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“Not bubbling fountains to the thirsty swain, Simichidas! whither, pray, hurriest thou at this

Not balmy sleep to laborers faint with pain,

Not showers to larks, or sunshine to the bee, mid-day time, when even the lizard is sleeping by

Are half so charming as thy sight to me." the dry-stone wall, nor do the crested larks wander about?

REAPERS. Tennyson, in his "Enone,” says,

Up with the lark to reap, and cease when it goes . “Now the noonday quiet holds the hill;

to sleep; rest yourself at mid-day.
The grasshopper is silent in the grass;

Milton (L'Allegro 1. 41) says,
The lizard, with his shadow on the stone,

To hear the lark begin his flight,
Rests like a shadow, and the cicala sleeps."

And startle, singing, the dull night, Virgil (Eclog. ii. 9) says

From his watchto ver in the skies, “Nunc virides etiam occultant spineta lacertos."

Til the dappled dawn doth rise." “Even now the green lizards hide themselves in the hedges."


As much as spring is more delightful than winAnd from aloft, overhead, were waving to and ter, as much as the apple than the sloe, as much fro poplars and elms; and near by, a sacred as the sheep is more woolly than its lambkin, as stream kept murmuring, as it flowed from a cav much as a virgin is better than a thrice-wed dame, ern of the nymphs; and the bright cicalas on the as much as a fawn is nimbler than a calf, as much shady branches kept laboriously chirping; while, as a nightingale surpasses in song all feathered in the distance, amidst the thick thorn bushes, kind, so much does thy longed-for presence cheer the thrush was warbling. Tufted larks and gold- my mind; to thee I hasten as the travellers to the finches were singing, the turtledove was cooing, shady beech, when the fierce sun blazes, tawny bees were humming round about the foun

Pope (Past. iii, 43) saystains; everything was redolent of golden summer,

“Not bubbling fountains to the thirsty swain, and redolent of fruit time. Pears, indeed, at our Not balmy sleep to laborers faint with pain, feet, and by our sides, apples were rolling for us Not showers to larks, nor sunshine to the bee, in abundance and the boughs hung plentifully,

Are half so charming as thy sight to me." weighed down to the ground, with damsons.

Drummond of Hawthornden says

“ Cool shades to pilgrims, whom hot glances burn, JOY AT THE APPROACH OF A BELOVED.. Are not so pleasing as thy safe returu." Everywhere it) is spring, everywhere are past

USE OF WEALTH TO THE WISE. ures, and everywhere milkful udders are swelling, and the lambkins are suckled at the ap Fools! what boots the gold hid within doors in proach of my fair maiden; but should she depart, untold heaps ? Not so the truly wise employ both shepherd and herbage are withered there. their wealth; some give part to their own enjoy

Virgil (Eclog. vii. 59) speaks much in the same way_" At ment, some to the bard should be assigned, part the approach of our Phyllis the whole grove will put forth should be employed to do good to our kinsmen its leaves, and the æther will send down an abundant shower and others of mankind, and even to offer sacrifices that gives joy to the fields."

to the gods; not to be a bad host, guests should And again (55)—“All things now smile; but if the fair

| be welcome to come and go whenever they choose, Alexis depart from these mountains, thou wouldst see even the rivers dry up."

but chiefly to honor the sacred interpreters of the Pope (Past. i. 69) says

Muses, that you may live to fame when life is “ All nature mourns, the skies relent in showers,

done. Hushed are the birds, and closed the drooping flowers. If Delia smile, the flowers begin to spring,

THE AVARICIOUS. The skies to brighten, and the birds to sing."

