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WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT IN ANY BUSINESS. That man is deceived who thinks it slavery to The most important part in every affair is to live under a noble prince. Liberty never appears know what is to be done. in a more gracious form than under a pious prince.


* Practice and experience are of the greatest moNor is heaven always at peace.

ment in arts, and there is no kind of occupation in EXCESSIVE FURY FAILS IN ITS OBJECT. •

which men may not learn by their abortive at

But excessive fury fails in its object; the joy of
the wicked never lasts long.


He allows very readily that the eyes and foot

steps of the master are things most salutary to the Death levels all things.


HIS OWN TO EACH. Common calamities affect us more slightly. We have assigned his own to each.

THE SLIPPERY NATURE OF YOUTH. Alas, the slippery nature of tender youth!

Nothing can allay the rage of biting envy.


FLOURISHED ABOUT A.D. 150. Leaves live only to enjoy love, and throughout QUINTUS CURTIUS RUFUS, the Roman historian the forest every tree is luxuriating in affectionate of Alexander the Great, seems to have lived durembrace; palm, as it nods to palm, joins in mutual ing the first or second century, but we have no love; the poplar sighs for the poplar; plane whis- means of fixing the precise period, nor indeed do pers to plane, and alder to alder.

we know anything of his personal history,


No one ought to pay for foolish advice with his life. Counsellors would be wanting if there were danger in giving advice.




Honesty is the cause of poverty to many. writer on agriculture, was a native of Gades in Spain, and was the contemporary of Seneca, the

THE RESULTS OF FEAR. philosopher, who died A.D. 62 in the reign of Nero. Fear makes men prone to believe the worst. He was the friend of Cornelius Celsus, the author of a book on medicine, and who also wrote on ag

NECESSITY, riculture. The work of Columella is entitled De Necessity, when threatening, is more powerful Re Rusticâ, and is contained in twelve books. He than every art. begins by supposing that a person is inclined to invest his money in land, and points out the various

THOSE WHO TRUST IN FORTUNE. circumstances that ought to be considered in making a selection. The healthiness of the surround

Those whom Fortune has induced to trust to her, ing country, and the sufficiency of water, are two

w she makes in a great measure rather desirous of main points to be regarded. He next thinks it story than able to sei

ke it glory than able to seize it. necessary to give some advice respecting the qual-! So Psalm lxii. 10:ities of the servants and slaves, who ought to be em

"If riches increase, set not your heart upon them." ployed in its cultivation. He then enumerates the various kinds of soil, seeds, manure, the proper

THE EFFECTS OF SUPERSTITION. mode of reaping and threshing the grain. He gives Nothing has more power over the multitude a detailed account of everything connected with than superstition: in other respects powerless, fethe vine and various kinds of fruit-trees. All the rocious, fickle, when it is once captivated by sudifferent varieties of domestic animals are careful-perstitious notions, it obeys its priests better than ly enumerated, with their diseases and remedies. I its leaders. The tenth book, on the cultivation of gardens, is in hexameter verse. We possess also a work on

THE TRUE AND FALSE. trees, De Arboribus, which seems to have been a When the truth cannot be clearly made out, what part of a larger work.

lis false is increased through fear.




It is often a comfort in misfortune to know our Posterity pay for the sins of their fathers.

So Exodus xxxiv. 7:

“Visiting the iniquities of the fathers upon the children, and REASON.

upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth Nothing can be lasting where reason does not generation.'


He is a fool who looks up to the fruit of lofty The fashions of human affairs are short and trees and measures not their height. changeable, and fortune never remains long in-1 So 2 Thessalonians iii. 10:dulgent to men.

“If any would not work, neither should he eat.” FEAR.

DANGER EVEN FROM THE WEAKEST. When fear has seized upon the mind, man fears Nothing is so strong but mas be endangered that only which he first began to fear,

even by the weakest.



VIRTUE. Wars are carried on with the sword, not with Nature has placed nothing so high that virtue gold; by men, not by the houses of cities; every- I cannot reach. thing belongs to the soldiers.


Nature has paid slight attention to the formation Necessity rouses from sloth, and despair is often of man's mind, inasmuch as we generally think not the cause of hope.

so much on the future as the past. HABIT MORE POWERFUL THAN NATURF.

KINDNESS. Habit is more powerful than nature.

