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So Shakespeare ("Merchant of Venice, "act üi. sc. 4) says:-- brought him up, his masters, and teachers, even

“For in companions the very dumb place where he has been nourished That do converse and waste the time together,

and taught?
Whose souls do bear an equal yoke of love,
There must be needs a like proportion

CHANGE OF OPINIONS ALLOWABLE.
Of lineaments, of manners, and of spirit."

I have learnt, seen and read, that the following
THE POPULACE.

are the proper principles for the guidance of man:

- Ancient records and the annals of literature, There is no sagacity, no penetration, no powers of discrimination, no perseverance in the common

both of this state and of others, have handed it people: the wise have always regarded their acts

down to us as the words of the wise and noble, rather to be endured than to be praised.

that the same opinions and sentiments are not invariably to be supported by the same individuals,

but that they ought to adopt those which may be BALLOT.

required by the circumstances of the times, the The voting tablet is pleasing to the people, position in which the state is placed, and accordwhich holds up to view the countenance, while iting as the peace and agreement of parties may conceals the intentions, and gives a man liberty to require. do what he wishes, but to promise what is asked of him.

HATRED.

Let them hate, provided they fear.
FILIAL AFFECTION.

AN ABYSS OF EVILS.
The dutifulness of children is the foundation of
all the virtues.

An abyss and gulf of evils.
SLANDER.

SECRET ENMITY.
There is nothing which wings its flight so

sol There is nothing more difficult to guard against swiftly as calumny, nothing which is uttered with

ith than what is concealed under the pretence of duty. more ease; nothing is listened to with more read

For when you have one, who is your openly de iness, nothing dispersed more widely.

clared enemy, you may easily avoid his attacks by

caution: while a hidden ill not only exists but Shakespeare (“Cymbeline," act iii. sc. 4) says:

overwhelms you, before you are able to foresee it “ 'Tis slander;

or examine into its existence.
Whose edge is sharper than the sword; whose tongue
Outvenoms all the worms of Nile; whose breath
Rides on the posting winds, and doth belie

UNCERTAINTY OF LIFE.
All corners of the world; kings, queens, and states, It is uncertain how long the life of each of us
Maids, matrons, nay, the secrets of the grave

will be This viperous slander enters." So Psalm xxxiv. 13:

INTEGRITY. "Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile.”

1 There is no cause for glorying in being upright,

where no one has the power or is trying to corrupt ] A CANDIDATE.

you. Virtue, honesty, uprightness are the qualities that are required in a candidate, not fluency of

A TRAITOR. language, nor knowledge of arts and sciences.

No wise man ever thought that a traitor ought,

to be trusted. VIRTUE. In the approach to virtue there are many steps.

PHYSICIAN, HEAL THYSELF. So Ephesians iv. 13:-“TiN we all come in the unity of the When a man takes upon himself to correct the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect manners of his neighbor, and to reprove his faults, man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of who will forgive him if he has deviated in the Christ."

slightest degree from the precise line of his duty ? RULES FOR LIFE.

So Matthew xviii. 33:4" Shouldest not thou also have had

compassion on thy fellow-servant, even as I had pity on thee! The illustrious and noble ought to place before and his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentthem certain rules and regulations, not less for ors, till he should pay all that was due unto him." their hours of leisure and relaxation than for those of business.

THE UNCERTAINTY OF CROPS.

All the results of agriculture are dependent not GRATITUDE.

so much on reason and diligence, as on those most A grateful mind is not only the greatest of vir- uncertain of all things, winds and weather. tues, but the parent of all the other virtues.

FINDING FAULT WITH OTHERS. GRATITUDE TO BE FELT FOR EARLY TEACHING.

• Everything that thou reprovest in another, thon Who of us is there liberally brought up, who must above all take care that thou art not thyself does not gratefully remember those who have guilty of.

FRIENDS AND ENEMIES.

COVETOUSNESS.

best and the wisest has such anticipation of a

future state of being, that it seems to centre its That evil, if implanted in man's nature, creeps

I thoughts only on eternity. in in such a way, when the habit of sinning has mancipated itself from control, that no limits can

REVENGE. je put to its bold proceedings.

We can more easily avenge an injury than requite RELATIONSHIP OF PURSUITS AXD HABITS.

| a kindness ; on this account, because there is less A relationship in pursuits and habits is almost difficulty in getting the better of the wicked than is important as the relationship of name and in making one's self equal with the good. amily. SACRILEGE.

