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A FAVOR SLOWLY BESTOWED.
BETTER NOT TO BE BORN. A favor which is tardily bestowed is no favor; Therefore the sentiment of the Greeks is best, for a favor which has been quickly granted is a for they say that it is best for man not to be born, more agreeable favor.
or being born, quickly to die.
WHATEVER THOU DOEST, DO IT QUICKLY.
THE SUSPECTED. and then thou mayest expect gratitude: a favor! The suspected and the man reg
The suspected and the man really guilty seem to grudgingly conferred causes ingratitude.
differ only slightly.
BORN B.C. 100—DIED B.C. 44.
C, JULIUS CÆSAR, the dictator, the son of C.
Julius Cæsar and Aurelia, was born on the 12th July “Freeze, freeze, thou bitter sky,
B.C. 100, and murdered on the 15th March B.C. 44.
He attached himself to the popular party, and mar-
ried, B.C. 83, Cornelia, the daughter of L. Cinna, Thy sting is not so sharp
one of the chief opponents of Sulla ; being in conAs friend remember'd not."
sequence proscribed and obliged to conceal himAnd (" Twelfth Night," act iii. sc. 1) :
self for some time in the country of the Sabines. "I hate ingratitude more in a man
He served for several years in the wars of Asia, Than lying, vainness, babbling, drunkenness
but returned to Rome B.C. 78, on hearing of the Orany taint of vice."
death of Sulla. He became quæstor B.C. 68, præ
tor B.C. 62, reaching the consulship B.C. 59, when FICKLENESS OF FORTUNE.
he joined Pompey and Crassus in an agreement Fortune is never stable, is always turning, al- to support one another and divide the power ways changing; throws down the prosperous and between themselves. This was what was called raises the humble.
the first triumvirate; and to make his union with Euripides (Fr. Ino. 23) says:
Pompey still more intimate, he gave him his "Thou seest what small things are sufficient to bring down | daughter Julia in marriage. He married at the tyrants who have had a long course of prosperity ; even one same time Calpurnia, the daughter of L. Piso, day poils this man from his lofty seat and raises another.
who was consul the following year. Obtaining Raches have wings : for I see those who once had them fallI ing from their high hopes.”
the province of Gaul, he was occupied for nine Diphilus (Fr. Com. Gr., p. 1093, M.) says :
years in its subjugation, conquering the whole of * As Fortune sometimes, while she is conferring on us one Transalpine Gaul, which had hitherto been indegood, in doing so pumps up three evils."
pendent of the Romans, with the exception of the HOW ENEMIES ARE INCREASED.
part called Provincia: he twice crossed the Rhine,
and carried the terror of the Roman arms across When thou causeth fear to many, then is the that river and he twice landed in Britain which time to be on thy guard.
had hitherto been unknown to the Romans. PRESERVE EQUANIMITY,
While Cæsar had been thus actively engaged in
Gaul, affairs in Rome had taken a turn which If fortune is favorable, be not elated; if fort
threatened a speedy rupture between him and une thunders, be not cast down.
Pompey. The ten years of Cæsar's government FEAR CONSCIENCE.
would expire at the end of B.C. 49, and he was
therefore resolved to obtain the consulship for When about to commit a base deed, respect thy
B.C. 48, as he would otherwise be reduced to a priself if thou hast no other witness.
vate station. Pompey joined the aristocratical Diphilus, who flourished B.C. 300 (Fr.Com. Gr., p. 1091, M.), party, and prepared to resist the proceedings of says much to the same effect :
his opponent ; but Cæsar crossed the Rubicon, * For whoever does not feel ashamed before his own conscience, when he has committed a base deed, why will he
which separated his province from Italy, and in feel ashamed before another who is unconscious of it ? " three months subdued the whole of Italy. Having
defeated his rival Pompey in the plains of PharLARGE DOWRY CAUSE OF MISCHIEF.
salia B.c. 48, he became undisputed master of the When the dowry is too large, it is often the Roman empire. He caused himself to be pro-' cause of much mischief.
claimed perpetual dictator, and had actually con
sented to accept the imperial throne, when he was BEGUN HALF DONE.
murdered by the republican party, who hoped by Set about whatever thou intendest to do: the his death to restore the old constitution. He fell beginning is half the battle.
l in the Senate House on the 15th March B.C. 44.
