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BETTER NOT TO BE BORN. A favor which is tardily bestowed is no favor; Therefore the sentiment of the Greeks is best, for a favor which has been quickly granted is a for they say that it is best for man not to be born, more agreeable favor.

or being born, quickly to die.

If thou intendest to do a kind act do it quickly,

THE SUSPECTED. and then thou mayest expect gratitude: a favor! The suspected and the man reg

The suspected and the man really guilty seem to grudgingly conferred causes ingratitude.

differ only slightly.
The earth produces nothing worse than an un-
grateful man.
Shakespeare (“As You Like It," act ii. sc. 7) says :-
* Blow, blow, thou winter wind,

Thou art not so unkind
As man's ingratitude;

BORN B.C. 100—DIED B.C. 44.
Thy tooth is not so keen,
Because thou art not seen,

C, JULIUS CÆSAR, the dictator, the son of C.
Although thy breath be rude.

Julius Cæsar and Aurelia, was born on the 12th July “Freeze, freeze, thou bitter sky,

B.C. 100, and murdered on the 15th March B.C. 44.
That dost not bite so nigh,

He attached himself to the popular party, and mar-
As benefits forgot:
Though thou the waters warp,

ried, B.C. 83, Cornelia, the daughter of L. Cinna, Thy sting is not so sharp

one of the chief opponents of Sulla ; being in conAs friend remember'd not."

sequence proscribed and obliged to conceal himAnd (" Twelfth Night," act iii. sc. 1) :

self for some time in the country of the Sabines. "I hate ingratitude more in a man

He served for several years in the wars of Asia, Than lying, vainness, babbling, drunkenness

but returned to Rome B.C. 78, on hearing of the Orany taint of vice."

death of Sulla. He became quæstor B.C. 68, præ

tor B.C. 62, reaching the consulship B.C. 59, when FICKLENESS OF FORTUNE.

he joined Pompey and Crassus in an agreement Fortune is never stable, is always turning, al- to support one another and divide the power ways changing; throws down the prosperous and between themselves. This was what was called raises the humble.

the first triumvirate; and to make his union with Euripides (Fr. Ino. 23) says:

Pompey still more intimate, he gave him his "Thou seest what small things are sufficient to bring down | daughter Julia in marriage. He married at the tyrants who have had a long course of prosperity ; even one same time Calpurnia, the daughter of L. Piso, day poils this man from his lofty seat and raises another.

who was consul the following year. Obtaining Raches have wings : for I see those who once had them fallI ing from their high hopes.”

the province of Gaul, he was occupied for nine Diphilus (Fr. Com. Gr., p. 1093, M.) says :

years in its subjugation, conquering the whole of * As Fortune sometimes, while she is conferring on us one Transalpine Gaul, which had hitherto been indegood, in doing so pumps up three evils."

pendent of the Romans, with the exception of the HOW ENEMIES ARE INCREASED.

part called Provincia: he twice crossed the Rhine,

and carried the terror of the Roman arms across When thou causeth fear to many, then is the that river and he twice landed in Britain which time to be on thy guard.

had hitherto been unknown to the Romans. PRESERVE EQUANIMITY,

While Cæsar had been thus actively engaged in

Gaul, affairs in Rome had taken a turn which If fortune is favorable, be not elated; if fort

threatened a speedy rupture between him and une thunders, be not cast down.

Pompey. The ten years of Cæsar's government FEAR CONSCIENCE.

would expire at the end of B.C. 49, and he was

therefore resolved to obtain the consulship for When about to commit a base deed, respect thy

B.C. 48, as he would otherwise be reduced to a priself if thou hast no other witness.

vate station. Pompey joined the aristocratical Diphilus, who flourished B.C. 300 (Fr.Com. Gr., p. 1091, M.), party, and prepared to resist the proceedings of says much to the same effect :

his opponent ; but Cæsar crossed the Rubicon, * For whoever does not feel ashamed before his own conscience, when he has committed a base deed, why will he

which separated his province from Italy, and in feel ashamed before another who is unconscious of it ? " three months subdued the whole of Italy. Having

defeated his rival Pompey in the plains of PharLARGE DOWRY CAUSE OF MISCHIEF.

salia B.c. 48, he became undisputed master of the When the dowry is too large, it is often the Roman empire. He caused himself to be pro-' cause of much mischief.

claimed perpetual dictator, and had actually con

sented to accept the imperial throne, when he was BEGUN HALF DONE.

murdered by the republican party, who hoped by Set about whatever thou intendest to do: the his death to restore the old constitution. He fell beginning is half the battle.

l in the Senate House on the 15th March B.C. 44.