VITUPERATION. Things sacred should not only not be touched Scurrility has no object in view but incivility; if with the hands, but may not be violated even in it is uttered from feelings of petulance, it is mere hought.

abuse; if it is spoken in a joking manner, it may So Luke xix. 46: _"My house is the house of prayer; but be considered raillery, re have made it a den of thieves."

SOWING WILD OATS.
SECRET ENMITIES.

There have been many most illustrious men, who Secret enmities are more to be feared than open.

when their youthful passions had cooled down, HIS OWN CONFESSION CONDEMNS HIM.

displayed in mature age the most exalted virtues. He must be convicted by his own confession.

THE APPETITES.

The appetites of the belly and the throat are so Let friends perish, provided our enemies are de

far from diminishing in men by time that they go

on increasing. stroyed along with them.

So Proverbs xiii. 25:

“The righteous eateth to the satisfying of his soul; but MASTER AND SLAVE.

the belly of the wicked shall want." He, who should be the master, sometimes takes the place of the slave; he, who should be the

TRUTH. slave, becomes the master.

Oh! great is the power of truth, which is easily

able to defend itself against the artful proceedings THE RESULT OF A PLAN.

of men, their cunning, and subtlety, not less than Men usually judge of the prudence of a plan by against their treachery. the result, and are very apt to say that the suc

So John vii. 25 :cessful man has had much forethought, and the

"Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this he whom unsuccessful shown great want of it.

they seek to kill ? But, lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say

nothing unto him." LIBERTY.

DESIRE OF PLEASURE. What is so much beloved by the people as liberty, which you see not only to be greedily sought after He was not accustomed to pleasures; which, by men, but also by beasts, and to be preferred to when they are pent up for a long while and have all things?

been curbed and kept down in the early period of

youth, sometimes burst forth suddenly and overMANNERS.

throw every obstacle. Men's characters and habits are not influenced 80 much by the peculiarities of family and race as

THE SEEDS IN YOUTH. by the physical features of their native land and

The desires in the young, as in herbs, point out their mode of life-things, by which we are sup- what will be the future virtues of the man, and ported and by which we live.

what great crops are likely to reward his indus

try. PROSPERITY. An individual in a private station, unless he be

OUR COUNTRY. endued with great wisdom, cannot confine himself in due bounds if he reach high fortune and wealth. /

Our country is the common parent of all.

THE SOUL.

FOR WHAT PURPOSE WORDS WERE INVENTED. Therefore, for many other reasons, the souls of Because our intentions cannot be made out if we the good appear to me to be divine and eternal; be silent, words have been invented not to be a bat chiefly on this account, because the soul of the curb, but to point them out.

JUSTICE MUST NOT BE WARPED.

IMPUNITY. The administration of justice ought neither to be The hope of impunity is a very great inducement warped by favor, nor broken through by the for a man to commit wrong. power of the noble, nor bought by money.

CONSCIENCE.
THIS IS THE POINT OF MY ARGUMENT.

Great is the power of conscience-great in both This is the point of my defence.

ways-80 that those should not fear who have TAXES THE SINEWS OF THE STATE.

done no wrong, and that those who have should

always have punishment hanging before their eyes. We have always considered taxes to be the sinews of the state.

SUSPICION.
FALSEHOOD.

Men not only forget the mighty deeds which have

been performed by their fellow-citizens, but even It is the act of a bad man to deceive by false- suspect them of the most nefarious designs. hood.

THE THOUGHTS ARE UNFETTERED.
THE COUNTENANCE.

Our thoughts are free and contemplate whatever The whole countenance is a certain silent lan- they choose in a way that we really discern those guage of the mind.

things which we think that we see. Shakespeare (“Pericles," act i. sc. 1) says:“Her face the book of praises, where is read

THE POWER OF GOD. Nothing but curious pleasures, as from thence

Ye immortal gods (for I shall grant what is Sorrow were ever razed, and testy wrath

yours), it was you doubtless that then roused me Could never be her mild companion."

to the desire of saving my country; it was you THE BELLY.

who turned me away from all other thoughts to Born for the gratification of his appetite and not

the one idea of preserving the republic; it was you

in short who amidst all that darkness of error and for the acquisition of glory and honor.

| ignorance held up a bright light before my mind. GUILTY CONSCIENCE.

