« 이전계속 »
in order that our minds might unbend 00-1
PRUDENT MEASURES. casionally from the dull routine of business, we
For boasting and bravado may exist in the have appointed numerous games and sacred festi
breast even of the coward, if he is successful vals throughout the year, performed with a certain
through a mere lucky hit; but a just contempt of solemn pomp and elegance, so that the charms of
an enemy can alone arise in those who feel that such daily sights may drive away melancholy. The grandeur of this city causes the produce of
they are superior to their opponent by the pru
dence of their measures, as in the case with us. the whole world to be imported into it, so that we
And even when the parties are pretty equally enjoy not only the delicacies peculiar to our own country, but also those that come from other
matched in other respects, the very consciousness
of this superiority in prudence gives an additional lands.
stimulus to courage; and the man who is in diffiCHARACTER OF BRITISH NATION FORESHADOWED. culties trusts less to hopes, which may deceive In military tactics we feel superior to our oppo
him, than to a wise judgment, the foresight of nents; for we throw open our state to all who
which enables him to guard against disappointchoose to resort to it; nor do we ever drive any
ments. stranger from our shores who comes for instruction,
EVILS INFLICTED BY HEAVEN. or from curiosity, making no concealment of anything, lest our enemies should derive some benefit.
The evils inflicted by Heaven ought to be borne We trust not so much to being thoroughly pre
pred with patient resignation, and the evils inflicted by pared, or to cunning devices, as to our own innate
enemies with manly fortitude. courage. In training, there are some people who
MEN OF MERIT SUBJECT TO ENVY. are, from their youth, inured by laborious exercise to submit to toil; but we, leading an easy and To be an object of hatred and aversion to their luxurious life, are ready at any moment to face contemporaries has been the usual fate of all dangers with the same recklessness as they.
those whose merit has raised them above the
common level. The man who submits to the POVERTY.
shafts of envy for the sake of noble objects, purAn avowal of poverty is a disgrace to no man; sues a judicious course for his own lasting fame. to make no effort to escape from it is indeed dis Hatred dies with its object, while merit soon graceful.
breaks forth in full splendor, and his glory is
handed down to posterity in never-dying strains. THE BRITISH NATION FORESHADOWED IN THE ATHENIAN.
THE DULLER PART OF MANKIND. For we are the only people who think him that the duller part of mankind, in general, hold does not take part in public affairs to be not mere- I the reins of government with a steadier hand than ly lazy, but good for nothing. Besides, we pass
your men of wit and vivacity. The latter are the soundest judgments, and have an intuitive
anxious to appear wiser than the laws. In every knowledge of what is likely to happen; never con
discussion about the public good they look merely sidering that discussion of a subject stands in
to victory, as if they would have no other opporthe way of its execution, but rather that we suffer
tunity to show off their superior talents. In this from not having duly examined the question be
way they are very apt to destroy the proper balfore we proceed to carry it out. It is in this that
ance of the constitution. The former, who have ve show our distinguishing excellence—that we
no confidence in their own abilities, are quite willare bold as lions in the hour of action, and yet can
ing to confess that they are not above the laws of calmly deliberate on the expediency of our meas
their country, though they are unable to cope with ures. The courage of others is the consequence
the specious. statements of the showy orator. of ignorance; caution makes them cowards. But Therefor
Therefore, they are abler administrators of public those, undoubtedly, must be regarded to be the affaire: berat
affairs; because they are good judges of what is bravest who, having the most acute perception of
t acute perception of equitable, though inferior in debate. the sufferings of war and the sweets of peace, are yet not in the least prevented from facing danger.
THE EFFECT OF PROSPERITY.
It is the usual result of a sudden and unexpected For it is not those who are reduced to misery. gleam of prosperity on a people, that it makes and who have no hopes of bettering their fort them Vainglorious and art
them vainglorious and arrogant. Good fortune, unes, that ought to be ready to shed their blood
attained as a consquence of judicious measures, is in defence of their country; but much more those
more likely to last than what bursts upon us at who, if they live long enough, will find a change
once. And, to conclude, men are much more dexfrom their present prosperity difficult to be borne,
terous in warding off adversity than in preserving and to whom adversity, therefore, is a serious calamity. For hard times, after a life of luxurious ease, are felt more keenly by a man of spirit
PECULIAR TEMPER OF MAN. than death, which leaves us without feeling; sol For so remarkably perverse is the nature of man, that the stroke is met with fortitude, and reaches that he despises whoever courts him, and admires us in the midst of public prosperity.
