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In Cowper's "Task” we find (1. 170):

THE WORN-OUT STEED, “The customary rites Of the last meal commence; a Roman meal.

Be wise and release from the chariot in time Discourse ensues, not trivial, yet not dull,

thy aged steed, lest he become the object of laughNor such as with a frown forbids the play

ter, dragging on behind and show his broken Of fancy, or proscribes the sound of mirth.

Themes of a graver tone,
Exciting oft our gratitude and love,
While we retrace, with memory's pointing wand,

That calls the past to our exact review,

I ponder in deep earnestness, and search out The dangers we have 'scaped ... Oh evenings worthy of the gods! exclaimed

what is true and becoming to man, and my every The Sabine bard."

thought is thus engaged. Keats (“Sonnets ") thus expresses the same idea of love of country life:

INDEPENDENCE. “To one who has been long in city pent,

Bound by no ties to maintain the tenets of any 'Tis very sweet to look into the fair

master, I am borne hither and thither, as my inAnd open face of heaven to breathe a prayer Full in the smile of the blue firmament."

clination leads me, without a fixed object; nos,

like the Stoics, I am a plodding citizen, and ENJOY THE PRESENT.

live amidst the bustle of public life, the stern My good friend, come on, take my advice, since guardian and asserter of untainted virtue; now animals have by heaven's decree no existence af- I glide insensibly back to the doctrines of Aris. ter death, and there is no escape from death to tippus, and instead of accommodating myself to great or small, be merry while thou mayest, be circumstances, make circumstances bend to me. mindful of how short a span of life thou hast. Pope (" Essay on Man," ep. iv. I. 331) says:Apollodorus (Fr. Com. Gr. p. 1108, M.) says:

"Slave to no sect, who takes no private road, “ When I was a young man, I pitied those cut off prema

But looks through nature up to nature's God." turely; but now when I see the burial of the old, I weep; for Shakespeare (“Jul. Cæs." act i. sc. 2) says:this refers to me, and that did not."

I cannot tell what you and other men

Think of this life; but for my single self,

I had as lief not be, as live to be CHANGEABLENESS OF HUMAN NATURE.

In awe of such a thing as I myself." A part of mankind pursue one unwearied course of crime, and go on with steady aim; another IT IS SOMETHING TO BE ADVANCING IN THE PATI oscillate backwards and forwards, now gliding

OF VIRTUE. along the path of virtue, and then the path of vice. It is always in our power to advance to a cer

tain point, if it is not allowed us to go farther. THE STRONG-MINDED.

ADVANTAGES OF A GOOD EDUCATION. The more consistent a man is in a vicious course, so much is he less wretched and better off than he Let a man be ever so envious, passionate, indo who one while struggles against his passions and lent, drunken, amorous, yet there is no one such: the next instant yields to their violence.

slave to passion that he may not be improved, i

he would only lend a docile ear to the lessons o THE WISE MAN.

wisdom. It is some approach to virtue to try ta Who, then, is free? The wise who can com

get rid of vicious propensities, and the highes

wisdom is to be free from folly. mand his passions, who fears not want, nor death, nor chains, firmly resisting his appetites and de Thus we find in Brunck (P. Gnom., p. 320):spising the honors of the world, who relies wholly

“Education civilizes all men." on himself, whose angular points of character | So Isaiah (i. 18):

“Though your sins be as scarlet, they chall be as white a have all been rounded off and polished.

snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be a



Adversity usually reveals the genius of a general, while good fortune conceals it.

His youth, his genius now no more the same.
Byron says:
“My days of love are over: me no more

The charms of maid, wife, and still less of widow,
Can make the fool of, that they made before;

In fact I must not lead the life I do."
And again:-
“Now my sere fancy 'falls into the yellow
Leaf,' and imagination droops her pinion:
And the sad truth, which hovers o'er my desk,
Turns what was once romantic to burlesque.”

MONEY. Silver yields to gold, gold to virtue. Ye citizer of Rome, folly cries, money ought to be the fir object of pursuit, virtue is but a secondar thought.

Theognis (699) says:"With most men riches are regarded the prime virtu with some again they are an object of contempt.".

Sophocles (Fr. Creusa, iv. 5) says:

“All other things in comparison with riches are of secon ary importance with men.”

A GOOD CONSCIENCE. Be this thy brazen bulwark of defence to pri serve a conscience void of offence and never | turn pale with guilt.