PUNISHMENT OF WICKEDNESS. . He was the author of 116 poems, which we still The gods sometimes grant greater prosperity possess. They are partly epigrammatic, partly and a longer period of impunity to those whom elegiac, with a few lyrical pieces. Catullus was they wish to punish for their crimes, in order that deeply imbued with the spirit of Greek poetry, they may feel more acutely a change of circum- and had formed his taste on that model. stances.


He is now travelling along that darksome path It is the right of war for conquerors to treat to the bourne from which, they say, no one ever those whom they have conquered according to returns. their pleasure.


For on the ridge of Cytorus it often gave forth a They allowed no wine or other luxuries to be,

* | hissing, while the leaves spoke.. imported, because they believed they had a tendency to enervate the mind and make men less

Tennyson ("The Princess ") thus expresses the same idea:brave in battle.

" As in a poplar grove when a light wind wakes

A lisping of the innumerous leaf, and dies,

Each hissing in his neighbor's ear."
The Gauls are hasty and precipitate in their res-


Suns may set and rise; we, when our short day GAULS.

has closed, must sleep on during one never-ending Almost all the Gauls are fond of change, and night. easily excited to war, while they are at the same Young, in his “ Night Thoughts” (No. 6), says in a very time attached to liberty and hate slavery.

different tone:

“Look nature through, 'tis revolution all; THE WISH IS FATHER TO THE THOUGHT.

All change, no death; day follows night, and night

The dying day; stars rise, and set and rise. Men willingly believe what they wish.

Earth takes the example. See the Summer, gay

With her green chaplets and ambrosial flowers, IMITATIVE CHARACTER OF THE GAULS.

Droops into pallid Autumn: Winter gray, They are a race of consummate ingenuity, and Horrid with frost and turbulent with storm, possess wonderful powers to imitate whatever

Blows Autumn and his golden fruits away,

Then melts into the Spring: soft Spring, with breath they see done by others.

Favonian, from warm chambers of the South

Recalls the first. All, to reflourish, fades;

As in a wheel all sinks, to reascend;
In extreme danger, fear turns a deaf ear to

Emblems of man, who passes, not expires." every feeling of pity.

See Sir Walter Scott's lament over Pitt and Fox in the in

troduction to “ Marmion," beginningTO THROW BLAME ON THE DEAD.

“ To mute and to material things

New life revolving summer brings," etc. That he knew, and was well aware, that nothing was easier than to ascribe the blame of an act to


Gross and vulgar pleasures.'
The French have a proverb, “Les mort font toujours tort." |


That stupid booby of mine is so crazy that he In war important events are produced by trivial

neither sees nor hears, and even knows not wha causes.

he is, or whether he exists at all.
“So benumbed in his wits is my booby, that he

Is as deaf and as blind as a buzzard can be;
Yea, he knows not, the oaf, who himself is or what,

Or whether in fact, he exists or does not."-MARTIN.


Every one has his faults, but we see not the

wallet that is behind.. CAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS, a celebrated Latin

Burns says:poet, was born at Sirmio, in the vicinity of Ve

"O wad some power the giftie gie us rona, B.C. 87, one year before the historian Sal

To see oursels as ithers see us." lust. His father was the friend of Julius Cæsar,

So Psalm xix. 13:and Catullus himself was on intimate terms of "Who can understand his errors ? cleanse thou me from friendship with all the most illustrious men of secret faults." his age. His time was spent principally at Rome or in his villa near Tibur. It is not known when

THE PLEASURE OF REST AFTER LABOR. he died, but it must have been subsequently to Oh, what is more sweet than, when the mind, B.C. 47, as he mentions the consulship of Vatinius. I set free from care, lays its burden down; and,

when spent with distant travel, we come back to Floating away till they are lost to sight
zur home, and rest our limbs on the wished-for Beneath the glow of the empurpled light,
bed? This, this alone, repays such toils as these! So from the royal halls, and far from view,

Each to his home with wand'ring steps withdrew.