PUNISHMENT OF WICKEDNESS. . He was the author of 116 poems, which we still The gods sometimes grant greater prosperity possess. They are partly epigrammatic, partly and a longer period of impunity to those whom elegiac, with a few lyrical pieces. Catullus was they wish to punish for their crimes, in order that deeply imbued with the spirit of Greek poetry, they may feel more acutely a change of circum- and had formed his taste on that model. stances.
He is now travelling along that darksome path It is the right of war for conquerors to treat to the bourne from which, they say, no one ever those whom they have conquered according to returns. their pleasure.
THE WHISPERING OF THE TREES.
For on the ridge of Cytorus it often gave forth a They allowed no wine or other luxuries to be,
* | hissing, while the leaves spoke.. imported, because they believed they had a tendency to enervate the mind and make men less
Tennyson ("The Princess ") thus expresses the same idea:brave in battle.
" As in a poplar grove when a light wind wakes
A lisping of the innumerous leaf, and dies,
Each hissing in his neighbor's ear."
ONE ETERNAL NIGHT TO ALL. olutions.
Suns may set and rise; we, when our short day GAULS.
has closed, must sleep on during one never-ending Almost all the Gauls are fond of change, and night. easily excited to war, while they are at the same Young, in his “ Night Thoughts” (No. 6), says in a very time attached to liberty and hate slavery.
“Look nature through, 'tis revolution all; THE WISH IS FATHER TO THE THOUGHT.
All change, no death; day follows night, and night
The dying day; stars rise, and set and rise. Men willingly believe what they wish.
Earth takes the example. See the Summer, gay
With her green chaplets and ambrosial flowers, IMITATIVE CHARACTER OF THE GAULS.
Droops into pallid Autumn: Winter gray, They are a race of consummate ingenuity, and Horrid with frost and turbulent with storm, possess wonderful powers to imitate whatever
Blows Autumn and his golden fruits away,
Then melts into the Spring: soft Spring, with breath they see done by others.
Favonian, from warm chambers of the South
Recalls the first. All, to reflourish, fades;
As in a wheel all sinks, to reascend;
Emblems of man, who passes, not expires." every feeling of pity.
See Sir Walter Scott's lament over Pitt and Fox in the in
troduction to “ Marmion," beginningTO THROW BLAME ON THE DEAD.
“ To mute and to material things
New life revolving summer brings," etc. That he knew, and was well aware, that nothing was easier than to ascribe the blame of an act to
GROSS PLEASURES. the dead.
Gross and vulgar pleasures.'
A STUPID BOOBY.
That stupid booby of mine is so crazy that he In war important events are produced by trivial
neither sees nor hears, and even knows not wha causes.
he is, or whether he exists at all.
Is as deaf and as blind as a buzzard can be;
Or whether in fact, he exists or does not."-MARTIN.
THE MOTE IN OUR OWN EYE.
Every one has his faults, but we see not the
wallet that is behind.. CAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS, a celebrated Latin
Burns says:poet, was born at Sirmio, in the vicinity of Ve
"O wad some power the giftie gie us rona, B.C. 87, one year before the historian Sal
To see oursels as ithers see us." lust. His father was the friend of Julius Cæsar,
So Psalm xix. 13:and Catullus himself was on intimate terms of "Who can understand his errors ? cleanse thou me from friendship with all the most illustrious men of secret faults." his age. His time was spent principally at Rome or in his villa near Tibur. It is not known when
THE PLEASURE OF REST AFTER LABOR. he died, but it must have been subsequently to Oh, what is more sweet than, when the mind, B.C. 47, as he mentions the consulship of Vatinius. I set free from care, lays its burden down; and,
when spent with distant travel, we come back to Floating away till they are lost to sight
Each to his home with wand'ring steps withdrew.
MARTIN A silly laugh's the silliest thing I know.