It would be as great a toil to count the waves THE SONG OF THE BELOVED.

upon the shore, when the wind drives them to Sweet is thy mouth, and sweetest tones awake land along the surface of the green sea, or to wash from thy lips, Daphnis. I would rather hear thee the dirty brick clean with violet-colored water, as sing than suck the honeycomb.

to overreach the man who is a slave to avarice. Plautus (Casin. ii. 8, 21) says

Away with such an one! let him have silver with“How I seem to sip honey because I touch thee!” out end, yet always let the desire of a greater This idea is found in the Song of Solomon (iv. 11)" Thy lips, store possess him. But I should prefer the reO my spouse, drop as the honeycomb; honey and milk are spect and esteem of men to myriads of mules and under thy tongue."

horses. “BIRDS OF A FEATHER FLOCK TOGETHER.” | The idea in Jeremiah (xiii. 23) is somewhat similar_"Can Cicala is dear to cicala, ant loves ant, hawks

the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots?" hawk; but me the muse and song enchant. Of

JOYS OF PEACE. this may my house be full; for neither sleep nor

And, oh! that they might till rich fields, and spring suddenly appearing is more sweet, nor

that unnumbered sheep and fat might bleat cheerflowers to bees, than the presence of the Muses to

ily through the plains, and that oxen coming in me.

herds to the stalls should urge on the traveller by So in Ecclesiasticus (xiii. 6) we find "All flesh consorteth according to kind, and a man will cleave to his like; the birds

twilight. And, oh! that the fallow lands might will return to their like."

be broken up for sowing, when the cicala, sitting And Pope

Ion his tree, watches the shepherd in the open day,


and chirps on the topmost spray; that spiders | NECESSITY THE MOTHER OF INVENTION. may draw their fine webs over martial arms, and

Need alone, Diophantus, imparts the knowledge not even the name of the battle-cry be heard.

of arts, and is the mistress of labor, for corroding Virgil (Eclog. ii. 21) says—"A thousand of my lambs wan

cares take everything from toiling man, and if der on the Sicilian mountains."

In Psalms (lxv. 13) we find—“The pastures are clothed with soft slumbers rerresh his eyelids during the night, flocks; the valleys also are covered with corn; they shout suddenly some anxiety stealing in disturbs him. for joy, they also sing;” and (cxliv. 18)-"That our garners may be full, affording all manner of store; that our sheep

DREAMS. may bring forth thousands and ten thousands in our streets." It is like to Isaiah (ii. 4)—" Nation shall not lift sword against For in sleep every dog dreams of food, and I, nation, neither shall they learn war any more."

a fisherman, of fish.


SYLVAN SCENE. And Cos, when she beheld him, broke forth. They spying on a mountain a wild wood of with jubilant rapture, and said, touching the in- various kinds of trees, found under a smooth rock fant with fondling hands.

a perennial spring, filled with clear water, and This resembles the idea in Psalms (cxiv. 4)—"The moun- the pebbles below shone like crystal or silver from tains skipped like rams, and the little hills like lambs." (the depths; near the spot had grown tall pines, JOY BREAKING FORTH IN DANCING.

poplars, plane trees, cypresses with leafy tops,

and odorous flowers, pleasant work for hairy And they began to sing, all beating time with

bees, flowers as many as bloom in the meads cadence with many twinkling feet, and the house

when spring is ending. was ringing round with hymenean hymn.

Virgil (Æn. i. 164) seems to have copied this—“Then a can. In Gray's " Progress of Poesy " we find

opy of woods, checkered with light and shade and gloomy “Thee the voice, the dance, obey,

grove, overhangs with awful shade; under the opposite preTempered to thy warbled lay,

cipitous cliff is a cave in the overhanging rocks; within is a O'er Idalia's velvet green

| spring of fresh water and seats of natural rock, the abode The rosy-crowned Loves are seen

of the Nymphs."
On Cytherea's day,
With antic sports, and blue-eyed pleasures,

Frisking light in frolic measures;
Now pursuing, now retreating,

Now I go whither thou hast sentenced me,
Now in circling troops they meet;

whither, 'tis said, the road is common, where To brisk notes in cadence beating,

oblivion is the remedy for those that love. But Glance their many twinkling feet."

could I drink it all, not even thus could I slake CONTRAST OF MORN AND NIGHT.

my passionate longing. As rising morn shows its fair countenance Virgil (Æn. vi. 714) says—“They drink at the waters of against the dusky night,-as the clear spring, when

Lethe cups that relieve from care, and causing deep ob

livion." winter's gloom is gone,-so also the golden Helen

And Song of Solomon (viii. 6) says_"Love is strong as was wont to shine out amongst us.

death; jealousy is cruel as the grave; the coals thereof are So in Solomon's Song (vi. 10) we And__"Who is she that coals of fire, which hath a most vehement flame. Many looketh forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the

the waters cannot quench love, neither can the floods drown it." sun, and terrible as an army with banners!"