MARTIN A silly laugh's the silliest thing I know.


The confounding of all right and wrong in the O sweet meetings of friends, farewell.

wild fury of war has averted from us the gracious Tennyson (** The Princess," cant. iv.) expresses the same smile of heaven. Bea very beautifully:-“Tears, idle tears, I know not what they mean,

FICKLENESS OF WOMAN. Tears from the depth of some divine despair

The vows that woman makes to her fond lover Rise in the heart, and gather in the eyes, In looking on the happy Autumn fields,

are only fit to be written on air or on the swiftlyAnd thinking of the days that are no more."

passing stream.



It is difficult to give up at once a long-cherished And mightier, if that may be,

passion. Who, sitting face to face with thee, Can there serenely gaze;

THE INCONSISTENCIES OF LOVE. Can hear thee sweetly speak the while,

I hate and I love. Why I do so, thou mayest Can see thee, Lesbia, sweetly smile, Joys that from me my senses wile,

perhaps inquire: I know not; but I feel that it is

so, and I am tormented.
And leave me in a maze.
For, ever, when thy face I view,
My voice is to its task untrue,
My tongue is paralyzed, and through

Each limb a subtle flame
Runs swiftly, murmurs dim arise

Within my ears, across my eyes
A sudden darkness spreads, and sighs

BORN B.C. 106-DIED B.C. 43.
And tremors shake my frame.


M. TULLIUS CICERO, born on the 3d January B.C.

106, was a native of the city of Arpinum, but rePALSIED OLD AGE.

ceived his education at Rome under Greek masters, Till hoary age shall steal on thee,

more particularly under the renowned Archias of With loitering step and trembling knee,

Antioch. During the scenes of strife and bloodAnd palsied head, that ever bent,

shed between Marius and Sulla, he identified himTo all in all things nods assent.-MARTIN. self with neither party, devoting his time to those

studies which were essential to him as a lawyer THERE IS A TIDE IN THE AFFAIRS OF MEN. and an orator. When tranquillity was restored, he What is granted by the gods more desirable

came forward as a pleader at the age of twentyfhan a lucky moment?

five, but thinking that there was great room for

improvement in his style of composition and mode THE VIRGIN.

of delivery, he determined to quit Italy and visit

the great fountains of arts and eloquence. He reAs the flower grows apart in the secluded gar- ma

led garmained six months at Athens, and then made a dens unknown to the cattle, bruised by no plough, I complete tour of Asia Minor, returning to Rome fondled by the breezes, strengthened by the rays after an absence of two years, B.C, 77. His great of the sun, and nourished by the rains of heaven; talente deve

talents, developed by such careful and judicious many a boy and girl have desired to pluck it; when the

nen training under the most cultivated masters, could the same flower, plucked by some tiny hand, has

not fail to command success. Though possessed lost its beauty, no boys or girls have desired it; so

of no family influence, he was elected quæstor B.C. is the virgin, while she remains so, while she is

76, and, having Sicily as his province, he disbeloved by her friends, but when she has lost her

charged his trust so faithfully that he gained the chaste flower, she is neither pleasing to the youth

love and esteem of all the Sicilians. He undertook por beloved by the girls.

some years afterwards the prosecution of Verres,

who had been prætor of Sicily, and was charged THE RISING BREEZE.

with many flagrant acts of extortion. This proseAs when at early dawn the western breeze

cution was successful, and Verres, despairing of Into a ripple breaks the slumbering seas,

being able to defend himself, went into voluntary Which gently stirr'd, move slowly on at first, exile. He was appointed consul B.c. 63, and gained And into gurglings low of laughter burst

great glory by suppressing the conspiracy formed Anon, as fresher blows the rising blast,

by Catiline and his accomplices for the subversion The waves crowd onward faster and more fast, of the commonwealth. For this great service he was honored with the title of Pater Patriæ, | many, and such severe struggles, nor exposed my father of his country. His good fortune, however, self to the daily attacks of these abandoned citi at last failed him, and he was compelled to yield zens. to the storm that broke upon him. He quitted Rome B.c. 58, and crossed over to Greece. His NATURAL ABILITIES AND EDUCATION CONcorrespondence during the whole period of his

