful of all ach other, and the same number in the heavens

things. For such expressions show that there is ibove opposite to them. Between them sat the

Thala war in each of us against ourselves udges. After they had given sentence, they

PASSIONS OF MAN. rdered the just to go to the right upwards to leaven, fastening marks on the foreheads of those.

Let us think of these things in this way: let us whose fate they had decided; and the unjust went

int imagine that each of us is a kind of animal, the o the left downwards, having behind an account

wonder of the gods, either their plaything or f all which they had done. That the judges,

made for some special purpose; for as to this we aring approached him, said that he must be a

know nothing, but this we do know, that these bessenger to men, to give an account of the things

| passions are part of our nature, pulling us like which he had seen there, ordering him to see

nerves or ropes and influencing us differently, drag Ind hear all things in the place. And that he

us to contrary points, where virtue and vice sit law there souls departing, after they had been apart from each other. For reason says that each ndged, through two openings, one in the heaven,

I person ought always to follow one of these pullind one in the earth. And from the other two

ings and never abandoning it, be drawn in the Denings he saw from the one souls ascending opposite direction by the other nerves, and that

covered with filth and dirt and this is the golden and sacred leading of the reathrough the other he saw souls descending pure

soning power, which is called the common law of from heaven. And ever and anon, as they arrived, the

ived the state. Whereas the other pullings are hard they seemed to come off a long journey, and with an

d with and iron-like, while this is soft as being golden pleasure went to rest in a meadow, as in a public and unitor

in and uniform, but that the rest are like to every issembly. Then acquaintances saluted each other;

variety of form. and those from the earth asked news from above,

MAN TWICE A CHILD. and those from heaven inquired what was going

| Not only, as it seems, is the old man twice a 10 below. They told one another; the one party party wailing and weeping when they called to child, but also the man who is drunk. sind what and how many things they had suffered

WISDOM AND TRUE OPINIONS. and seen in their journey under the earth, (now

But as to wisdom and true opinions which are the journey was for a thousand years;) and, on

firmly held, happy the man, who can retain them the other hand, those from heaven related their

to his latest day; while he is perfect, who posenjoyments, and sights of wondrous beauty. It

sesses these and all the good things that are would be tedious, Glaucon, to relate them all.

contained in them. The sum of all he said was this: whatever unjust

Cicero (De Fin, v. 21) says; “ Præclare enim Plato, Beatum, acts they had committed, and whomsoever they

cui etiam in senectute contigerit, ut sapientiam verasque had injured, for all these they atoned separately,

ured, for all these wey doned separately, opiniones assequi possit." tenfold for each, and it was in each at the rate of one hundred years, (as the life of a man was con | HOLIDAYS APPOINTED FOR MAN BY THE GODS. sidered to be so long,) so that they might suffer The gods, feeling pity for the hard-worked race tenfold punishment for their unjust deeds; and if of men, have ordained, as a relaxation from their any one had been the cause of many deaths, either toils, that they should enjoy the returns of feastby betraying cities or camps, or enslaving men, or days in honor of the gods. participating in any such wickedness, for all such things they should suffer tenfold pains; and if, on

DANCING. the other band, they had bestowed benefits on Are not, then, the young amongst us ready to any, having been just and holy, they should be dance ? And as to the old of us, do we not think rewarded according to their deserts.

| that we act properly in enjoying the sight, while

we hail with delight their fun and merry-making, always follows at his heels, as the punisher of those after our activity has left us? Regretting this, who have swerved from the Divine law; and close and recollecting our fondness for such amuse- upon her is the man who wishes to be happy, with ments, we establish games for those who are able downcast looks and well-ordered thoughts; in the highest degree to recall to our recollection whereas if there be one who is puffed up with overthe joyous days of our youth.

weening conceit, or proud on account of his riches or

honors, or the beauty of his person, or who, it may USE AND ABUSE OF WINE.