CONFOUNDING OF RIGHT AND WRONG.
The confounding of all right and wrong in the O sweet meetings of friends, farewell.
wild fury of war has averted from us the gracious Tennyson (** The Princess," cant. iv.) expresses the same smile of heaven. Bea very beautifully:-“Tears, idle tears, I know not what they mean,
FICKLENESS OF WOMAN. Tears from the depth of some divine despair
The vows that woman makes to her fond lover Rise in the heart, and gather in the eyes, In looking on the happy Autumn fields,
are only fit to be written on air or on the swiftlyAnd thinking of the days that are no more."
DIFFICULT TO RELINQUISH A CONFIRMED PASSION. Peer for the gods he seems to me
It is difficult to give up at once a long-cherished And mightier, if that may be,
passion. Who, sitting face to face with thee, Can there serenely gaze;
THE INCONSISTENCIES OF LOVE. Can hear thee sweetly speak the while,
I hate and I love. Why I do so, thou mayest Can see thee, Lesbia, sweetly smile, Joys that from me my senses wile,
perhaps inquire: I know not; but I feel that it is
so, and I am tormented.
Each limb a subtle flame
BORN B.C. 106-DIED B.C. 43.
M. TULLIUS CICERO, born on the 3d January B.C.
106, was a native of the city of Arpinum, but rePALSIED OLD AGE.
ceived his education at Rome under Greek masters, Till hoary age shall steal on thee,
more particularly under the renowned Archias of With loitering step and trembling knee,
Antioch. During the scenes of strife and bloodAnd palsied head, that ever bent,
shed between Marius and Sulla, he identified himTo all in all things nods assent.-MARTIN. self with neither party, devoting his time to those
studies which were essential to him as a lawyer THERE IS A TIDE IN THE AFFAIRS OF MEN. and an orator. When tranquillity was restored, he What is granted by the gods more desirable
came forward as a pleader at the age of twentyfhan a lucky moment?
five, but thinking that there was great room for
improvement in his style of composition and mode THE VIRGIN.
of delivery, he determined to quit Italy and visit
the great fountains of arts and eloquence. He reAs the flower grows apart in the secluded gar- ma
led garmained six months at Athens, and then made a dens unknown to the cattle, bruised by no plough, I complete tour of Asia Minor, returning to Rome fondled by the breezes, strengthened by the rays after an absence of two years, B.C, 77. His great of the sun, and nourished by the rains of heaven; talente deve
talents, developed by such careful and judicious many a boy and girl have desired to pluck it; when the
nen training under the most cultivated masters, could the same flower, plucked by some tiny hand, has
not fail to command success. Though possessed lost its beauty, no boys or girls have desired it; so
of no family influence, he was elected quæstor B.C. is the virgin, while she remains so, while she is
76, and, having Sicily as his province, he disbeloved by her friends, but when she has lost her
charged his trust so faithfully that he gained the chaste flower, she is neither pleasing to the youth
love and esteem of all the Sicilians. He undertook por beloved by the girls.
some years afterwards the prosecution of Verres,
who had been prætor of Sicily, and was charged THE RISING BREEZE.
