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When Socrates was asked to what country he THE MANAGEMENT OF THE STATE. belonged, he said that he was a citizen of the world. For he thought himself an inhabitant and

Every state, every commonwealth is to be gov.

'erned by prudence, that it may be lasting. citizen of the whole universe. "I THINK, THEREFORE I AM."


When the government is in the hands of one in

dividual, we call such a man a king and the state DRINK OR DEPART.

a kingdom. When it is in the hands of a select In life we ought, in my opinion, to observe that body, that form of government is aristocratic. rule, which prevails in the banquets of the Greeks: But that state is a republic, so they call it, when * Let him either drink or depart."

everything is dependent on the people. ELOQUENCE THE COMPANION OF PEACE.

EQUALITY OF DEMOCRACIES. Eloquence is the companion of peace, the associate of a life of leisure, and the pupil, as we may

For equality of rights, of which a free people is say, of a state that is properly constituted.

so fond, cannot be maintained; for the very people

themselves, though they are their own masters, NEXT, BUT AT A LONG INTERVAL.

and perfectly uncontrolled, give up much power Next, but at a long interval.

to many of their fellow-citizens, showing cringing

respect to men and dignities. That, which is HONOR IS THE REWARD OF VIRTUE.

called equality, is most iniquitous in its acts. Honor is the reward of virtue.


In no other state except that in which the power Nor is it sufficient merely to be in possession of

of the people is supreme has liberty any abode,

| than which nothing assuredly can be more delight virtue, as if it were an art, but we must practise mi it. VIRTUE CONSISTS IN ACTION.

A FREE STATE. The whole of virtue consists in practice.

If the people hold the supreme power, they

affirm that no form of government is more excelFATHERLAND NOT A REFUGE FOR OUR IDLENESS. lent, more free, more happy, inasmuch as they are Nor has our fatherland produced and brought the masters

nd brought the masters of laws, courts, war, peace, leagues, us up, so that she should derive no advantage lives, and fortunes of every one. from us, or that we should regard it as created for our mere convenience-as a place where we

LAWS OUGHT TO BE EQUAL TO ALL. may tranquilly while away our useless existence | If all cannot be equal in property, if the talents in idleness and sloth. Such is not the proper of all cannot be the same, the laws at least should view in which we should regard our country. be the same to those who are citizens in the same She claims from us the mightiest exertions of our state. mind, and of all our powers, and only gives back for our private use what remains of our stock of THE WEALTHIEST REGARDED THE NOBLEST. time after we have been so employed.

For riches, great fame, wealth unaccompanied Euripides (Fr. Incert. 19) says:

by wisdom and the knowledge of living virtuously ** The whole heaven can be traversed by a bird; the whole l and commanding properly, are only the cause of earth is the fatherland of the noble-minded."

greater disgrace, and of exhibiting insolence in STATESMEN RESEMBLE THE DIVINE POWERS.

more glaring colors; nor is there any form of state Nor is there anything in which the virtue of I wealthiest are regarded the noblest.

more disgraceful to men than that in which the mankind approaches nearer to the gods than when they are employed in founding new common

AUTHORITIES LESS THAN ARGUMENTS.. wealths, and in preserving those already founded.

In the eyes of a wise judge, proofs by reasoning BOOKS.

are of more value than witnesses. My books are always at leisure for me, they are never engaged.


When a people has once treated with violence a' A COMMONWEALTH BOUND BY THE COMPACT OF just king, or hurled him from his throne, or even, JUSTICE.

what has often happened, has tasted the blood of A state is the common weal of a people: but a the nobles, and subjected the whole commonpeople is not every assembly of men brought wealth to their fury, do not be foolish enough to together in any way; it is an assembly of men imagine that it would be easier to calm the most united together by the bonds of just laws, and by furious hurricane at sea, or flames of fire, than to common advantages.

Tcurb the unbridled insolence of the multitude.

CHANGES OF GOVERNMENT LIKE A GAME OF BALL. | Creator, the decider and passer of the law. WhoThen tyrants snatch the government from kings

ever does not obey it will fly from himself, and like at a game of ball; from them the nobles or

despises the nature of man, and by that very cir

cumstance will suffer the severest punishments, people in their turn, to whom succeed factious parties or tyrants; nor does the same form of

though he may escape other things which men government ever remain for any length of time.

are wont to regard as punishments.
So Psalm xix. 7:-

“The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul: the THE RESULT OF TOO GREAT LICENCE,

testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the sixple." Excessive licence leads both nations and private individuals into excessive slavery.

