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| of mind, and is the characteristic of a sophist; It is difficult to speak to the belly, because it and when a spirit of envy leads a man to try has no ears.

to rival what is inimitable, it is perfectly ridicu

lous. STRIKING A WIFE. He used to say that the man who struck his

PEACE AND WAR. wife or his son laid hands on what was most They recollect with pleasure the saying, “That sacred.

it was not the sound of the trumpet, but the crowSo Ephesians (F. 33)_“Let every one of you in particular so ing of the cock, that awoke sleepers in time of love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she rev- peace.” erence her husband."

LOVE OF BRICK AND MORTAR. WHEN POVERTY IS DISHONORABLE. For poverty is not dishonorable in itself, but He used to say, “That those who were fond of only when it arises from idleness, intemperance, building would soon ruin themselves without the extravagance, and folly.

assistance of enemies." JUSTICE VERY UNCOMMOX.

POLITICAL ECONOMY. Among men, valor and prudence are seldom met For we observe that political economy, when it with, and of all human excellences justice is still refers merely to inanimate objects, is employed more uncommon.

for the paltry purposes of gain; but when it treats So Genesis (xvii. 32)" And Abraham said, Peradventure of human beings, it rises to a higher branch of the tea shall be found there. And the Lord said, I will not lors of

laws of nature. destroy it for ten's sake." FAMILIARITY BREEDS CONTEMPT.

| BETTER TO ERR ON THE SIDE OF RELIGION, BY For he considered that novelty causes the imag

ADHERING TO RECEIVED OPINIONS. ination to add much to objects of terror, while It is more fitting to err on the side of religthings really fearful lose their effect by famili- ion, from a regard to ancient and received opinarity.

ions, than to err through obstinacy and presump

tion. GOOD AND EVIL ACTIONS. To do an evil action is base; to do a good action, RECURRENCE OF THE SAME EVENTS. without incurring danger, is common enough; but

It is not at all surprising that Fortune, being it is the part of a good man to do great and noble

ever changeable, should, in the course of numberdeeds, though he risks everything.

less ages, often hit on events perfectly similar. CUSTOMS DEPENDING ON NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. For if there be no limit to the number of events But it is evident that customs, which depend on

that happen, Fortune can have no difficulty in national institutions, must more speedily make an

furnishing herself with parallels in this abundance impression on the habits and lives of the mass of

of matter; whereas, if their number be limited, i community, than the profligacy and vices of

there must necessarily be a return of the same individuals have the power of corrupting a whole

ole occurrences when the whole cycle has been gone nation. For when the whole is diseased, the parts

through. cannot escape; whereas, if the disorder is only in

TRUE HONOR. some particular part, it may be amended by those who have not yet caught the infection.

True honor leaves no room for hesitation and


TIME DESTROYS THE STRONGEST THING. For as in the case of painters who have under-! In fact, perseverance is all-powerful; by it time, taken to give us a beautiful and graceful figure, in its advances, undermines and is able to destroy which may have some slight blemishes, we do not the strongest things on earth; being the best wish them to pass over such blemishes altogether, friend and ally to those who use properly the opnor yet to mark them too prominently. The one portunities that it presents, and the worst enemy would spoil the beauty, and the other destroy the to those who are rushing into action before it sumlikeness of the picture.


DIFFERENT CONDUCT OF MEN IN PROSPERITY AND For there is nothing more difficult to direct than

ADVERSITY. a man on whom fortune smiles; nothing more easily managed, when the clouds of adversity Prosperity inspires an elevation of mind even in overwhelm him.

the mean-spirited, so that they show a certain de

gree of high-mindedness and chivalry in the lofty WORD-CATCHERS.

position in which fortune has placed them; but For my own part, I cannot help saying that I the man who possesses real fortitude and magnathink all envy and jealousy respecting the style of nimity will show it by the dignity of his behavior expression which others employ betrays littleness under losses, and in the most adverse fortune.