BEAUTY FADES. In Campbell's “Gertrude of Wyoming " we have "A boy . . .

J The rose is beauteous, but time causes it to Led by his dusky guide, like morning brought by night." | fade: the violet is fair in spring, and quickly And again in Solomon's Song (ii. 11)—"For lo, the winter is

grows out of date; the lily is white, fading when past, the rain is over and gone."

it droops; the snow is white, melting at the very " LOVE THAT'S IN HER E’E.”

time when it is congealed, and beautiful is the As Helen, in whose eyes the light of love lies. bloom of youth, but it lasts only for a short time. Burns says

THE ILLS OF LIFE MUST BE BORNE. “The kind love that's in her e'e."

Those ills which fate determines, man must A LOVING PAIR.

bear. Sleep on, happy pair, breathing into each other's bosom love and desire, and forget not to rise


In truth the day will come when the sharpIn Solomon's Song (viii. 3) we have—“His left hand should toothed wolf, having seen the kid in his lair, shall be under my head, and his right hand should embrace me. I

| not wish to harm it. charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, that ye stir not up nor &wake my love, until he pleases."

This is very much the same as in Isaiah (xi. 6)" The wolf

also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down MY LIPS DROP AS THE HONEYCOMB. with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fat. From my lips flowed tones more sweet than

| ling together; and a little child shall lead them." from a honeycomb.

MAN STANDS IN NEED OF MAN. In Solomon's Song (iv. 11) we find—“Thy lips, O my spouse, drop as the honeycomb; honey and milk are under thy

For Heaven's eternal wisdom has decreed tongue."

That man of man should ever stand in need.

LOVE GIVES VALUE EVEN TO SMALL GIFTS. | nothing of more value than caution. The loss of For love the smallest gift commends;

alloyed gold and silver may be borne; it is easy

for a shrewd intellect to discover its real quality; All things are valued by our friends.

but if a friend's heart be secretly untrue, and a WINE AND TRUTH.

treacherous heart be within him, this is the falsest Wine, dear youth, and truth is the proverb.

thing that God has made for man, and this is hardest of all to discover. For thou canst not know man's mind, nor woman's either, before thou hast proved it, like as of a beast of burden. So Shakespeare (" Timon," act iii. sc. 6)—

“Live loath'd, and long, THEOGNIS.

Most smiling, smooth, detested parasites;

You fools of fortune, trencher-friends, time's flies." BORN ABOUT B.C. 570—DIED ABOUT B.C. 490.

VAIN THOUGHTS OF MEN. THEOGNIS, a native of Megara, of whose per

| We men have vain thoughts, knowing nothing; sonal history little is known, except that he belonged to the Oligarchical party in the state, and while the gods accomplish all things after their shared its fate. He was a noble by birth, and all

own mind. his sympathies were with the nobles. In one of So Psalms (xciv. 11)—“The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the revolutions there was a division of the prop- man, that they are vanity; " (xxxix. 6)“ Man walketh in a

vain show." erty of the nobles, in which he lost his all.


Prefer to live piously on small means than to be From the good thou shalt learn good, but if

rich on what has been gotten unjustly. Every thou associate with the bad, thou wilt lose even

virtue is included in the idea of justice, as every the sense thou possessest.

just man is good. Fortune gives wealth indeed to SPEAK UNRESERVEDLY TO FEW.

the worst of men, but virtue is found in few. Communicate not to all friends alike thy affairs;

So Proverbs (xv. 16)—“Better is little with the fear of the

Lord than great treasure and trouble therewith;" and Psalms few out of a number have a trusty mind.