That is no lasting possession which we gain by

the sword : gratitude for kindnesses is eternal. EVERYTHING PREDESTINATED. For my own part I am persuaded that every THE ENVIOUS A TORMENT TO THEMSELVES. thing advances by an unchangeable law through

The envious are only a torment to themselves. the eternal constitution and association of latent

So James iv. 2:causes, which have been long before predesti

“Ye lust and have not: ye kill, and desire to have, and canbated.

not obtain." A SMALL SPARK.

DESPAIR. Often has a small spark if neglected raised al Despair, a great incentive to dying with honor. great conflagration.


Prosperity is able to change the nature of man, Wherever the brave man chooses his abode, that and seldom is any one cautious enough to resist is his country.

the effects of high fortune.
Misfortune is evil-tempered, and he who is real-
ly guilty, when he is tormented by his own pun-
ishment, feels pleasure in that of another.


BORN B.C. 239-DIED B.C. 169. When the wicked cannot sleep from the stings of conscience, it is because the furies pursue Q. ENNIUS, a poet of Rhudiæ in Calabria, was them.

born B.C. 239, two years after the conclusion of

the first Punic war (Str. vi. 281, Gell. xvii. 21). THE AFFAIRS OF OTHERS.

He is said to have been descended from one of Every one is more dull in his own affairs than in those petty princes who once ruled over this porthose of another.

tion of Italy, but we hear of him first B.C. 204,

when he was thirty-five years of age, serving as a A COWARDLY CUR.

soldier in Sardinia, where he attracted the notice A cowardly cur barks with more fierceness than of Cato the censor, at that time commander of the it bites.

island. By him he was brought to Rome (Nep.

Cat. i. Euseb.), where his high character and lito DEEP RIVERS.

erary attainments introduced him to the notice of The deepest rivers have the least sound. the distinguished characters of that age. Scipio Shakespeare ("Henry VI." Part II. act. ill. scene 1) says: the Elder was his intimate friend (Cic. Arch. 9).

"Smooth runs the water where the brook is deep." "He passed into Ætolia, B.C. 189, with the consul Fulvius Flaccus, to whose care the war in that

HORACE. country was entrusted (Arch. 11). He seems, however, to have returned to Rome, where he died

BORN B.C. 65-DIED B.C. 8. of gout B.c. 169, in the seventieth year of his age

Q. HORATIUS FLACCUS, son of a freedman, was (Sen, 5, Br. 20). . Scipio, before he died, had ex

born at Venusia, on the confines of Apulia and pressed a wish that their bodies should rest in the

Lucania, on the 8th December B.C. 65. His father same grave, and we know that a statue was erected

was a collector of indirect taxes at sales by aueto his honor on the tomb of the Scipios. Ennius

tion, and with the profits of this office he had pur. must be considered as the father of Roman epic

chased a small farm in the neighborhood of vepoetry, and the eminert services he performed for

nusia, where the poet was born. Dissatisfied with the literature of Rome were fully appreciated by

the education to be procured at this village, be ancient writers. Throughout his works there ran

carried his son, probably about his twelfth year, a strain of noble and passionate feeling; the lan

to Rome, to receive the usual education of a guage, though sometimes rough and unpolished,

knight's or senator's son. Horace speaks always was full of power and even of sublimity: the

in the highest terms of his father's care in saving structure of the verse was more regular than that

him from the dangers and temptations of a dissa in which his predecessors had sung. The princi

lute capital, keeping him not only free from vice, pal work, of which we have numerous fragments,

but from the suspicion of it. Horace proceeded was the Annales, an epic poem in eighteen books,

:l in his eighteenth year on a visit to Athens, where in which Ennius sang the history of Rome from

he was found by Brutus, and induced to join the its foundation till his own times. In another

Republican party. The battle of Philippi, B.C. 42, work, written in catalectic tetrameter, he had cel

put an end to his military career, and he withdrew ebrated the deeds of the Elder Scipio. Besides,

at once from what his sagacity felt to be a deshe had composed satires and other minor poems,

perate cause. Having obtained his pardon, he which seem, however, to have been rather trans

returned to Rome with the loss of his paternal lations from Greek writers. Edesphágctica, or Pha

estate, but he seems to have saved enough to buy getica, in hexameter verse, a gastronomic poem in

a clerkship in the quæstor's office, with the profits imitation of Archestratus; Epicharmus, a didactic

of which he managed to live with the utmost frupoem on the nature of things, from the Greek of

gality. He was introduced by the poets Varins Epicharmus; a Latin prose translation of the Greek

and Virgil to Mæcenas, and was admitted after a work of Euhemerus on the gods, and several other

short interval to his intimate friendship. Mesmaller works. The fragments of Ennius were

cenas bestowed upon the poet a Sabine farm, published by Columna, Napl. 1590, and those of

sufficient to maintain him in comfort and ease. Annales by Spangenberg, Leips. 1825.