I whoever will not bend before him.
ALL MEN ARE SINNERS.
| for adroitness than their dupes are for goodness. The whole of mankind, whether individuals or | The latter cannot refrain from blushing; the forcommunities, are by nature liable to sin; and mer rejoice in their iniquities. there is no law that can ever prevent this, since
PRECEDENTS. men have had recourse to all kinds of punishment
Men are foolish enough, in their desire for venwithout effect, adding to their severity, if by any
geance, to make precedents against themselves by means they might restrain the outrages of the
infringing those laws which are the common prowicked.
tection of mankind, and from which alone they THE INCENTIVES OF HOPE AND LOVE. can expect aid if they fall into difficulties. The greatest stimuli in every undertaking are MAKE ALLOWANCE FOR CHANCE IN EVERYTHING. hope and ambition; the one points the way, the
way, the It is the part of the wise, in their estimates of
It is the part of other follows closely on its heels; the one devises success. to make due allowance for the effects of the mode in which it may be accomplished, the chance
mphished, the chance. These men will be more likely to bear
Th other suggests the aid to be got from Fortune.
ortune the frowns of Fortune with equanimity; and will These two principles are the cause of all our evils; Shen
our eviis; be prepared to think that war does not invariably and, though unseen, are much stronger than the to
ronger, than the take the direction which we wish to give it, but terror which wasteth by noonday. And then, in that
that to which Fortune leads us. And men of this addition to these, Fortune herself is active in
character have little chance of failing in their urging men to the encountering of dangers; for,
or, schemes, or of having the pedestal of their fortune presenting herself suddenly before them, she in
thrown down, because they are too much puffed cites even the faint-hearted to make an effort.
up by present appearances. And, above all, this is the case with communities, which contend for matters of great concernment,
CALAMITIES OF WAR. such as liberty, or the dominion over others. In
And, in regard to the calamities of war, what the general ardor each individual feels himself need is there to relate, in minute detail, all that roused to put forth his strength to the utmost.
happens in the ears of men who have only tod CONTRAST OF TIMES OF PEACE AND WAR.
much experience of them? No one ever plunged
| headlong into these from ignorance of what will In the piping times of peace and prosperity, follow; nor yet, when they expect to gratify their communities, as well as individuals, have their an
eir ambitious views, are they ever deterred by fear, feelings as well as nature less excited, because In the latter case, the expectations of what is to they are not under the compulsion of stern neces- be gained are thought to overbalance the dangers sities. Whereas war, which strips them of their that are likely to accrue; and the former prefer to daily food, is a rough teacher, and renders their undergo any danger than to suffer diminution of passions in accordance with their present condi
their present possessions. If neither party seem tion.
likely to carry out their views, then exhortations WORDS LOSE THEIR SIGNIFICANCE.
to mutual agreement seem highly proper. They changed the common signification of
REVENGE NOT CERTAIN. words at their pleasure, and distorted them, in Vengeance does not necessarily follow because a order to palliate their actions. For what was man has sustained an injury: nor is power sure of once thought senseless audacity began to be es
its end because it is full of sanguine expectations, teemed contempt of danger in defence of a friend; Fortune hangs up, in general. her unsteady balprudent caution to be plausible cowardice; bash
e; bash- ance, which, while little dependence can be placed fulness to be the pretext for sloth; and the being
1$ upon it, yet gives us most useful hints. For, as wary in everything as only another word for lazi
we have thus a wholesome dread of each other, ness. A hot, fiery temper was looked upon as
we advance to the contest with thoughtful prethe exhibition of a manly character; circumspect
meditation. and calm deliberation to be a specious pretext for intended knavery. He who was subject to gusts
MIGHT MAKES RIGHT. of passion was always considered trustworthy;! For it is more disgraceful for men in high office who presumed to contradict was ever the object to improve their private fortune by specious fraud of suspicion. He who succeeded in a roguish than by open violence. Might makes right in the scheme was wise, but he who anticipated it in one case; while, in the other, man throws over his others was still a more able genius; but he whose proceedings the cloak of despicable cunning. foresight enabled him to be above all such proceedings was looked upon as one who put an end HOW A STATE CAN PRESERVE ITSELF FREE. to friendship, and was awed by his enemies. In For it is a maxim allowed, that no state can short, the highest praise was considered to be possibly preserve itself free, unless it be a match due to him who forestalled his neighbor in doing for neighboring powers. mischief, or who egged on another to it.