RIGORS OF LAW. So Matthew v. 17:

The path of law is of such a kind in some things | “I am not come to destroy the law."

that there is no room for favor.


INTERCOURSE BY LETTERS. Since this is so, in my opinion monarchy is by! You are aware that there are many kinds of far the best of the three forms; but the monarch- epistolary correspondence, but that alone is the ical is excelled by that which is made up and most assured. for the sake of which it was inventformed of the three best kinds of government. led-namely, to inform the absent, if there be any. In a state there ought to be something super-emi-thing which it is of importance that they should nent and royal; another portion of power ought know, either about our affairs or their own. to be assigned to the nobles, and some ought to be reserved for the lower classes.


It is annoying to a modest man to ask anything WHAT PRODUCES CHANGE IN MANNERS.

of value from one on whom he thinks that he has In maritime cities there is a certain corruption conferred a favor, lest he should seem to demand and change of habits; for they are intermingling as a right rather than ask as a favor: and should with new modes of speech and manners, and there

appear to account it as a remuneration rather are imported not only foreign merchandise but than a kindness. It is the feeling of a noble and manners also, so there is no fixedness in the in

| liberal mind to be willing to owe much to the man stitutions of the country.

to whom you already owe much.


ADVICE WISEST FROM YOURSELF. In a state this rule ought always to be observed,l Nobody can give

| Nobody can give you wiser advice than yourthat the greatest number should not have the self; you will never err if you listen to your own predominant power.


LETTERS. A royal form of government is not only not! We write differently when we think that those to be found fault with, but I know not whether it only to whom we write will read our letters, and is not to be far preferred to other simple forms. in a different style when our letters will be seen

by many. JUSTICE ORDERS TO CONSULT THE GOOD OF ALL. Justice commands us to have mercy on all men,


RIGHT. to consult for the interests of mankind, to give every one his due, not to commit sacrilege, and

Men think that they may justly do that, for

| which they have a precedent. not to covet the goods of others.

True law is right reason, in unison with nature,

Spirit of insolence, which victory in all civil pervading all, never varying, eternal, which sum-/ wars never fails to inspire. mons man to duty by its commands, deters him

EMPIRICS. from fraudulent acts, which, moreover, neither commands nor forbids the good in vain, nor yet

Do not imitate those unskilful empirics, who affects the bad by commanding or forbidding. It?

If I pretend to cure other men's disorders, but are is not allowable to annul this law, nor is it lawful unable to find a remedy for their own. to take anything from it, nor to abrogate it alto

GRIEF LESSENED BY TIME. gether; nor are we able to be released from it, either by the senate or by the people; nor is there There is no grief which time does not lessen any other expounder or interpreter to be sought;/ and soften. nor will there be one law at Rome, another at Philetas of Cos (Fr. 1, 8.) says: Athens, one now, another hereafter; but one eter-1.

“But when time has come round, which has been assigned nal and immutable law will rule all nations, and by

ons and l by Jupiter to assuage grief, and which alone possesses a

remedy for pains." at all times, and there will be one common, as it! And Simonides of Ceos (Fr. 73, S.) says: were, master and ruler of all-namely, God, the' “ Jupiter alone possesses a remedy for all sorrows."


TO BE FREE FROM FAULTS. There is no place so delightful as one's own To be free from faults is a great comfort. fireside.

So Proverbs xxviii. 1:

“The righteous are bold as a lion." TO YIELD TO NECESSITY. To yield to the times, that is, to obey necessity,

VIRTUE. has always been regarded as the act of a wise

Nothing, believe me, is more beautiful than vir man.

tue; nothing more fair, nothing more lovely. CIVIL WARS.

So Psalm cxix. 85, etc.:All civil wars are full of numberless calamities, there

“Make me to go in the path of thy commandments; for

aberless calamites, therein do I delight: ... for thy judgments are good: ... but victory itself is more to be dreaded than any-quicken me in thy righteousness.” thing else. For though it should decide itself on the side of the more deserving, yet it will be apt to

LOVE SOMETIMES COUNTERFEIT. inspire even those with a spirit of insolence and cruelty, and though they be not so by inclination,

I A pretended affection is not easily distinguished they at least will be by necessity. For the con

from a real one, unless in seasons of distress.

For adversity is to friendship what fire is to gold queror must, in many instances, find himself obliged to submit to the pressure of those who

-the only infallible test to discover the genuine have assisted him in his conquest.

from the counterfeit. In all other cases they both

have the same common marks. CHANGES SUITED TO AMUSE.