This estate indeed was not extensive, but it pro

duced corn, olives, and vines, being surrounded THE ANSWER OF PYRRHUS.

by pleasant and shady woods. From this time “I ask no goid for the captives, nor shall you his life glided away in enjoyable repose, mingling give me a ransom; we are not making a gainful with the intellectual society of a luxurious capital. trade of war; but, quitting ourselves like men, letHe died on the 17th November B.C. 8, aged nearly us determine which of us shall live with the sword fifty-seven years, being buried on the slope of the and not with gold. Let us try by valor whether | Esquiline hill, close to his friend and patron dame Fortune wishes you or me to live and what Mæcenas, who had died before him in the same fate she brings: and hear this, too, I am resolved year. to give liberty to those whom the fortune of war

A POET'S VANITY. has spared; I present them, take them away, I give them with the will of the great gods." Sen So proud am I of thy approbation, that I shall timents truly royal, and worthy of the race of the strike my head against the starred clusters of Æacidæ.

heaven. We find in Judges v. 19 a similar expression:

This idea is constantly recurring both in Greek and Romsa “The kings came and fought ... they took no gain of writers. Thus Euripides (Bacch. 972):money."

"So that thou shalt find fame that reaches heaven."

Aristophanes (450):-

"Thou shalt have fame high as heaven itself."
The Roman commonwealth is firmly stablished | Propertius (i. 8, 43):
on ancient customs and heroes.

"Now I may enjoy the highest fortune."

And even Cicero introduces the idea, sneering at the chlets of this verse Cicero (De Rep. v. i.) says:

of the state (Ad, Att. 2, 1): “ Vel brevitate, vel veritate, tamquam ex oraculo mihi quo- “The chiefs of the state think that they can touch hearen dam esse effatus videtur."

with their finger."

We may add the following passage from Wordsworth's TRUE LIBERTY.

Sonnet on “ Personal Talk:"That is true liberty which has a pure and firm me liberty which has a pure and firm “Blessings be with them and eternal praise,

Who give us nobler loves and nobler cares: breast.

The poets who on earth have made us heirs So Romans viii. 2:

of truth and pure delight by heavenly lays! " For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made Oh might my name be numbered among theirs, me free from the law of sin and death,"

Then gladly would I end my mortal days."


1 Simonides, who flourished B.C. 450, speaks thus of the weak

ness of man (Fragm. 34, S.):May thy return to heaven be far distant, and "Fleeting is the strength of man, and vain are all his cares; ng may thy reign fill this mighty empire with for a brief space labor succeeds labor, but inexorable

death impends, for the righteous and the wicked Lave ono essings.

fate." Dvid (Trist. v. 2, 51) expresses the same idea very beauti

SIMPLICITY IN DRESS. *So mayst thou dwell on earth, so may heaven long have Plain in thy neatness. use to be longing for thy presence; so mayst thou go at

This idea is expressed by Ovid (Fast. xi. 764) in these me far distant day to the sky, thy predestined place."


"I am delighted with her beauty, her fair complexion, and PRESUMPTION OF MANKIND.

auburn hair and the gracefulness of her person, which is in

creased by no artifice.' Presumptuous man, ready to face every danger, Ben Jonson ("The Silent Woman," acti. sc. 5) has the same ishes on to crimes of deepest dye forbidden by idea:e laws of nature.

"Give me a look, give me a face, Seneca (Q. N. iv. Præf. ad finem) speaks to the sa.ne effect

That makes simplicity a grace,

Robes loosely flowing, hair as tree; oting from the poet Menander:

Such sweet neglect more taketh me, *Who is there that has not risen up with all his powers of

Than all the adulteries of art; Ind to withstand such conduct, hating with a perfect hatred is unanimity of mankind to do all wickedness greedily! Me

They strike mine eyes but not my heart." nder says: None are righteous, no, not one, excepting nei. We may refer to Milton's description of Eve (“Paradise er young nor old, woman nor man, and adding that not Lost," b. v. 1. 379) :Prely individuals or a few have gone astray, but wickedness

“But Eve $ covered all, as doth a garment."