THE SANGUINE NATURE OF HOPE.
It is the usual way of mankind blindly to inThe number of villains is large in this world; dulge in sanguine hopes of gaining a favorite oband they are more successful in acquiring a name lject, and to throw aside with despotic scorn what
ever bas the appearance of running counter to than of one who merely professes his intention to their wishes.
defend himself against assaults, as they think that there will be then only an equality of danger.
Hope, a solace in dangerous emergencies, is not THE GOVERNMENT OF AN OLIGARCHY AND DEalways fatal to those who indulge in its flattering
MOCRACY. tales, if they are in a position to bear a disappointment. By those, however, who place their all on It may, perhaps, be said that a democracy is a the hazard of a cast, its delusions (for hope is ex- form of government repugnant to the dictates of travagant in its nature) are then only known by wisdom and justice; that those who are the experience, wien it is no longer possible to guard wealthiest are more likely to conduct public against its snares.
affairs successfully. To this I answer, in the first
place, that by the word people is meant a whole MEN HAVE RECOURSE TO DIVINATIONS IN CALAM- community, including every individual; whereas
an oligarchy is only a small portion of the people: Be not like the mob of mankind, who, though in the next place, that the wealthy are, no doubt, they might be saved by human exertions, as soon the best guardians of the public treasure, and that as faint hopes of safety are visible, have recourse men of prudence and forethought are the best adto others of a darker cast, -to necromancy, fort-visers in public matters; but the people in the une-tellers, and such foolish courses as hope sug- mass are, after listening to a discussion, the best gests to draw them on to destruction.
judges of measures. And that these different
ranks of citizens are thus, in a democracy, able, DISHONOR.
both as a part and as a whole, to enjoy an equality For you will be no longer controlled by that of privilege. But, on the other hand, an oligarchy sense of shame which leads men to ruin when compels the great mass of the people to share in dishonor stares them in the face, and danger
the dangers of the state while it not only monopopresses them from behind. For many, though lizes most of the advantages, but actually takes to they see plainly enough into what evils they are itself everything on which it can lay its hand. going to plunge, yet, to avoid the imputation of dishonor,-so powerful is the force of one bewitch DANGER IN MULTITUDE OF COUNSELLORS. ing sound!-feel themselves obliged to yield to a course of which their better reason may disap
A multitude of generals and many counsellors prove, and rush wilfully into irremediable calam- are ve ities, and incur a more shameful weight of dishonor through their own mad obstinacy than
REVENGE IS SWEET. Fortune would have awarded them.
Nay more, we have the best opportunity of reMEN WHO MAINTAIN THEMSELVES IN CREDIT.
venging ourselves on a detested enemy, which, ac
cording to the proverb, is the most pleasant thing For those are the men to maintain themselves in the world. with credit in the world, who never suffer their equals to insult them, who show proper respect to
HISTORY. their superiors, and act with thoughtful kindness to their inferiors.
History is philosophy teaching by examples.
EVERYTHING UNKNOWN IS MAGNIFIED. For we all know that things placed at the greatest distance from us, as well as those whose character we have never known by experience, are most apt to excite our admiration.
FLOURISHED ABOUT B.C. 340. You are convinced by experience that very few TIMOCLES, an Athenian comic poet of the midthings are brought to a successful issue by impetu- dle comedy, who flourished about B.C. 340. Suidas ous desire, but most by calm and prudent fore- gives the titles of nineteen dramas. thought.
of plenty of money byl For poverty sometimes forces many to do, conmeans of which war and every other human en-trary to their natural disposition, things unworthy terprise are easily brought to a successful end.
of them. THE ASSAILANT IS MOST TO BE DREADED,
POVERTY. The opinions of men depend very much on ru- Poverty sometimes forces many to do acts unmors; and they have a greater dread of an enemy worthy of them, contrary to their natural disposiwho proclaims himself ready to begin the attack, tion.
them safely back to Greece. When Socrates was
put to death, B.C. 399, we find that Xenophon was FLOURISHED ABOUT B.C. 660.