TRASTED. exile presents the melancholy picture of a man I add this also, that nature without educatio crushed and paralyzed by a sudden reverse of fort has oftener raised man to glory and virtue, tha une. The following year he was recalled, and we education without natural abilities. then find him employing the greater part of his

We find the very opposite statement made by Critias in 1 time in pleading causes or living in the country, l elegies (Fr. 6 Sc.);where he composed his two great political works, “There are more men ennobled by study than by nature." the De Republica and the De Legibus. He

And Epicharmus (Stob. xxix. 54) has the same idea:was appointed pro-consul of Cilicia, and his ad- |

“Friends, study gives more than a noble nature.' ministration of that province gained him great honor. At the close of the year he returned to

LITERATURE. Rome, where he fell, as he says, into the very flame of civil discord, and found war had broken

| For the other employments of life do not su out between Pompey and Cæsar. After much

all time, ages, or places; whereas literary studi vacillation he joined Pompey, but after the battle

employ the thoughts of the young, are the delig of Pharsalia B.C. 48, he threw himself on the mercy

of the aged, the ornament of prosperity, the col of the conqueror, by whom he was forgiven.

fort and refuge of adversity, our amusement Cicero was now at liberty to follow his own pur

home, no impediment to us abroad, employ a suits without interruption, and accordingly, until

thoughts on our beds, attend us on our journej the death of Cæsar B.C. 44, devoted himself with

| and do not leave us in the country. assiduity to literary studies. During these years | Jeremy Taylor thus speaks of literature:he composed nearly the whole of his most impor “Books are a guide in youth and an entertainment

age. They help us to forget the crossness of men and thin tant works on rhetoric and philosophy. However,

compose our cares, and lay our disappointments asle he paid constant attention to public affairs. From When we are weary of the living, we may repair to the de the beginning of the year B.C. 43 to the end of who have nothing of peevishness, pride, or design in th April, Cicero was at the height of his glory; with-conversation." in this space the last twelve Philippics were all

And Addison says:

" Books are the legacies that genius leaves to mankind delivered, and listened to with rapturous applause. I be delivered down from generation to generation, as presel Octavius, however, joined with Lepidus and An-to the posterity of those who are yet unborn." tony, usurping the whole power of the state, and And Milton says:their first step was to make out a list of the pro

“Books are not absolutely dead things, but doe contai

potencie of life in them to be as active as that Soule scribed, among whom Cicero was marked for im

whose progeny they are." mediate destruction. He made an attempt to escape, but thinking it vain, submitted to his fate.

A POET. The assassins cut off his head and hands, which were conveyed to Rome, and by the orders of I have always learned from the noblest a Antony nailed to the rostra.

wisest of men, that a knowledge of other this

is acquired by learning, rules, and art, but tha ARTS.

poet derives his power from nature herself,All the arts, which have a tendency to raise man the qualities of his mind are given to him, i in the scale of being, have a certain common bond may say so, by divine inspiration. Wheref of union, and are connected, if I may be allowed rightly does Ennius regard poets as under to say so, by blood relationship with one another. special protection of heaven, because they se

to be delivered over to us as a beneficent gift LITERATURE.

the gods. Let then, judges, this name of po Do you imagine that I could find materials for

which even the very savages respect, be sacred my daily speeches on such a variety of subjects. your eyes, men as you are of the most cultiva if I did not improve my mind by literary pursuits;

mind. Rocks and deserts re-echo to their voi or that I could bear up against such a strain, if I even the wildest animals turn

even the wildest animals turn and listen to did not relieve it occasionally by philosophical in music of their words; and shall we, who h quiries ?

| been brought up to the noblest pursuits, not yi

to the voice of poets ? GLORY AND HONOR ONLY DESIRABLE.