(Xxxvii. 14)—"A little that a righteous man hath is better So Shakespeare (" Henry VIII." act ii. sc. 1)

than the riches of many wicked." “Where you are liberal of your loves and counsels, Be sure you be not loose; for those you make friends

A BEGGAR ON HORSEBACK. And give your hearts to, when they once perceive

Wealth nurses insolence, when it comes to a The least rub in your fortunes, fall away Like water from ye.”

man of paltry spirit, and whose mind is not sound.

So Shakespeare (“Henry VI." part ii. act ii. sc. 4)

“Beggars mounted run their horse to death."
Delude me not with empty phrase, having your
mind and heart elsewhere, if thou lovest me, and

“BOAST NOT THYSELF OF TO-MORROW." there be in thee a faithful mind.

For no man knows what a night or a day may So Psalms (xxviii. 3)—“Which speak peace to their neigh- | bring forth. bor, but mischief is in their hearts; " (lxii. 4)—"They bless with their mouth, but they curse inwardly."

So Proverbs (xxvii. 1)-"Boast not thyself to-morrow; for

thou knowest not what a day may bring forth." KINDNESS TO THOSE OF LOW DEGREE.

LUST OF RICHES. It is the vainest task to bestow kindness on men of low degree, the same as to sow the hoary There is no limit to riches among men; for those foaming sea: since neither by sowing the deep of us who have most, strive after twice as much. with scattered grain, wouldst thou reap a rich Who could satisfy all ? Riches truly to mortals crop, nor by doing kindness to the mean, wouldst become folly. thou be repaid. For the mean have an insatiate So Ecclesiastes (v 10—“He that loveth silver shall not be spirit: if thou refusest a request. gratitude for all satisfied with silver; nor he that loveth abundance with former favors vanishes. While gallant hearts en

increase;" and Psalms (xxxix. 6)—"Surely they are dis

quieted in vain; he heapeth up riches, and knoweth not who joy in the highest degree kindnesses, retaining shall gather them.” the memory of good deeds and gratitude in after times.

THE LION. So Shakespeare (“Timon of Athens," act iii. sc. 1)

The lion does not always feast on flesh, but, “Thou disease of a friend, and not himself ! Has friendship such a faint and milky heart,

strong though he be, anxiety for food seizes him. It turns in less than two nights? This slave,

So Psalms (civ. 21)—"The young lions roar after their prey, Unto his honor has my lord's meat in him.”

and seek their meat from God.". TRENCHER-FRIENDS.

“THE RACE IS NOT TO THE SWIFT." Many are trencher-friends, few adhere to thee Even the slow man, if possessed of wisdom, has in matters of difficulty. Nothing is harder than overtaken the swift in the pursuit, with the aid of to detect a soul of base alloy, © Cyrnus, and the straightforward justice of the immortal gods.

So Ecclesiastes (ix. 11)—"I returned and saw under the sun wealth, while the good 'are destroyed, ground that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong." down by pinching pover

down by pinching poverty ? RESTRAIN THY TONGUE.

So Psalms (lxxiii. 3-5, 11-12)—“For I was envious at the

foolish, when I saw the prosperity of the wicked. For there Restrain thyself; let honeyed words ever attend are no bands in their death; but their strength is firm thy tongue; the heart indeed of men of low degree They are not in trouble as other men; neither are they is more sharp than is right.

plagued like other men. And they say, How doth God know?

and is there knowledge in the Most High ? Behold, these are So Proverbs (xiii. 3)—" He that keepeth his mouth keepeth

the ungodly, who prosper in the world; they increase in his life;" (xxxi. 6)" In her tongue is the law of kindness;" riches is and Shakespeare (“Hamlet," act i. sc. 3)— "Give thy thoughts no tongue, nor any unproportioned

YOUTH PASSES QUICKLY. thought his act."