shortly after obliged to leave Athens, and took TYRTEUS, son of Archembrotus, is said to have
refuge, with his family, at Scillus, under the probeen by birth an Athenian, but became a citizen of
tection of the Lacedæmonians. Here he spent Lacedæmon. There is a story that he was a lame
twenty years in exile, hunting, writing, and enterschoolmaster, of low family and reputation, whom
taining his friends. After this long residence, he the Athenians, when applied to by the Lacedæmo- was compelled by the Eleans to leave Scillus, and is nians, in accordance with the oracle, purposely said to have retired to Corinth. Of the historical sent as the most inefficient leader they could se- works of Xenophon, the “ Anabasis,” or the Hislect; but it turned out that his poetry achieved
tory of the Expedition of the Younger Cyrus, and that victory which his physical condition seemed of the Retreat of the Greeks who formed part of to forbid his aspiring.
his army, has immortalized his name. TO DIE FOR ONE'S COUNTRY.
THE GODS OMNISCIENT. It is honorable for a brave man to die, having.
Socrates thought that the gods knew all things. fallen in front of the ranks, fighting for his father-both what is said, what is done, and what is medland.
itated in silence, are everywhere present, and give
warnings to men of everything human. COWARDICE.
So 1 John (iii. 20)—"God is greater than our heart, and It is not in the force of words to paint the varied uxoweth all things." ills which befall a man if he has been actuated by cowardice.
Wherefore fathers keep their sons, even though THE BRAVE MAN:
they be virtuous, from the society of the wicked, as This is virtue—this the noblest meed among they consider association with the virtuous as men, and the best for a young man to carry off- likely to incline them to virtue, and with the this is a common good to a city and all its wicked as sure to prove its destruction. people, namely, whoever, standing firm, is fore- The truth of this is borne witness to by one of the poets most of the embattled train, and is altogether for- | (Theognis v. 35)-From every good man thou wilt learn getful of base flight, when he has staked his life what is good; but if thou associatest with the wicked, thou and firm spirit, but has the courage to die beside wilt lose the sense that is in thee.” And another poet says, his neighbors. Such a man is a brave warrior.
“A good man is at one time good, and at another bad." THE DEATH OF THE BRAVE.
GOD KNOWS BEST WHAT IS GOOD FOR MAN. He, having fallen amidst the foremost, loses his! Socrates, prayed to the gods simply that they life, bringing glory to his city, people, and father, would give him what was good, inasmuch as the pierced in many places through breast and bossed gods knew best what things are good for man. shield, and through his armor in front. Young Those who prayed for gold, or silver, or high and old alike lament him with sad regret. His power, or anything of that kind, he regarded as tomb and children are famed among men,-chil- doing the same as if they prayed that they might drens' children, and his whole descendants after play at dice, or fight, or anything of that kind, of him. Never does his fair fame or name perish;
which the result was dependent on chance. but though he be under the ground, he becomes
So Matt. (vi. 7)—“But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, immortal. Whoever acting nobly, fighting for
as the heathen do; for they think that they shall be heard for
their much speaking." country and children, impetuous Ares shall have destroyed.
"THE POOR WIDOW'S MITE." When Socrates presented small sacrifices from his small means, he considered that he was not at all inferior in merit to those who offered many and
great sacrifices from ample and abundant means; XENOPHON.
for he said that it was not becoming for the gods
to delight in large rather than in small sacrifices. BORN PROBABLY BEFORE B.C. 444-WAS ALIVE B.C. 357.
WHO ARE MOST RESPECTFUL TO THE GODS. XENOPHON, the illustrious commander, histo Dost thou not see that the oldest and wisest of rian, and philosopher, was the son of Gryllus, an human communities and cities and nations show Athenian. He was the pupil of Socrates, and most respect to the gods, and that the wisest age made rapid progress in that moral wisdom for of man is most careful of the worship of the gods? which his master was so eminent. He joined the army of Cyrus the younger, in his expedition
GOD OMNIPRESENT AND OMNISCIENT. against his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, king of The Divinity is so great, and of such a characPersia; and when that enterprise proved unfortu- ter, that He both sees and hears all things, is nate, he took command of the Greek troops, and everywhere present, and attends to all things at assisted, by his prudence and skill, in bringing I once.