FOOLS. There is nothing more suited to amuse the reader than the changes to which we are subject All places are replete with fools. and the vicissitudes of fortune.

So Psalm xciv. 8:-
So Cowper ("The Timepiece," bk. ii.):-

Ye fools, when will ye be wise! "
"Variety's the very spice of life,
That gives it all its flavor.


Thou hast attained the highest rank, with virtue TRCE WISDOM.

leading the way and fortune attending thee. I regard the greatest praise of wisdom to be, that man should be self-dependent, and to have TO DESERVE WELL OF ONE'S COUNTRY. no doubts as to the proper method of living well Of all human things there is nothing more full or ill.

of honor or better than to deserve well of one's NOTHING TO BE MORE GUARDED AGAINST THAN

country. CRIME.

BLUNDERS. Let us be of that opinion, which reason and vir

| For to stumble twice against the same stone is a tue dictate, that we have nothing to guard against in life except crime; and when we are free from

disgrace, you know, even to a proverb. that, we may endure everything else with patience



To the free and independent, the menaces of any Every man is dissatisfied with his own fortune.

man are perfectly impotent.


THE MISERY OF THE VANQUISHED IN CIVIL WARS. The comfort derived from the misery of others In civil wars these are always the results, that is slight.

the conquered must not only submit to the will of

the victor, but must obey those who have aided in CONSOLATION UNDER ADVERSITY.

obtaining the victory. It is, indeed, the greatest consolation under adversity, to be conscious of having always meant

THE FIRST APPROACHES OF FRIENDSHIP ARE well, and to be persuaded that nothing but guilt

IMPORTANT deserves to be considered as a severe evil.

In the formation of new friendships it is of So Hebrews xiii. 18:

importance to attend to the manner in which the “We trust we have a good conscience, in all things willing approaches are made, and by whose means the to live honestly."

avenues of friendship (if I may so express myself)

are laid open. ALLEVIATION OF MISFORTUNE. For to reflect on the misfortunes to which man TO BE PRAISED BY ONE PRAISED BY ALL THÈ kind in general are exposed, greatly contributes to

WORLD. alleviate the weight of those which we ourselves I am delighted to be praised by one who is endure.

I praised by all the world.


THE JUDGMENTS OF POSTERITY. A man without guile and deceit.

The judgment of those who come after us is

truer, because it is freed from feelings of envy THE POPULACE.

and malevolence. · The hungry and wretched proletarians, those city leeches that suck dry the public treasury.


For every man's nature is concealed with many

folds of disguise, and covered as it were with va Conversation in private meetings and dinner

rious veils. His brows, his eyes, and very often parties is more unreserved.

his countenance are deceitful, and his speech is VENGEANCE.

most commonly a lie. I hate and shall continue to hate, the man; would that I could take vengeance on him! But

A on' him! But THE EVILS WHICH ARE BORNE WITH MOST PAIN, his own shameless manners will be a sufficient Men ought to bear with greatest difficulty those punishment.

things which must be borne from their own fault. So Romans xii. 19:“Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will

RAILINGS AND ABUSIVE LANGUAGE. repay, saith the Lord." .

While railing and abusive language are altoSADDLING THE WRONG HORSE.

gether unworthy of men of letters and of gentle

manly feeling, they are not less unsuitable to high The pack-saddle has been put on the ox.

rank and dignified behavior. THE CAUSES OF EVENTS.

MOROSENESS AND PASSIONATENESB. The causes of events always excite me more than the events themselves.

While passionateness is the mark of a weak and

silly mind in the daily intercourse of private life, THERE IS HOPE WHILE THERE IS LIFE.

so also there is nothing so out of place as to exWhile there is life, there is hope.

hibit moroseness of temper in high command So Psalm ix. 18:“The expectation of the poor shall not perish forever."

SELF-LOVE. Theocritus (Idyl. iv. I. 42) says:“There are hopes in the living, but the dead are without How much in love with himself, and that withhope."

out a rival. And Gay ("The sick Man and the Angel ") says:

" While there's life, there's hope,' he cried." The idea is also thus expressed—“Dum spiro, spero."

His plan is evidently that of Themistocles, for

he thinks that he who gains the command of the
sea must obtain supreme power.