For bright youth passes quickly as thought, nor THE RIGHTEOUS AND WICKED TREATED EQUALLY. is the speed of coursers fleeter. How, pray, son of Saturn, canst thou reconcile

“THE GODLY MAN CEASETH." it to thy sense of right and wrong to treat the wicked and the good in the same way, whether

Just oaths are no longer in existence among thou turnest thy attention to the wise or whether men,

men, neither does any one reverence the immorto the insolence of men, who yield to unjust

tal gods. The race of godly men has vanished, deeds ?

nor do they any longer know laws; no, nor holy

lives. So Psalms (lxxiii. 3-5, 11-12)—"For I was envious at the foolish, when I saw the prosperity of the wicked. For there

So Psalms (xii. 1)—-"Help, Lord; for the godly man are no bands in their death; but their strength is firm. They

her ceaseth; for the faithful fail from among the children of are not in trouble as other men; neither are they plagued

men." like other men. And they say, How doth God know and is

" WEEP WITH THEM THAT WEEP." there knowledge in the Most High Behold, these are the ungodly, who prosper in the world; they increase in riches." | Never let us sit down and laugh beside those

who weep, O Cyrnus, taking pleasure in our own JUDICIAL BLINDNESS.

advantages. Fortune is wont to make him regard easily So Romans (xii. 15)-“Rejoice with them that do rejoice, what is bad to be good and what is good to be and weep with them that weep."


So Isaiah (v. 20)-“Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!"


THUCYDIDES. Many men have not well-fitting doors on their

BORN B.C. 471-WAS ALIVE B.C. 403. tongues, and they care for many things, which it would be better to leave alone.

THUCYDIDES, the celebrated historian of Athens, So Psalms (cxli. 3)—"Set a watch, O Lord, before my

was the son of Olorus and Hegesipyle, through mouth; keep the door of my lips."

whom he claimed kindred with the family of Mil

tiades, the conqueror of Marathon. He is supBETTER NOT TO BE BORN.

posed to have been a pupil of Antiphon, of RhamOf all things, it is best for men not to be born, nus, and of Anaxagoras. At all events, as he was nor to see the rays of the bright sun; the next living in the centre of Greek civilization, he would, best thing is speedily to die and lie beneath a load no doubt, receive all the advantages which of earth.

Athens, then in the acme of its intellectual fame,

was able to bestow. We have no trustworthy evi“ GRAPES OF THORNS."

dence that he distinguished himself as an orator; For neither roses nor the hyacinth spring from but he was in command of a small squadron at the squill, no, nor ever a high-spirited child from Thasos, on his way to the relief of Amphipolis, a bond-woman.

B.C. 424, then besieged by the Lacedæmonians. He 80 Matthew (vii. 16)—“Do men gather grapes of thorns or

arrived too late at the scene of action; and, in figs of thistles!" and Horace (Od. iv. 4, 31)

consequence of this failure, he became an exile, "Nor do fierce eagles produce the timorous dove." probably to avoid a severer punishment. He lived

twenty years in exile, and returned to Athens RICHES NOT CARRIED TO THE GRAVE.

about the time when Thrasybulus freed Athens. For no one descends to Hades with his immense He is said to have been assassinated a short time wealth, nor can he by paying ransom escape after his return. The subject of his great work is death, or heavy diseases, or wretched old age the Peloponnesian war, which lasted from B.C. 431 creeping upon him.

to B.C. 404. So Psalms (xlix. 17)"For when he dieth he shall carry Lothing away; his glory shall not descend after him."


My history is presented to the public as a posTHE PROSPERITY OF THE UNGODLY. session for all times, and not merely as a rhetoriShould a wicked and infatuated wretch, who cal display to catch the applause of my contempocares for neither God nor man, be glutted with raries.


if the war should be protracted beyond expectaFor power is more firmly secured by treating

|tions-a very likely event. our equals with justice than if, elated by present

HOW MARITIME SUPREMACY IS TO BE ATTAINED, prosperity, we attempt to enlarge it at every risk.