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Being convinced that man is neither by birth Since a mere word or a simple nod from the 1 nor by disposition a savage, nor of unsocial habits, good and virtuous possesses more weight than them but only becomes so by indulging in vices contrary prepared speeches of other men. to his nature; yet even in this case, he may be improved by change of abode, and by a different DIFFERENT CHARACTERS IN THE SAME MAX. || mode of life, as beasts, that are naturally wild, It is indeed difficult. but. I believe, not impossi. lay aside their fury when they have been properly ble, for the same man to be rough and gentle, as trained.

some wines are both sweet and sour; and then THE NOBLE MINDED ADDS DIGNITY TO EVERY again, some men, who have all the appearance of ACT.

a gentle and kind manner, are worrying and unThe generous mind adds dignity

| bearable by those who have to do with them. To every act, and nothing misbecomes it.


It is usually the case that those who have sharp Dead men do not bite.

| and ready wits possess weak memories, while

that which is acquired with labor and perseverA STRAW SHOWS HOW THE WIND SETS.

ance is always retained longest; for every hardNor is it always in the most distinguished gained acquisition of knowledge is a sort of anactions that a man's worth or malicious temper nealing upon the mind. may be most easily discovered; but very often an action of small note, a short expression, or a jest, A MAN REQUIRES TO BE BELOVED AS WELL AS sball point out a man's real character more clearly ESTEEMED IF HE IS TO HAVE INFLUENCE OVER than the greatest sieges or the most important OTHERS. battles.

There is no real desire to imitate virtue, except RELIGION AND SUPERSTITION.

the person who sets the example be beloved as So true it is that, though disbelief in religion and well as esteemed. Those who praise the good contempt of things divine be a great evil, yet super

without loving them, only pay respect to their stition is a still greater.

name, admiring their virtuous life without caring

to follow their example. THE GOOD MAN IN ADVERSITY. When the good and upright are depressed by

THE HONEST STATESMAN. Fortune, the only real power she exercises over The honest and upright statesman pays no rethem is that she brings unjust aspersions and gard to the popular voice except with this view, slanders upon their character, instead of the hon- that the confidence it procures him may facilitate or and esteem in which they ought to be held; his designs, and crown them with success. and in this way she diminishes the trust which the world ought to have in their virtue.


Pitying the weakness of human nature, which, A PEOPLE IN ADVERSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

not even in dispositions that are best formed to It is believed by some that when the affairs of a vir

ta virtue, can produce excellence without some taint state are prosperous, the people, elated by their

he people, elated by their of imperfection. power and success, treat good ministers with the greater insolence; but this is a mistake. For mis

MONEY THE SINEWS OF BUSINESS. fortunes always irritate their tempers and annoy

He who first called money the sinews of busithem; they take fire at trifles, and cannot bear to,

ar to ness seems more particularly to have had regard hear the smallest reproach. He who reproves

to the affairs of war. their faults seems to make them the cause of their own misfortunes, and spirited language is regard

CHARACTER OF WEAK MEN. ed as an insult. And as honey causes wounds His weakness increased his timidity, as is comand ulcerated sores to smart, so it often happens mon with men of weak understandings, and he that expostulation, however full of sense and truth

began to place his safety in jealousy and suspiit may be, provokes and alienates those in distress, cion. unless gentleness and tact be shown in its application.


Antiphon said that the sacrifice of time was the An eye in a state of inflammation avoids all most costly of all sacrifices. bright and glaring colors, and loves to rest on what is dark and shady. In the same way a state. OUR FORTUNE DEPENDS ON OUR OWN EXERTIONS. when fortune frowns, becomes timid and fearful, But virtue, like a strong and hardy plant, takes not being able to bear the voice of truth, though root in any place where it finds an ingenuous nait is, above all things, necessary and salutary. ture, and a mind that loves labor. Wherefore, if Wherefore, it is no easy task to govern such a peo- we do not reach that high position which we deple; for, if the man who tells them the truth falls sire, we ought not to ascribe it to the obscurity of the first victim, he who flatters them at last per- the place where we were born, but to our own ishes with them.

1 little selves.