| be, is, through the thoughtless giddiness of youth, Shall we not, then, lay down a law, in the first inflamed with insolence, thinking himself in need place, that boys shall abstain altogether from neither of ruler nor leader, but rather imagining wine till their eighteenth year, thereby teaching yimself fit to point out the right way to others, that it is wrong to add fire to fire, as through a such a one is abandoned by the Deity to his own funnel, pouring it into their body and soul before foolish devices. Being thus left, and joining himthey proceed to the labors of life, thus exercising self to others of the same silly nature, he swaggers, a caution as to the maddening habits of youth; throwing everything into confusion-appearing to afterwards to taste, indeed, wine in moderation the vulgar to be somebody, when, in fact, he is a till thirty years of age, the young abstaining nobody. altogether from intoxication and excess in wine,

i So Revelations (i. 8)_“I am Alpha and Omega, the begia whereas in reaching forty years of age, man may ) ning and the ending, saith the Lord.” See James iv. 6: 1 Peter indulge freely in Lunquetings, call upon the other v.5. gods, and especially invite Dionysos to the mystic rites and sports of old men, for which he kindly

THE UNHOLY. bestowed wine upon men, as a remedy against the

| For the wicked man is tainted in his soul, while moroseness of old age, so that through this we

the man of an opposite character is pure. To remight grow young again and that by a forgetfulness of heart-sinking, the habit of the soul might ce

ceive gifts from the impure is unjustifiable either become soft instead of being hard, exactly as iron

ani in God or man. There is much vain labor to the becomes, when placed in the fire and moulded

impious in regard to the gods, but to all the pious

it is quite right. Such, then, is the mark at which thus more easily ?

we ought to aim. Whither, then, can be most diA SOLITUDE INFINITELY TERRIBLE. rectly carried, what are called the arrows of a man. Let us, then, assert, that, when that destruction

and what is the shooting out by thought, as it were (the deluge) came upon the earth, the affairs of loy artOWS. man had a solitude infinitely terrible.

So Cicero (De Leg. ii. 16) says-"Donis impiis ne placare

audeant deos, Platonem audiant, qui vetat dubitare, quâ sit Cowper thus refers to the horrors of solitude, when he feigns

mente futurus Deus, cum vir nemo bonus ab improbo e Alexander Selkirk to say:

ponari velit."
“O solitude, where are the charms
That sages have seen in thy face?

Better live in the midst of alarms,
Than reign in this horrible place."

Through the whole course of life it is right to

hold, and to have held in a pre-eminent degree, the HALF MORE THAN WHOLE.

kindest language towards our parents, because Were they not, then, ignorant that Hesiod said,

there is the heaviest punishments for light and with great propriety, that "the half is often more

winged words, for Nemesis, the messenger of Justhan the whole?" For when to receive the whole

| tice, has been appointed to look after all men in brings us harm, while the half is a mark of mod

such matters.
eration, then the smaller is of more value than
what is immoderate, as it is better than the worse.


The human race, then, is interlinked with all I was on the point of saying that no man is ever time, which follows, and will follow it to the end, a legislator; it is fortune and a variety of acci- being in this way immortal; inasmuch as leaving dents, that fall out in many ways, that are our children's children, and being one and the same legislators in everything. For it may be a war by generation, it partakes of immortality. that has by violence overturned the constitution and changed the laws of the state, or overwhelm

THE GREATEST PUNISHMENT FOR WICKEDNESS. ing poverty from want of means in the citizens.

The greatest punishment for evil conduct is the Many innovations too are brought about by dis

becoming iiko to bad men. eases, when pestilences come upon states, and unfavorable seasons for a succession of years.

So Proverbs (xiii. 6)_“ Wickedness overthroweth the sin

ner." GOD, JUSTICE, AND THE WICKED. Ye men, God, as the old proverb goes, having in


DREN. His own being the beginning, end, and middle of all things, brings them to a just conclusion, pro- It is proper to leave modesty rather than gold to ceeding, according to nature, in a circle. Justice I children.



IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION, Truth is the source of every good to gods and Now man, we say, is a tame, domesticated animen. He who expects to be blessed and fortunate mal; for when he receives a proper education, and in this world should be a partaker of it from the happens to possess a good natural disposition, he earliest moment of his life, that he may live as long I usually becomes an animal most divine and tame; as possible a person of truth; for such a man is but when he is not sufficiently nor properly trained, trustworthy. But that man is untrustworthy who he is the most savage animal on the face of the loveth a lie in his heart; and if it be told involun- earth. On this account a legislator ought to retary, and in mere wantonness, he is a fool. In gard education neither as a secondary object, nor neither case can they be envied; for every knave vet as a by-work. and shallow dunce is without real friends. As time passes on to morose old age, he becomes EDUCATION OUGHT TO BE COMPULSORY. known, and has prepared for himself at the end

Not only the boy who comes to school at the of his life a dreary solitude; so that, whether his will of his father, but he, too, who neglects his associates and children be alive or not, his life be-education from the fault of his father, as the say. comes nearly equally a state of isolation.

ing is, every man and boy must be compelled to

learn according to his ability, as they belong to SELF-LOVE.

the state rather than their parents. This is what men say, that every man is naturally a lover of himself, and that it is right that it

A BOY DIFFICULT TO MANAGE. should be so. This is a mistake; for, in fact, the

Now a boy is, of all wild beasts, the most difficause of all the blunders committed by man arises

cult to manage; for, in proportion as he has the from this excessive self-love. For the lover is

fountain of his mental faculties not yet properly blinded by the object loved; so that he passes a

prepared, he becomes cunning and sharp, and the wrong judgment on what is just, good, and beau

most insolent of wild beasts; wherefore he must tiful, thinking that he ought always to honor what

be bound, as it were, with many chains. belongs to himself in preference to truth. For he who intends to be a great man ought to love MUCH LEARNING BRINGS DANGER TO YOUTH. neither himself nor his own things, but only what| Much learning, in my opinion, brings danger to is just, whether it happens to be done by himself,

Musem, youth. (This was the doctrine of Heracleitus.) or by another. So 1 Timothy (vi. 10)—"The love of money is the root of all GREAT LEARNING WITH AN IMPROPER TRAINING

IS A CALAMITY. * LET YOUR LIGHT SO SHINE BEFORE MEN.” For ignorance of all things is an evil neither terFor no greater good can be conferred on a state

te rible nor excessive, nor yet the greatest of all; than that men should be intimate and well ac

but great cleverness and much learning, if they be quainted with each other's character. Since,

accompanied by a bad training, is a much greater where a light is not reflected from their good

misfortune. works in the face of each other, but where a

FISHERS OF MEN. moral darkness is around them, there we are sure to find that no one receives properly the honor

May no desire ever seize you to catch men at due to his worth. It is meet, then that every

sea, nor to rob them, making you cruel and lawman should exert himself never to appear to any

less hunters. one to be of base metal, but always artless and


One cause is that the love of money makes time EVEN THE GODS CANNOT USE FORCE AGAINST without leisure for other things except the accuNECESSITY.

mulation of private property, on which the soul of Even God is said to be unable to use force every citizen is hanging, and thus it can have no against necessity.

thought for anything but daily pecuniary gain. THE BEGINNING IS THE HALF OF THE WHOLE.

A PROOF THAT THERE IS A GOD. For according to the proverb, the beginning is! In the first place, the earth, sun, and stars-all half of the whole, and we all praise a good begin-these, and the beautiful arrangement of the sea

sons, divided into years and months, prove that

there is a God. Besides, both Greeks and barbaA MAS MUST HAVE BEEN A SERVANT TO BECOME rians believe that there are supreme beings.

It is proper for every one to consider, in the

NO ONE HAS EVER DIED AN ATHEIST. case of all men, that he who has not been a ser- My child, thou art young; but time, as it provant cannot become a praiseworthy master; and it ceeds, will cause thee to change many of those is meet that we should plume ourselves rather on opinions which thou now supportest, and induce acting the part of a servant properly than that of thee to entertain the very opposite. Wait, then, the master, first, towards the laws (for inathis way till that time, that thou mayest be able properly We are servants of the gods), and next, towards to judge of matters of such great importance. our elders.

Now, that which is of the highest moment, though


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