So Psalms (cii. 25)—“Of old hast Thou laid the foundation of furnishing provisions for his soldiers; a man of the earth; and the heavens are the work of Thy hands. They mechanical contrivance and activity, careful, pershall perish, but Thou shalt endure; yea, all of them shall
m. severing, sagacious, affectionate, and, at the same wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt Thou change them,
18, sagatus, aneuronate, and, at the same and they shall be changed. But Thou art the same, and Thy time, severe; open, yet crafty; careful of his own, years shall have no end."
yet ready to steal from others; profuse, yet rapa
cious; lavish of presents, yet eager to acquire THE BEST SAUCE.
money; cautious, yet enterprising, -and many Dost thou not know that he who eats with most other qualities, both natural and acquired, which pleasure is he who least requires sauce, and that he who would fill the office of general well, must he who drinks with the greatest pleasure is he possess. who least desires other drink than that which he has?
BEST MEN MOST PIOUS BEFORE GOD.
Socrates said that the best men were the most DIVINE NATURE IS PERFECTION.
observant of the worship of the gods. I think to want nothing is to resemble the So Joshua (xxiv. 15)" As for me and my house, we will
serve the Lord." gods, and to want as little as possible is to make the nearest approach to the gods; that the Divine THE LOOKS AND GESTURES SHOW THE CHARACTER. nature is perfection, and that to be nearest to the
Surely, also, nobleness and generosity of dispoDivine nature is to be nearest to perfection.
sition, lowness of mind and illiberality, modesty So Psalms (1. 9)--" I will take no bullock out of thy house, and intelligence, insolence and stupidity, are nor he-goats out of thy folds: for every beast of the forest is
shown both in the countenance and gestures of mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills."
men, whether they are standing or moving. HONOR GOD.
GOD SHOWS HIMSELF BY HIS WORKS. If thou wishest the gods to be propitious to He who arranges and holds together the whole thee, thou must honor the gods.
universe, in which are all things beautiful and So Psalms (cxv. 18)—"The Lord is nigh unto all them that good, and who preserves it always unimpaired, call upon Him, that all that call upon Him in truth.”
undisordered, and undecaying, obeying His will GOD GRANTS NOTHING WITHOUT LABOR. swifter than thought, and without irregularity, is
Himself manifested only in the performance of His The gods give nothing really good and beautiful
u mighty works, but is invisible to us while He is without labor and diligence.
regulating them. 80 Genesis (iii. 19)—" In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread."
THE SOUL OF MAN. WHAT BENEFITS CHILDREN RECEIVE FROM THEIR The soul of man is part of the Divinity, if there PARENTS.
be any part of man really so.
So Romans (v.5)" Because the love of God is shed abroad Whom then, said Socrates, can we find receiving
8 in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which is given unto us." greater advantages from any persons than from their parents ? Children, whom their parents ALL MEN HAVE WORSHIPPED GOD FROM THE BEhave brought from non-existence into existence, to
GINNING OF THE WORLD. behold so many beautiful objects, and to partake It is believed that the gods have been worof so many blessings which are granted by the shipped by all men from the very beginning. gods to men: blessings which appear to us so inestimable that we shrink in the highest degree
HONOR THE GODS ACCORDING TO YOUR MEANS. from abandoning them.
It becomes the man who fails in no ways to
honor the gods to the best of his means, to be of THE LOW-MINDED AND THE HONORABLE.
good courage, hoping for the greatest blessings; The low-minded thou canst not gain otherwise for no one can with reason hope for greater blessthan by giving them something; whereas the ings from others than from those who are able to honorable and the good thou mayest best attract | benefit him most. by treating them in a kindly manner.
So Psalms (xxxii. 10—“He that trusteth in the Lord, mercy
shall encompass him about." WE ARE MEMBERS OF ONE BODY TO ASSIST EACH OTHER.
THE OMNIPRESENCE OF GOD. At present, Socrates said, you are in the same. The fury of the gods I know not how any man state as if the two hands, which the gods have may escape by flight, nor in what darkness he made to assist each other, should neglect their could hide himself, nor in what strong place he duty, and begin to impede each other. Would it could take refuge. For all things are everywhere not be a great folly and misfortune to use for our subject to the control of the gods, and they rule in hurt what was intended for our benefit ?
the armies of heaven as among the inhabitants of
he earth: THE QUALIFICATIONS OF A GENERAL. But, said Socrates, this is much the best part of
RULERS ARE NECESSARY. the qualifications of a general: for a general must For without rulers and directors nothing honor be skilful in preparing what is necessary for war, I able or useful can be accomplished, to sum up in