THE EYE OF THE MASTER FATTENS THE HORSE. But perhaps the precept“Know thyself” would In this place we may very properly insert the not be considered divine, if every man could easily saying of the groom, who maintained that there reduce it to practice.

was nothing which served to fatten a horse so

much as the eye of its master. NO BEAST MORE SAVAGE THAN MAN. There is no beast more savage than man, when

TO FIND FAULT WITH A SPEECH IS EASY. he is possessed of power equal to his passion. For to find fault with a speech is not difficult

nay, it is very easy; but to put anything better in POWER TESTS A MAN'S CHARACTER.

its place is a work of great labor. It is an observation no less just than common, that there is no stronger test of a man's real

THE TALKATIVE. character than power and authority, exciting, as The talkative listen to no one, for they are ever they do, every passion, and discovering every speaking. And the first evil that attends those latent vice.

| who know not to be silent is, that they hear noth


MAN. His intention was to keep the democracy within For man is a plant, not fixed in the earth, nor bounds, which cannot be properly called a govern- immovable, but heavenly, whose head, rising as it ment, but, as Plato terms it, a warehouse of were from a root upwards, is turned towards governments.



GOD. It is the admirer of himself, and not the admirer! I am all that was, is, and will be. of virtue, that thinks himself superior to others.

3. | So Psalms (cii. 27)--"But thou art the same, and thy years

shall have no end." CAUSE OF MISFORTUNES IN A FAMILY. Unless the foundations of a family be properly

EVIL SPIRITS. prepared and laid, those who are sprung from it. As among men so also among spirits there are must necessarily be unfortunate.

| differences of goodness.



Deep doors open towards hell, and rivers of fire There is no one, however high-spirited he may are seen. be, that does not quail when he thinks of the evil

So Matthew (xxv. 41)-"Depart from me, ye cursed, into deeds of his parents.

everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels." NATURE, LEARNING, AND TRAINING.

WHO INJURES THEE ? Nature without learning is like a blind man;

It is not God that injures thee, but thyself. learning without nature is like the maimed; prac

Iso Deuteronomy (iv. 31)—“God will not forsake thee, tice without both these is incomplete.

se 18 incomplete.

As in
As in neither destroy thee."

nait agriculture a good soil is first sought for, then a skilful husbandman, and then good seed; in the

GOD IS ETERNAL. same way nature corresponds to the soil; the “I am all that was, and is, and will be.” This teacher to the husbandman; precepts and instruc. was an inscription on a temple at Saïs. tion to the seed.

So Revelation (i. 8)_" The Lord which is, and which was,

j and which is to come, the almighty." MOTHERS OUGHT TO SUCKLE THEIR OWN CHILDREN.

GOD EVERYWHERE PRESENT. In my opinion mothers ought to bring up and suckle their own children; for they bring them up He who fears the government of the gods as bewith greater affection and with greater anxiety, ing gloomy and inexorable, whithier will he go, as loving them from the heart, and, so to speak, whither will he flee? What land or what sea will every inch of them. But the love of a nurse is he find without God? Into what part of the sparious and counterfeit, as loving them only for earth wilt thou descend and hide thyself, O unhire.

| happy wretch! where thou canst escape from God ?

So Psalms (cxxxix. 7-10)_-"Whither shall I go from thy TEACHERS MUST BE OF BLAMELESS LIVES.

spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend Teachers ought to be sought who are of blame

up into heaven, thou art there; if I make my bed in hell, be

| hold thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and less lives, not liable to be found fault with, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there shall thy distinguished for learning; for the source and hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me." root of a virtuous and honorable life is to be found in good training. And as husbandmen un

A THOUSAND YEARS AS ONE DAY. derprop plants, so good teachers, by their pre- To the gods the whole span of man's life is as cepts and training, support the young, that their nothing; the same as if a culprit is tortured or morals may spring up in a right and proper way. Thung in the evening and not in the morning.

So Psalms (xc. 4)—"For a thousand years in thy sight are was formed under the eye of Philopæmen; and but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night." I at the funeral of that general he carried the urn THE RELEASE OF THE SOU'L.

which contained his ashes, B.C. 182. In the war

which arose between the Romans and Perseus, When the souls set free go to the unseen, invisi- king of Macedon, the opinion of Polybius and his ble, unfelt, and pure region, God is their leader

father Lycortas was, that the Achæans should oband king, as they depend upon him, looking on

serve a strict neutrality; but they were overruled, him without ever being satisfied, and striving after and the Achæans were implicated in the ruin of a beauty which cannot be expressed or described.