Shakespeare ("Henry VI.,” Part II. act iii. sc. 2) says: wilt be the slave of envious or amorous passions. “What stronger breast-plate than a heart untainted! | For why dost thou make haste to remove the things Thrice is he arm'd that hath his quarrel just;

which offend the eye, but if any distemper prey And he but naked, though lock'd up in steel,

upon thy mind, why dost thou delay from year to Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted."

year to apply a remedy? He who has begun, has And again (“ Henry VIII.," act iii. sc. 2):

his work half done. Dare to be wise; begin. He “I feel within me A peace above all earthly dignities,

who puts off from hour to hour the act of living A still and quiet conscience.”

wisely, is like the rustic who sits waiting on the

bank till the river floats past, but it does, and will MONEY TO BE GOT IN ANY WAY.

roll on in an unbroken stream till time shall be no My friend, put money in thy purse, honestly if | more. thou canst, if not, at any rate put money in thy

Sophocles in a fragment says (I. T. Iviii. 2):purse.

"If any one has begun a work well, it is likely that he will Jonnson (“Every Man in his Humor," act ii. sc. 3):

come to a good ending."

Wordsworth ("The Fountain") says:“Get money; still get money, boy;

“No check, no stay this streamlet fears, No matter by what means."

How merrily it goes!

'Twill murmur on a thousand years STEPS NOT RETURNING TERRIFY.

And flow as now it flows." For I am terrified by observing all the steps go-! And in Te.nyson's "Brook: "ing towards thy den, and none returning.

“But I go on forever." PROTEUS.

A COMPETENCE. With what chains shall I be able to bind this

| Let him who is blessed with a competence wish

for nothing more. ever-changing Proteus.


į Unless the vessel be pure, whatever thou pourest What dost thou do when the sentiments of my

linto it grows sour. Despise pleasures; pleasure mind are equally as much at variance with each

bought with pain is hurtful. The avaricious is other; it refuses what it coveted and desires again

always poor; set fixed bounds to thy desires. The what it lately rejected; it is in continual turmoil and inconsistent with itself in the whole tenor of

envious sickens at another's joys; Sicily's ty

rants could not invent a greater torment than envy. life; it pulls down, builds up, changes square for

He who cannot control his angry passions, will wish round; yet thou only regardest me as mad in the

undone what mad resentment shall have prompted, same way as the rest of the world.

while he hastens to gratify his feelings of insatiate VICE AND VIRTUE.

hate. Anger is a brief fit of madness; govern thy

temper which rules, unless it is under thy control; Who tells what is becoming, what is base, what curb it with bit: bind it in chains. The docile colt is is useful, what is the reverse?

formed by gentle skill to move obedient to the SUBJECT SUFFERS WHEN KINGS DISPUTE,

rider's will. The hound is taught to bay in the

woods from the time when he has barked at a buckThe Greeks suffer for the follies of their princes. skin hung up in the court-yard. Now in the days Inside and outside the walls of Troy, sedition, Lofth

hon, of thy youth drink in thy pure breast the words of fraud, lust, and violence are everywhere found.

instruction; put thyself under those who are wiser

than thyself. A jar will long retain the odor of THE VULGER HERD.

the liquor with which, when new, it was first sear We are mere cyphers, and, like the suitors of Pe-soned. nelope, formed by nature to devour the fruits of

Moore says:the earth, mere effeminate and luxurious subjects

“You may break, you may shatter the vase, as you will, of Alcinous, a race too much occupied with the

But the scent of the roses will hang round it still." pleasures of the table, whose delight is to sleep till mid-day and sooth our cares with melting airs


Nature did not form thee a mere senseless clod of Euripides (Heracleid. 937) says:

earth. The gods have bestowed on thee beauty, " Knowing that thy son was not one of the many, but really riches, and taught thee how to enjoy them. a man of note." And again (Troad. 475):

Menander (Fr. Com. Gr., p. 889, M.) says:"And I then gave birth to children of distinguished bravery

“Happy the man who has wealth and sense; for he can not merely belonging to the mass, but the chiefest among

| use it rightly for what is required." the Phrygians." Shakespeare (“Coriolanus," act iii. sc. 1) calls them:

AN EPICUREAN. "The mutable rank-scented inany."

What more could an affectionate nurse pray for

her dear boy than that he, like thou, be blessed WISDOM.

Jork with wisdom, eloquence, public influence, good Unless thou callest for a book and lichts before health, and the comforts of life, with a purse that break of day, devoting thy thoughts to honorable. never fails in time of need? Midst hopes and pursuits and studies, in thy waking moments thou cares, fears and passions, never forget that this

may be the last day that shall ever dawn upon

GOLDEN MEAN. thee. The day that comes unlooked for will shine Let the wise be called a fool, the followers of with double lustre. Thou wilt find me fat and

and what is right as the opposite, if they both pursue sleek, in good plight, whenever thou carest to visit

virtue itself beyond the bounds of moderation. a hog by Epicurus fed.