So 1 Corinthians iv. 6:It is a mau's own dishonesty, his crimes, his “For God, who commanded the light to shine out of dark

ness, hath shined in our hearts." wickedness, and barefaced assurance, that takes away from him soundness of mind; these are the

HONOR THY PARENTS. furies, these the flames and firebrands of the

I am quite aware that men ought not only to be wicked.

silent about the injuries which they suffer from So Job xv 20:

their parents but even to bear them with patience. "The wicked man travaileth with pain all his days."

A WISE MAN.
SIGNS OF A TRIFLING CHARACTER.

They say that he is wisest to whom, whatever It is the sign of a trifling character to catch at I is necessary for the success of a scheme, comes fame that is got by silly reports.

into his mind; that he is next who is ready to THE MURDERER.

yield to the experience of others. In the case of

folly, however, it is the very opposite : for he is They say that it is unlawful for one to live who

less silly to whom nothing foolish comes into his confesses that he has slain a man.

mind than he who yields to the unwise suggestions So Romans xiii. 4:

of another. " For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid, for he beareth not the sword THE FURY OF THE PEOPLE LIKE THE BOISTEROTS in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute

SEA. wrath upon him that doeth evil.”

Hence that was easily understood, which has LAW.

been often said, that as the sea, which is calm This, therefore, is a law not found in books, but when left to itself, is excited and turned up by the written on the fleshly tablets of the heart, which fury of the winds, so, too, the Roman people, of we have not learned from man, received or read, itself placable, is easily roused by the language of but which we have caught up from nature herself, demagogues as by the most violent storms. sucked in and imbibed; the knowledge of which

So Solon (Fr. 7 S.) says:we were not taught, but for whi jh we were made:

"From the clouds issue storms of snow and hail, and thor we received it not by education but by intuition. ders from the bright lightning, and the city is ruined by

mighty demagogues." LAWS. The law is silent amidst the din of civil war.

LAW.

For law is the security for the enjoyment of the FICKLENESS OF THE MULTITUDE.

high rank, which we possess in the republic; this It is the duty of men of high rank to oppose the is the foundation of our liberty, this is the fourr fickle disposition of the multitude.

| tain-head of all justice; in the laws are found the

will, the spirit, the prudence, and the decision of
the state. As our bodies cannot be of use without
our intellectual faculties, so the state, without
law, cannot use its various parts, which are to it
like nerves, blood, and limbs. The ministers of
the law are its magistrates; the interpreters of
the laws are the judges; we are therefore all
slaves of the law that we may enjoy freedom.
· Pindar (Fr. Incert. 2) says:-

"Law, the king of all mortals and immortals, rules over the most violent with a high hand, assigning what is most just."

So Galatians iii. 24:-
“Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto

ring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith."

And Romans viii. 2:-

" For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death."

PEACE, Peace is delightful, and in every way an object of desire; but between peace and slavery there is a vast difference. Peace is liberty calmly enjoyed; slavery is the most pernicious of all evils--to be resisted not only by war, but even by death,

So Psalm lxxxv. 10:

“Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each oth :r."

GLORIOUS ACTION. There is a sufficient recompense in the very consciousness of a noble deed. So Psalm cxix. 165:“Great peace have they which love thy law.”

BRINGERS OF GOOD NEWS.

THE UNPREPARED. For it generally happens that those who wish to A short time is long enough for those that are tell us good news make some fictitious addition, l unprepared. that the news which they bring us may give us more joy.

THE WOLF.

What a noble guardian of the sheep is the wolf! FRIENDS.

as the proverþ goes. To take the companionship of life from life,

So Matthew vii. 15:what else is it than to take away the means of ab- “ Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's sent friends conversing together?

clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves."

ARMS.

SLAVERY. Let the soldiers yield to the civilian.

There is nothing more painful than dishonor,

nothing more vile than slavery. We have been RELAXATION OF THE MIND NECESSARY. born for the enjoyment of honor and liberty; let

us either retain these or die with dignity. Men, in whatever state of anxiety they may be, provided they are men, sometimes indulge in re- In the scholia to the “Plutus" of Aristophanes (1. 5) there laxation.

is a couplet which says:

“For far-seeing Jupiter deprives man of half of his manly So Psalm xciv. 12:

existence when he plunges him into slavery." "Blessed is the man whom thou chastenest, O Lord.”

VIRTUE.
ILL-GOTTEN GAINS.

While all other things are uncertain, evanescent, What is dishonestly got, vanishes in profligacy. and ephemeral, virtue alone is fixed with deep

roots; it can neither be overthrown by any vio Antiphanes (Fr. Com. Gr. p. 565, M.) says:" The gains of the wicked bring short-lived pleasure, but

lence or moved from its place. afterwards long-continued grief."