Perseus. The Romans demanded a thousand of the So Psalms (xxxvi. 9)_-"In thy light shall we see light.” principal citizens as hostages, and among these

was Polybius, who was allowed to remain in ONLY ONE GOD.

Rome, where he resided for sixteen years, from To the one Mind that arranges the whole uni- B.C. 167 to B.C. 151. He became the intimate friend verse, and one Providence set over all, and to the and instructor of Scipio the younger, at that time helping Powers that are ordained to all, different only eig

only eighteen years of age. At last, through the honors and names are given by different people | influence of Scipio and Cato, the Senate was prethrough legal enactments.

vailed upon to allow the Achæan exiles to return So Psalms (xlvi. 10)—"I will be exalted among the heathen, to their country. IIis principal work was entitled I will be exalted in the earth."

General History," though it refers more partic

ularly to a space of fifty-three years, from B.C. 220 FALSE SWEARING.

to B.c. 168, from the commencement of the second Ho who deceives by an oath, acknowledges that Punic war, where the historian Timæus and Araho fears his enemy, but despises God.

tus of Sicyon had stopped, to the defeat of Perseus, So Matthew (v. 33)—"Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but king of Macedon, by the Romans. shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths."


Since the knowledge of what has gone before In all kinds of attendance and of escorting the affords the best instruccion for the direction and priests' heralds went before throughout the city, I guidance of human life. ordering men to keep the festival and to cease from work.

HISTORY. So Exodus (xxiii. 12)—“Six days shalt thou do thy work, History furnishes the only proper discipline to and on the seventh thou shalt rest."

educate and train the minds of those who wish to

take part in public affairs; and the unfortunate MEN ARE BAD THROUGH IGNORANCE OF WHAT

events which it hands down for our instruction IS GOOD.

contain the wisest and most convincing lessons for Most men are wicked, because they have never enabling us to bear our own calamities with dig. known or tried the enjoyment of virtuous con- Inity and courage. duct. So Ephesians (iv. 18)—“Having the understanding darkened,

TRUTHFULNESS OF THE HISTORIAN. being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance It is right for a good man to love his friends that is in them, because of the blindness of their hearts."

and his country, and to hate the enemies of both. BAD MEN ARE SLAVES.

But when a man takes upon him to write history,

he must throw aside all such feelings, and be preAll bad men are slaves.

pared, on many occasions, to extol even an enemy So John (viii. 34)—“ Whosoever committeth sin is the ser. when his conduct deserves applause; nor should vant of sin;" and 2 Corinthians (iii. 17)-"Where the Spirit of

he hesitate to censure his dearest and most the Lord is, there is liberty."

esteemed friends, whenever their deeds call for EVIL COUNSEL.

condemnation. For as an animal, if it be deprived Evil counsel is swift in its march.

of sight, is wholly useless; so if we eliminate

truth from history, what remains will be nothing So Romans (xvi. 18)—“By good words and fair speeches

but an idle tale. Now, if we pay a proper regard deceive the hearts of the simple;” and Wisdom of Solomon (iv. 12)—"For the bewitching of naughtiness doth obscure

to truth, we shall not hesitate to stigmatize our things that are honest."

friends on some occasions, and to praise our enemies; but it may even be necessary to commend and condemn the same persons, as different circumstances may require; since it is not to be supposed that those who are engaged in great trans

actions shall always be pursuing false or mistaken POLYBIUS.

views; nor yet is it probable that their conduct BORN PROBABLY ABOUT B.C. 204_DIED B.C. 122. can at all times be free from error. A historian,

therefore, in all that he relates, should take care POLYBIUS, a celebrated Greek historian, was to be guided in his judgment by the genuine the son of Lycortas, a native of Megalopolis, in and real circumstances of every action, without Arcadia, who succeeded Philopæmen in the chief reference to those who may have been engaged direction of the Achæan League. His character / in it.