Seamanship, and a knowledge of maritime afEXPOSTULATION WITH FRIENDS.

fairs, is as much a science as any other art. It Expostulation is just towards friends who have

cannot be learned by snatches, nor can a knowlfailed in their duty; accusation is to be used

edge of it be acquired except by a persisting and

| uninterrupted devotion to its study. against enemies guilty of injustice.


For the events of war are ever changing, and Mankind, as it seems, are more apt to resent

fierce attacks are frequently made by small numacts of injustice than acts of violence. Those that are inflicted by equals are regarded as the result of

bers with great fury. Often, too, an inferior

body, by cautious measures, have defeated a supe a grasping and rapacious disposition; those coming from superiors are submitted to as a matter of

rior force, whom contempt of their opponent had

led to neglect proper precautions. In an enemy's necessity.

country it is always the duty of soldiers to have THE PRESENT IS GRIEVOUS TO SUBJECTS. their minds girt up for action, and looking

around with circumspection, to have their arms The present is always burdensome to subjects.

ready to resist. Thus they will find themselves THE SUCCESS OF WAR DEPENDS VERY MUCH ON best able to rush forward to the attack, and least MONEY.

likely to suffer from the attacks of their oppoThe success of war is not so much dependent on nents. arms, as on the possession of money, by means of

DISCIPLINE. which arms are rendered serviceable, and more

The noblest sight, and surest defence for a nuparticularly so when a military power is fighting

merous army, is to observe strict discipline and with a naval.

undeviating obedience to their officers. WAR SOMETIMES IS TO BE PREFERRED TO


For the praises bestowed upon others are only It is, indeed, the part of the wise, so long as I to be endured so long as men imagine that they they are not injured, to be lovers of peace. But it.

of peace; but it are able to perform the actions which they hear is the part of the brave, if they are injured, to

others to have done; they envy whatever they give up the enjoyments of peace, that they may

consider to be beyond their power, and are unwillenter upon war, and, as soon as they are success

088- | ing to believe in its truth. ful, to be ready to sheathe their swords. Thus, they ought never to allow themselves to be too

EQUALITY. much elated by military success, nor yet to be so

For we possess a form of government of such fond of peace as to submit to insult.

excellence, that it gives us no reason to envy the DIFFERENCE OF RESULTS IN PLANS.

laws of our neighbors. We often serve as a pat

tern to others: but we have never found it necesFor many enterprises, that have been badly sary to follow their example. It is called a popuplanned, have come to a successful issue, from lar government, because its object is not to favor the thoughtless imprudence of those against the interests of the few, but of the greater number. whom they were directed; and a still greater In private disputes we are all equal in the eye of number, that have appeared to be entering on the the law; and, in regard to the honors of the state, path of victory, have come to a disastrous end. we rise according to merit, and not because we This arises from the very different spirit with belong to a particular class. Though we are poor, which we devise a scheme, and put it into execu- lif we are able to serve our country by our talents, tion. In council, we consult in the utmost secu- obscurity of birth is no obstacle. We carry on rity; in execution, we fail from being surrounded public affairs with gentlemanly feeling, having no with dangers.

unworthy suspicions of each other in the daily THE POOR MORE WILLING TO GIVE THE SERVICES

affairs of life, nor indulging in angry passion tow

* | ards our neighbor for pursuing his own course, OF THEIR BODIES THAN THEIR MONEY.

nor yet putting on that look of displeasure, Accumulated wealth is a far surer support of which pains, though it can do nothing more. war than forced contributions from unwilling citi- Conversing with the kindliest feeling towards zens. The poor, who gain their livelihood by the each other in private society, above all things we sweat of their brow, are more willing to give the avoid to break the enactments of the state, rerer services of their body in defence of their country, encing the magistrates, and obeying the lawsthan to contribute from their contracted means. those more particularly that have been enacted The former, though at some risk, they think it for the protection of the injured, as well as those possible may survive the crisis; while the latter, which, though they are unwritten, bring sure disthey are certain will be gone forever, especially I grace on the transgressors. In addition to all this,

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