with many flagrant acts of extortion. This proseAs when at early dawn the western breeze
cution was successful, and Verres, despairing of Into a ripple breaks the slumbering seas,
being able to defend himself, went into voluntary Which gently stirr'd, move slowly on at first, exile. He was appointed consul B.c. 63, and gained And into gurglings low of laughter burst
great glory by suppressing the conspiracy formed Anon, as fresher blows the rising blast,
by Catiline and his accomplices for the subversion The waves crowd onward faster and more fast, of the commonwealth. For this great service he was honored with the title of Pater Patriæ, | many, and such severe struggles, nor exposed my father of his country. His good fortune, however, self to the daily attacks of these abandoned citi at last failed him, and he was compelled to yield zens. to the storm that broke upon him. He quitted Rome B.c. 58, and crossed over to Greece. His NATURAL ABILITIES AND EDUCATION CONcorrespondence during the whole period of his
TRASTED. exile presents the melancholy picture of a man I add this also, that nature without educatio crushed and paralyzed by a sudden reverse of fort has oftener raised man to glory and virtue, tha une. The following year he was recalled, and we education without natural abilities. then find him employing the greater part of his
We find the very opposite statement made by Critias in 1 time in pleading causes or living in the country, l elegies (Fr. 6 Sc.);where he composed his two great political works, “There are more men ennobled by study than by nature." the De Republica and the De Legibus. He
And Epicharmus (Stob. xxix. 54) has the same idea:was appointed pro-consul of Cilicia, and his ad- |
“Friends, study gives more than a noble nature.' ministration of that province gained him great honor. At the close of the year he returned to
LITERATURE. Rome, where he fell, as he says, into the very flame of civil discord, and found war had broken
| For the other employments of life do not su out between Pompey and Cæsar. After much
all time, ages, or places; whereas literary studi vacillation he joined Pompey, but after the battle
employ the thoughts of the young, are the delig of Pharsalia B.C. 48, he threw himself on the mercy
of the aged, the ornament of prosperity, the col of the conqueror, by whom he was forgiven.
fort and refuge of adversity, our amusement Cicero was now at liberty to follow his own pur
home, no impediment to us abroad, employ a suits without interruption, and accordingly, until
thoughts on our beds, attend us on our journej the death of Cæsar B.C. 44, devoted himself with
| and do not leave us in the country. assiduity to literary studies. During these years | Jeremy Taylor thus speaks of literature:he composed nearly the whole of his most impor “Books are a guide in youth and an entertainment
age. They help us to forget the crossness of men and thin tant works on rhetoric and philosophy. However,
compose our cares, and lay our disappointments asle he paid constant attention to public affairs. From When we are weary of the living, we may repair to the de the beginning of the year B.C. 43 to the end of who have nothing of peevishness, pride, or design in th April, Cicero was at the height of his glory; with-conversation." in this space the last twelve Philippics were all
And Addison says:
" Books are the legacies that genius leaves to mankind delivered, and listened to with rapturous applause. I be delivered down from generation to generation, as presel Octavius, however, joined with Lepidus and An-to the posterity of those who are yet unborn." tony, usurping the whole power of the state, and And Milton says:their first step was to make out a list of the pro
“Books are not absolutely dead things, but doe contai
potencie of life in them to be as active as that Soule scribed, among whom Cicero was marked for im
whose progeny they are." mediate destruction. He made an attempt to escape, but thinking it vain, submitted to his fate.
A POET. The assassins cut off his head and hands, which were conveyed to Rome, and by the orders of I have always learned from the noblest a Antony nailed to the rostra.
wisest of men, that a knowledge of other this
is acquired by learning, rules, and art, but tha ARTS.
poet derives his power from nature herself,All the arts, which have a tendency to raise man the qualities of his mind are given to him, i in the scale of being, have a certain common bond may say so, by divine inspiration. Wheref of union, and are connected, if I may be allowed rightly does Ennius regard poets as under to say so, by blood relationship with one another. special protection of heaven, because they se
to be delivered over to us as a beneficent gift LITERATURE.
the gods. Let then, judges, this name of po Do you imagine that I could find materials for
which even the very savages respect, be sacred my daily speeches on such a variety of subjects. your eyes, men as you are of the most cultiva if I did not improve my mind by literary pursuits;
mind. Rocks and deserts re-echo to their voi or that I could bear up against such a strain, if I even the wildest animals turn
even the wildest animals turn and listen to did not relieve it occasionally by philosophical in music of their words; and shall we, who h quiries ?
| been brought up to the noblest pursuits, not yi
to the voice of poets ? GLORY AND HONOR ONLY DESIRABLE.