WISE COUNSEL IS BETTER THAN STRENGTH. bodies of men attacked by corrupt and ulcerous . Te may also remark, in this event, the truth of humors, which cannot easily be got rid of, but that that saying of Euripides, “ that one wise counsel the minds of men are equally subject to strange is better than the strength of many."

disorders. In the case of ulcerated sores, the very

medicines which you apply often only tend to irriTWO SOURCES FROM WHICH MAN MAY DERIVE AD-tate and inflame, quickening the progress of the VANTAGE.

disease; yet, on the other hand, if the disease be For as there are only two sources from which neglected and left to its own course, it infects all any real advantage can be reaped-our own mis- the neighboring parts, and proceeds till the whole fortunes, and those that have befallen others-and body becomes unsound. So it is with the mind; as the former of these, though it may be the more | when certain dark and malignant passions get posbeneficial, is, at all events, more painful and an- session of it, they render men more savage than noying, it will always be the part of wisdom to the beasts themselves. To men in this state, if prefer the latter, which will alone enable us at all you show mercy and kindness, suspecting it to be times to perceive what is fit and useful without in- fraud and artifice, they become more suspicious curring hazard or anxiety. Hence may be seen than before, and regard you with still stronger the real value of history, which teaches us how we feelings of aversion. But if you oppose their furimay direct our life, in every event that may happen, ous proceedings, there is no crime too horrible for upon the truest and most approved models, with them to perpetrate. They exult and glory in their out being exposed to the dangers and annoyances impieties, and by degrees get rid of every feeling of other men.

and affection that embellish human nature. There

is no doubt but that these disorders chiefly arise IMPORTANT SERVICES EXCITE ILL-WILL.

from a bad education and evil communications, Great and illustrious deeds are very apt to excite though there are many other causes which may feelings of ill-will and spite, which, though a na- sometimes assist to bring them on, among which five of the country, if he be supported by a none is so likely to be effectual as the insolent conbost of friends and relations, may perhaps be duct and rapacity of public governors. able to get the better of, yet foreigners generally sink under such attacks, and are ruined by BALANCE OF POWER IN THE WORLD. them.

Nor ought we ever to allow any growing power ART OF A GOOD GENERAL.

to acquire such a degree of strength as to be able

to tear from us, without resistance, our natural, For the part of a consummate general is not only to tear to see the way leading to victory, but also when he undisputed rights. must give up all hopes of victory.


A circumstance which happened to the Ætolians The Carthaginians were in the habit of forming ought to convince us that we ought not to specutheir armies of mercenaries drawn together from late on the future as if it were already past, nor bifferent countries; if they did so for the purpose build expectations on events which may eventuApreventing conspiracies, and of making the sol- ally turn out very differently from wbat they liers more completely under the control of their seemed at first to promise; but in all human afenerals, they may seem perhaps, in this respect, fairs, and especially in those that relate to war, to ot to have acted foolishly, for troops of this sort leave always some room to fortune and to acciannot easily unite together in factious counsels. dents which cannot be foreseen, but when we take another view of the question, be wisdom of the proceeding may be doubted, if CALAMITIES ARISING FROM FORTUNE AND OURte consider the difficulty there is to instruct,

SELVES CONTRASTED, biten, and subdue the minds of an army so For when man falls into any of those calamities brought together when rage has seized them, and to which human nature is subject, and which could when hatred and resentment have taken root among | not be guarded against by any care or foresight. them, and sedition is actually begun. In such cir- the fault is justly attributed to fortune, or some cumstances, they are no longer men, but beasts of enemy: but when our troubles arise from on prey. Their fury cannot be restricted within the lish and indiscreet conduct, the blame can be imordinary bounds of human wickedness or violence, puted only to ourselves. And as unmerited misbut breaks out into deeds the most terrible and

fortune usually excites the pity of mankind, while nonstrous that are to be found in nature.

it induces them to participate in and aid us in our

distresses; so, on the other hand, a clear and eviCIVIL WAR.

dent folly calls for the censure and reproaches of Now were they thoroughly convinced that civil

all who regard it in a proper light. lissensions were much more to be dreaded than a Far carried on in a foreign country against a for

A ROMAN CITIZEN. eign enemy.

But among the Romans, O queen, it is one of MINDS OF MEN LIABLE TO MALIGNANT DISEASES. their noblest customs to demand public reparation

Whoever meditates on these horrible cruelties for private wrongs, and at all times to insist on rewill not fail to be satisfied that not only are the dress for the injuries done to their subjects.

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