Undeck'd, save with herself, more lovely fair
Than wood-nymph, or the fairest goddess feign'd

Of three that in Mount Ida naked strove,

Stood to entertain her guest from heaven.”
Nothing is too high for the daring of mortals:
e storm heaven itself in our folly.

NEVER DESPAIR. This character of man is beautifully bodied forth in a frag- You must never despair under the guidance and ent of the poet Rhianus, who flourished about B.C. 222 (Anal. auspices of Teucer. t. i. p. 479):

The following fragment (Hyps. 9) from Euripides has the " Man forgets why he treads the ground with his feet, and sam

same idea: ith arrogancy of spirit and wicked thought speaks authori- “Nothing is to be despaired of, we must hope all things." itively like Jupiter, or is devising some path to heaven, that may revel as one of the immortals."

ENJOY THE PRESENT. And Pindar (Isthm. vii. 61) says:"If a man looks steadily into the future, he will feel that he Shun to seek what is hid in the womb of the too weak in himself to reach the brazen seats of the gods." | morrow, and set down as gain in life's ledger whatShakespeare (“Measure for Measure," act ii. sc. 2) says:

ever time fate shall have granted thee. "But man, proud man! Dress'd in a little brief authority:

Philetærus, who flourished probably about B.C. 330, speaks Most ignorant of what he's most assured,

thus in one of his fragments (Fr. Com. Gr. Ed. p. 642, M.):-His glassy essence-like an angry ape,

"For what, pray, ought you, short-lived being as you are, Plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven,

to do but to pass your time day by day in pleasure, and not As make tbe angels weep."

to fret yourself as to what will be tomorrow." .

And Theocritus (Idyl. 18, 4) says:

“We are mortals, we may not behold to-morrow." DEATH.

P. Doddridge ("Epigram on his Family Motto ") says: Pale Death enters with impartial step the cot ; “Live while you live, the epicure would say, ages of the poor and the palaces of the rich.

And seize the pleasures of the present day;

Live while you live, the sacred preacher cries, Donne speaks of this equality in death: “Death comes

And give to God each moment as it flies." qually to us all, and makes us all equal, when it comes. The shes of an oak in a chimney are no epitaph of that, to tell me

· Milton (" Comus," 862) says:ow high or how large that was; it tells me not what flocks it

What need a man forestall his date of grief, heltered while it stood, nor what men it hurt when it fell.

And run to meet what he would most avoid ?" he dust of great persons graves is speechless too; it says And Isaac Watts says: othing, it distinguishes nothing. As soon the dust of a

“I am not concerned to know retch whom thou wouldst not, as of a prince whom thou

What to-morrow fate will do; aldst not look upon, will trouble thine eyes, if the wind blow

'Tis enough that I can say thither; and when the whirlwind hath blown the dust of

I've possessed myself to-day." he churchyard into the church, and the man sweeps out the tast of the church into the churchyard, who will undertake to

FLEETNESS OF TIME. it those dusts again, and to pronounce, .This is the patrician, his is the noble flour; and this the yeoman, this is the plebe

How much better is it to submit with patience in bran

to whatever may happen! Whether thou art to

enjoy many winters or this be the last, which is SHORTNESS OF LIFE.

now weakening the fury of the Tuscan waves by The short span of life forbids us to begin schemes being dashed on the resisting rocks. Be wise, filChich require a distant future for their accom- trate thy wines, and curtail distant schemes which lishment.

the brief span of life may never enable thee to reSo Shakespeare ("Macbeth," act v. sc. 5) says:

alize. While we are talking, envious time will be “Out, out, brief candle!

gone. Seize the present moment, trusting as lite Life's but a walking shadow."

tle as possible to the morrow.

This idea of the fleetness of time is a favorite with poets of

WINE AND ITS ADVANTAGES. all nations. Thus Herrick, "To the Virgins to make much of Time" (No. 33):

Whoever prates of war or want after his wine. “Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,

This idea is found in Theognis (1129):--
Old Time is still a-flying;

“When I have enjoyed my wine, I care not for the And this same flower, that smiles to-day,

anxieties of mind-racking poverty." To-morrow will be dying.

Burns says:Chalmers, the preacher, says:

“John Barleycorn was a hero bold, “Time, with its mighty strides, will soon reach & future

Of noble enterprise, generation, and leave the present in death and in forgetful

For if you do but taste his blood, ness behind it."