So Psalm xcii. 4:For, if I had not been thoroughly convinced “For thou, Lord, hast made me glad through thy work from my youth upwards by the precepts of many
ACHILLES. philosophers, and by my own literary investigations, that there is nothing in this life really! How many historians is Alexander the Gr worthy of being desired except glory and honor, said to have had with him to transmit his name and that, in the pursuit of these, even bodily tort-posterity? And yet, as he stood on the prom ure, death, and banishment are of little account, tory of Sigeum by the tomb of Achilles, he never would I have rushed in your defence to sol claimed: “0 happy youth, who found a Hon
to herald thy praise!” And with reason did he brought against a man of the purest and holiest say so; for if the Iliad had never existed, the character, falls away at once and vanishes. same tomb which covered his body would have! So Titus i. 15:also buried his name.
“ Unto the pure all things are pure."
THE POPULACE. We are all excited by the love of praise, and it The common rabble estimate few things accordis the noblest spirits that feel it most.
ing to their real value, most things according to
| the prejudices of their minds. VIRTUE. For virtue wants no other reward for all the PUNISHMENT OF THE PERJURED AND THE LIAR. labors and dangers she undergoes, except what she derives from praise and glory; if this be de
The same punishment, which the gods inflict on
the perjured, is prepared for the liar. For it nied to her, O judges, what reason is there why we should devote ourselves to such laborious pur
is not the form of words, in which the oath is suits, when our life is so brief, and its course
course wrapped up, but the perfidy and malice of the act narrowed to so small a compass ? Assuredly, if
that excite the wrath and anger of the immortal our minds were not allowed to look forward to the gods against men. future, and if all our thoughts were to be termi
THE PERJURED AND THE LIAR. nated with our life, there would be no reason why we should weary ourselves out with labors, sub The man, who has once deviated from the truth, mit to all the annoyances of cares and anxiety, is usually led on by no greater scruples to commit and fight so often even for our very lives. In the perjury than to tell a lie. noblest there resides a certain virtuous principle, which day and night stimulates a man to
THOU SHALT NOT KILL. glorious deeds, and warns him that the recollec- The connection of blood is of great power. It tion of our names is not to be terminated by time, lis most. undeniabler
is a most undeniable portent and prodigy that but must be made boundless as eternity.
there should be one having the human shape, who
should so exceed the beasts in savage nature as to THE PLEASURES OF HOPE.
deprive those of life, by whose means he has himEverything in which I have been engaged in this self beheld this most delicious light of life. world, as the wisest of men think, will be regard- So Genesis ix. 5:ed in after ages as belonging to my soul; at pres
“And surely your blood of your lives will I require: at the
hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; ent, at all events, I delight myself with such
at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of thoughts and hopes.
man." So Romans viii. 24:"For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not
GUILTY CONSCIENCE. bope: for wbat a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for ?" It is the terror that arises from his own dishonTHE VOICE OF GOD.
est and evil life that chiefly torments a man: his
wickedness drives him to and fro, racking him to This ought almost to be regarded as the voice
madness; the consciousness of bad thoughts and and words of the immortal gods, when the globe it
worse deeds terrifies him: these are the never-dyself, the air and the earth, shake with an unusual
ing Furies that inwardly gnaw his life away; agitation and prophesy to us in accents that we
which day and night call for punishment on have never before heard and which seem incredi
wicked children for their behavior to their parble.
ents. So Acts xii. 22:"It is the voice of a god, and not of a man."
THE SELF-MADE MAN.
He is, in my opinion, the noblest, who has raised HOW THE WICKED ARE PUNISHED.
himself by his own merit to a higher station, The darts of the gods are fixed in the minds of the wicked.
AN ADVANTAGE TO WHOM. So Colossians iii, 6:
| L. Cassius, whom the Roman people used to re"For which things' sake the wrath of God cometh on the gard as the best and wisest of judges, inquired children of disobedience."
ever and anon at a trial:-For whose advantage
the deed was committed. PUT AWAY ANGER. Our anger and quarrels must be put away.
DIFFERENCES OF POWERS. So Genesis xiii. 8:
For we cannot do everything by ourselves. dif“Let there be no strife between thee and me." ferent men have different abilities.
FALSE ACCUSATIONS AGAINST THE GOOD ARE
Nor is there any more certain tie of frienusaip As fire, when it is thrown into water, is cooled than when men are joined and bound together in down and put out, so also a false accusation, when their objects and desires.