So Psalm xcii. 4:For, if I had not been thoroughly convinced “For thou, Lord, hast made me glad through thy work from my youth upwards by the precepts of many

ACHILLES. philosophers, and by my own literary investigations, that there is nothing in this life really! How many historians is Alexander the Gr worthy of being desired except glory and honor, said to have had with him to transmit his name and that, in the pursuit of these, even bodily tort-posterity? And yet, as he stood on the prom ure, death, and banishment are of little account, tory of Sigeum by the tomb of Achilles, he never would I have rushed in your defence to sol claimed: “0 happy youth, who found a Hon

to herald thy praise!” And with reason did he brought against a man of the purest and holiest say so; for if the Iliad had never existed, the character, falls away at once and vanishes. same tomb which covered his body would have! So Titus i. 15:also buried his name.

“ Unto the pure all things are pure."


THE POPULACE. We are all excited by the love of praise, and it The common rabble estimate few things accordis the noblest spirits that feel it most.

ing to their real value, most things according to

| the prejudices of their minds. VIRTUE. For virtue wants no other reward for all the PUNISHMENT OF THE PERJURED AND THE LIAR. labors and dangers she undergoes, except what she derives from praise and glory; if this be de

The same punishment, which the gods inflict on

the perjured, is prepared for the liar. For it nied to her, O judges, what reason is there why we should devote ourselves to such laborious pur

is not the form of words, in which the oath is suits, when our life is so brief, and its course

course wrapped up, but the perfidy and malice of the act narrowed to so small a compass ? Assuredly, if

that excite the wrath and anger of the immortal our minds were not allowed to look forward to the gods against men. future, and if all our thoughts were to be termi

THE PERJURED AND THE LIAR. nated with our life, there would be no reason why we should weary ourselves out with labors, sub The man, who has once deviated from the truth, mit to all the annoyances of cares and anxiety, is usually led on by no greater scruples to commit and fight so often even for our very lives. In the perjury than to tell a lie. noblest there resides a certain virtuous principle, which day and night stimulates a man to

THOU SHALT NOT KILL. glorious deeds, and warns him that the recollec- The connection of blood is of great power. It tion of our names is not to be terminated by time, lis most. undeniabler

is a most undeniable portent and prodigy that but must be made boundless as eternity.

there should be one having the human shape, who

should so exceed the beasts in savage nature as to THE PLEASURES OF HOPE.

deprive those of life, by whose means he has himEverything in which I have been engaged in this self beheld this most delicious light of life. world, as the wisest of men think, will be regard- So Genesis ix. 5:ed in after ages as belonging to my soul; at pres

And surely your blood of your lives will I require: at the

hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; ent, at all events, I delight myself with such

at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of thoughts and hopes.

man." So Romans viii. 24:"For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not

GUILTY CONSCIENCE. bope: for wbat a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for ?" It is the terror that arises from his own dishonTHE VOICE OF GOD.

est and evil life that chiefly torments a man: his

wickedness drives him to and fro, racking him to This ought almost to be regarded as the voice

madness; the consciousness of bad thoughts and and words of the immortal gods, when the globe it

worse deeds terrifies him: these are the never-dyself, the air and the earth, shake with an unusual

ing Furies that inwardly gnaw his life away; agitation and prophesy to us in accents that we

which day and night call for punishment on have never before heard and which seem incredi

wicked children for their behavior to their parble.

ents. So Acts xii. 22:"It is the voice of a god, and not of a man."


He is, in my opinion, the noblest, who has raised HOW THE WICKED ARE PUNISHED.

himself by his own merit to a higher station, The darts of the gods are fixed in the minds of the wicked.

AN ADVANTAGE TO WHOM. So Colossians iii, 6:

| L. Cassius, whom the Roman people used to re"For which things' sake the wrath of God cometh on the gard as the best and wisest of judges, inquired children of disobedience."

ever and anon at a trial:-For whose advantage

the deed was committed. PUT AWAY ANGER. Our anger and quarrels must be put away.

DIFFERENCES OF POWERS. So Genesis xiii. 8:

For we cannot do everything by ourselves. dif“Let there be no strife between thee and me." ferent men have different abilities.



Nor is there any more certain tie of frienusaip As fire, when it is thrown into water, is cooled than when men are joined and bound together in down and put out, so also a false accusation, when their objects and desires.

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