CLAUDIUS CLAUDIANUS, a Latin poet, flourished

during the reigns of Theodosius and his sons HoDuring the whole of our life we ought not to de-In

ode- norius and Arcadius, A.D. 395-408. He was cerpart a nail's breadth from a pure conscience.

tainly a native of Alexandria in Egypt, as he him80 Acts xxi. 16:

self alludes to the fact, though some assert that “And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a con

he was born in Gaul or Spain. We have no inforscience void of offence toward God and toward men."

mation respecting his education, and little regardAPOET.

ing the circumstances of his life. We know that

he spent much time at Rome, and that he acThere has never been a poet who thought any

companied Stilicho the general of Arcadius, to the one else superior to himself.

North of Italy. Many of his poems are in praise

| of Stilicho, whose favor and protection he enTO-MORROW.

joyed. At Rome he acquired such reputation that To-morrow will give something as food for the senate ordered a statue to be erected to his thought.

honor, and in the inscription, which was found in CHANGE OF PLAN.

the twelfth century, compared him to Virgil and

Homer. Though in some of his writings be No wise man has ever said that change of plan speaks favorably of the Christian religion, there is inconstancy.

seems every reason to believe that he was a pagan.

He left a number of poems, partly epic, partly THE VIRTUOUS ARE NOT SUSPICIOUS.

panegyric, partly lyric. His largest work is entiFor the more virtuous any man is, the less easily tled “De Raptu Proserpinæ," in three books, but does he suspect others to be vicious.

Tit is unfinished.


THE EXAMPLE OF THE REIGNING PRINCE. Nothing is more unendurable than a low-born The people follow the example of their prince, man raised to high estate.

and laws have less influence in moulding their

lives than the model which his life exhibits. WE PITY THOSE WHO SUFFER LIKE OURSELVES.

THE FICKLE PEOPLE. All feel pity for those like themselves.

| The fickle populace always change with the GREAT POWER REQUIRES TO BE ADMINISTERED opinions of the prince. WITH A FIRM HAND.

PRIDE. The administration of public affairs requires al ,

rosa The noblest conduct is stained by the addition stern heart.


VIRTUE IS ITS OWN REWARD. The cautious sailor sees long before the ap

P| Virtue indeed is its own reward.

v proach of the south-west wind.


Virtue desires no foreign aid; cares not for What use to confess our faults at the moment

mu praise; is full of life by her own resources; not to the vessel is sinking? What use are tears which

be moved by any of the chances of life; looks follow the sins we have committed ?

down on the affairs of mortals from her seat aloft.


That man approaches the gods, who is guided How blind to consequences is the love of vicious by reason and not by passion, and who, weighing indulgence! The future is disregarded; the pres- the facts, can proportion the punishment with ent allures us to a short-lived enjoyment, and lust, I discretion. forgetful of future suffering, hurries us along the forbidden path.


Power will accomplish more by gentle than by

violent means, and calmness will best enforce the Nature easily reverts to her original habits.

imperial mandates. WHAT WILL NOT TIME CHANGE?

NO MAN PERFECT. What will not length of time be able to change ?! The man who is fair in face, is often of a dark

dye in morals; he who is fair in mind, is deformed THE RIGHTEOUS AND THE WICKED.

in body; this man is distinguished in war, but in Hence let ages learn that there is nothing insu- private life is disgraced by his vices. perable to the good or safe to the bad.


He cherished lofty thoughts from his boyhood, Virtue when it is concealed is worthless.

and his high fortune threw its shadow before

from his earliest years. Of an erect and bold HONORABLE CONDUCT.

spirit, he aimed at mighty objects, and was no Restrain your feelings, and consider not what flatterer of the great. you may do, but what it will become you to have done, and let the sense of honor restrain your con

THE EFFECT OF A BULER'S EXAMPLE. Doubtless the example set by rulers insinuates

itself into the common herd.
Antiphanes (Fr. Com. Gr., p. 566, M.) says:-
" Honorable habits are a most valuable possession."


Avarice, the mother of every wickedness, which,

always thirsting for more, gapes for gold with open The bright light of fate leaves nothing con- iaws. cealed.

Bion says:

"The love of money, the mother of every crime." CLEMENCY. :

1 Timothy vi. 10;Clemency alone makes us equal with the gods.

"For the love of money is the root of all evil." HOW THE PEOPLE MAY BE MADE OBSERVANT OF


| Nor have you been led astray by luxury, that The people become more observant of justice, alluring pest with fair forehead, which, yielding and do not refuse to submit to the laws, when always to the will of the body, throws a deadening they see the enactor of them obeying his own influence over the senses, and weakens the limbs enactments.

I more than the drugs of Circe's cup.


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