'Twill make your courage rise; Moore (“Irish Melodies ") says:-

"Twill make a man forget his woe, " This moment's a flower too fair and brief."

'Twill heighten all his joy." !
And again:
“Then fill the bowl-away with gloom!

Our joys shall always last;

Blind Self-love, Vanity lifting aloft her empty
For Hope shall brighten days to come,

head, and Indiscretion, prodigal of secrets, more And Mem'ry gild the past."

transparent than glass, follow close behind. Congreve says:

“Defer not till to-morrow to be wise,
To-morrow's sun to thee may never rise."

And Gray:-

The man whose life has no flaw, pure from “We frolic while 'tis May."

guile, needs not for defence either Moorish jave And Solomon:

lins, or bow, or quiver full of poisoned arrows; “Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds before they be though his path be along the burning sands of withered."

Africa, or over the inhospitable Caucasus, or those

regions which Hydaspes (the Jhylum), famed in GROWTH OF REPUTATION.

fable, licks languid-flowing. The fame of Marcellus grows imperceptibly as a Milton (“Comus," 421) says:tree in the unmarked lapse of time.

"She that has that, is clad in complete steel, The gradual and imperceptible growth of the reputation of And like a quiver'd Nymph, with arrows keen, a virtuous man is remarked by other poets. Thus Pindar

May trace huge forests and unharbor'd heaths, (Nem. viii. 68):–

Infamous hills, and sandy perilous wilds." “Virtuous deeds expand gradually before the world, as a tree shoots up under the influence of the freshening dew." DESCRIPTION OF FRIGID AND TORRID ZONES. Homer introduces (II. xviii. 56) Thetis thus speaking of

Place me lone in the barren wastes, where ne Achilles:“He sprung up rapidly, like a plant: I having brought him

tree bursts into bloom in the breezes of summer up, like a tree in a fertile field."

mist-clad, and with an inclement sky! place me And Shakespeare("Henry V.,"act i. sc. 1) says:

lone where the earth is denied to man's dwelling, “Which no doubt

in lands too near the car of the day-god, I still Grew like the summer grass, fastest by night,

should love my Lalage-behold her sweetly smil. Unseen, yet crescive in its faculty."

ing, hear her sweetly talking. WEDDED LOVE.

Sappho (Fr. 2, S.) expresses herself much to the same

effect:Thrice bappy and more are those who are "That man seems to me to be like the gods, who sits beside bound by an unbroken chain of love, and, un- thee and hears thee sweetly speaking and thy winning langh ruffled by a querulous temper, live affectionately however short a time I see thee, how does my voice fail me!" till their latest hour.

This idea is found in Cowper's "Table Talk” (1. 294):

Place me where winter breathes his keenest air, J. Middleton thus speaks of the delights of a married life:

And I will sing, if Liberty be there; “What a delicious breath marriage sends forth

And I will sing at Liberty's dear feet
The violet's bed not sweeter! Honest wedlock

In Afric's torrid clime, or India's fiercest heat."
Is like a banqueting-house, built in a garden,
On which the spring flowers take delight

To cast their modest odors."

Why should we be ashamed to weep, or se : Spenser (“Faery Queen," i. 12, 37) says:

bounds to our regret for the loss of so dear “His owne two hands the holy knotts did knitt, That none but death for ever can divide."

|friend ? Lead off with plaintive lays, Melpomene And Thomson:

thou who hast received from thy father a tunefu * Oh happy they! the happiest of their kind!

voice with the music of the lyre. Are then the Whom gentler stars unite, and in one fate

eyes of Quinctilius sealed in endless sleep! Whe Their hearts, their fortune, and their beings blend." will modesty and unspotted faith, the sister a

justice and unadorned truth, ever find an equal t RESOLUTE IN CONDUCT.

him ? He is gone, bewailed by many good mer Make every effort to get into port while you by none more than by thee, O Virgil... i may.

Byron thus speaks of the loss of friends:

“What is the worst of woes that wait on age ? ANGER.

What stamps the wrinkle deeper on the brow! Thy wrath control.

To view each loved one blotted from life's page,

And be alone on earth, as I am now. Theognis (365), who flourished B.C. 644, used the expression,

Before the Chastener humbly let me bow, sio xe vóov;."curb thy temper."

O'er hearts divided, and o'er hopes destroyed."

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