So Jeremiah xvii. 8:Euripides (Fr. Erechth, 10) says:

“For he shall be as a tree planted by the waters, and that “For it is right to prize what is our own, rather than what spreadeth out her roots by the river." has been acquired by robbery: for ill-gotten wealth is never And Psalm i. 3:stable.”

"And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, So Proverbs x, 2:

that bringeth forth his fruit in his season: his leaf also shall " Treasures of wickedness profit nothing: but righteous- not wither; and whatsoever he doeth shall prosper." nese delivereth from death."

MONEY THE SINEWS OF WAR.
THE DRUNKEN.

Plenty of money, the sinews of war.
Prudence is not to be expected from a man that
is never sober.

HOW EVENTS ARE DETERMINED.

The most important events are often determined FEAR.

by very trivial influences. Fear is never a lasting teacher of duty,

So Isaiah lx. 22:So 2 Timothy i. 7:

“A little one shall become a thousand." “For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.”

THE BEGINNING TO BE OPPOSED. And Isaiah 11. 7: “How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him

Every evil in the bud is easily crushed; when it that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bring

has continued a long time, it is usually more dif. eth good tidings of good; that publisheth salvation."

ficult to get rid of.

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LIFE OF THE DEAD.

FORTUNE. The life of the dead arises from being present to the mind of the living.

Fortune is the ruler of human affairs. Euripides (Fr. Erechth. 11) says:"I maintain that those who have died honorably, are alive

WHAT MAKES MEN EQUAL TO GOD. rather than that those live, who lead a dishonored life.”

To conquer our inclinations, to curb our angry

feelings, to be moderate in the hour of victory, not PATIENCE.

merely to raise a fallen adversary, distinguished The wise should recollect that every event of for noble birth, genius and virtue, but even to inlife must be borne with patience, but it shows a crease his previous dignity; these actions are of still higher character to anticipate and prevent such a nature, that he who does them. I would coming evils, though it is not less noble to bear compare not with the most illustrious of men but them with fortitude when they have overtaken us. I with God himself.

SUFFERINGS OF THE MIND.

VICTORY. For in the same way as the strength of the mind

Victory is by nature insolent and haughty. surpasses that of the body, in the same way the sufferings of the mind are more severe than the

THE FRAILTY OF ALL HUMAN THINGS. pains of the body.

There is nothing done by the labor and hands LAW.

of man, which sometime or other length of time Law is nothing else but right reason, derived does not bring to an end and destroy. from the inspiration of the gods, calling us imperiously to our duty, and peremptorily prohibiting THE FAULT OF THE AGE TO ENVY VIRTUE. every violation of it.

It is the stain and disgrace of this age to envy

virtue, and to be anxious to crush the budding AGE SUCCEEDS AGE.

flower of dignity. Nothing maintains its bloom forever; age suc

So Proverbs xxiv. 17:ceeds to age.

“Rejoice not when thine enemy falleth; and let not thine TO ERR IS HUMAN.

heart be glad when he stumbleth." Any man may commit a mistake, but none but

RESULT OF DEVOTION TO ONE PARTICULAR BUSIa fool will continue in it. Second thoughts are

NESS. best, as tho proverb says.

Constant devotion to one particular line of busiCato (Fr. Com. Gr., p. 1134, M.) says:

“ Being a mortal you have stumbled; in this mortal life it is ness often proves superior to genius and art. a wonder, when a man has been happy throughout his life."

And Spenser in the “Faerie Queen" (xii. 52) thus expresses CHANGE OF OPINION ALLOWABLE TO POLITIhimself:

CIANS. “For he was flesh (all flesh doth frailty breed!)"

I deem it no proof of inconsistency to regulate And Pope ("Essay on Criticism," pt. ii. 1. 5:26):

our opinions as we would do a ship and a ship's “To err is human, to forgive divine."

course on a voyage, according to the weather which And still more beautifully Burns (“ Address to the Unco might be prevailing in the commonwealth. Guid"):“Then gently scan your brother man,

THE FOREHEAD.
Still gentler, sister woman;

The forehead is the gate of the mind.
Though they may gang a' kennin' wrang,
To step aside is human."

EAT TO LIVE.
So Proverbs xii. 15:-
"The way of a fool is right in his own eyes."

Thou shouldst eat to live, not live to eat.

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