Cicero (Tusc. iv. 25) says somewhat to the same effect:! See Bishop Kerr's " Morning Hymn":

"The pursuit even of the best of things ought to be calm "Live this day as if the last.”

and tranquil."


TIME. If I am not allowed to use the gifts of fortune, Time will bring to light whatever is hidden; it what benefit are they to me when they come ? will conceal and cover up what is now shining.

with the greatest splendor. WINE.

Sophocles (Ajax, 646) says:What can wine not effect? It brings to light Time, the long, the countless, brings to view everything the hidden secrets of the soul, gives being to our that is hidden, and conceals what is disclosed." hopes, bids the coward fight, drives dull care Antoninus, in his “ Meditations" (ix. 28), says:away, teaches new means for the accomplishment

in the accomplishment.l "The things of this world revolve in a circle up and down,"

from age to age; by and by the earth will cover us up, and of our wishes: whom have the soul-inspiring cups

then it will change us to something else." not made eloquent? Even in the depth of pov

Euripides (Æol. Fr. 26) says:erty, whom has it not relieved?

"Time will unveil all things to posterity; it is a chatterer

and speaks to those who do not question it." Aristotle (Ethic. iii. 8) says;"This is the case with drunken men; for they become san

Shakespeare (" Troilus and Cressida," act iii, sc. 3) says:guine in hope."

“Beauty, wit, Diphilus, as quoted by Athenæus (ii. 2), says:

High birth, vigor of bone, desert in service, "O Bacchus, most grateful to the wise and also most

Love, friendship, charity, are subjects all wise in thyself, how pleasant thou art! who alone causest the

To envious and calumniating time." poor to have lofty thoughts of himself, makest the grave to So Matthew (x. 26): laugh, the timid to be daring, and the coward to be brave." For there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; Alcæus (Fr. 44, S.) says:

and hid, that shall not be known. "For wine is a mirror to men." And Æschylus (Fr. 13) says:

VIRTUE. “ Polished brass is the mirror of the body and wine of the If virtue alone can accomplish this, give up thy mind."

luxurious life and resolutely pursue her. If thou Shakespeare (“Othello," act ii. sc. 3) says:

“Come, come; good wine is a good familiar creature, if it think virtue to be a mere name, as groves are be well used; exclaim no more against it."

groves, take care less some one else reach the port

before thee. CALMNESS.

The last words of Brutus (Dion xlvii. 49) were: Not to be startled by anything that appears, is “O wretched Virtue, thou wast then a mere name, for I of all means the best to make and keep us happy. followed thee as a real business, whereas thou wast a slave to There are some men so little under the influence Fortune."

Shakespeare (“Hamlet," act iii. sc. 4) says:of this feeling that they can look unmoved at yon

"Such a deed ... sweet religion makes a rhapsody of sun in the firmament, the stars, and the ever-vary-words." ing changes of the seasons that take place at fixed periods.

GOLD. Plato (Theret. c. xi.), however, says the very opposite of For gold, the sovereign queen of all, can bestow this:

a wife with a large dowry, credit, friends, birth, "For wonder is very much the affection of a philosopher;

and beauty. Persuasion and Venus pay their for there is no other beginning of philosophy than this." And Aristotle (Metaph. i. 2) says:

court to the well-moneyed man. “It was through the feeling of wonder that men now and at first began to philosophize."

TOW HAPPINESS IS TO BE PROCURED. Cicero (Tusc. v. 28), however, says:"No wise man ought to wonder at anything, when it

If riches alone can make and keep a man happy, happens, so that it should appear to have happened sudden early and late, we should toil to procure this and unexpected to him."

blessing; if splendor and the breath of popular We find Dante (Purgat. xxvi. 71) express himself thus:

paplause make a man happy, come, let us pur“Amaze,

chase a slave to tell us the name of our fellowNot long the inmate of a noble heart."

citizens. Perhaps Horsely, in his "Sermons ” (vol. i. p. 227), gives the best idea of this quality ;

LICENTIOITS. “Wonder, connected with a principle of rational curiosity, is the source of all knowledge and discovery, and it is a The abandoned crew of Ulysses who preferred principle even of piety; but wonder, which ends in wonder, and is satisfied with wonder, is the quality of an idiot."

the enjoyment of forbidden pleasure to a retum Jeremiah (x. 2) says:

to their fatherland. “Learn not the way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed at them."

MIRTH. St. Augustine (Serm. 1500) says:

If, as Mimnermus thinks, there is nothing pieas* Tell us, Epicurus, What makes a man happy? Answer, The picasure of the senses. Tell us, Stoic, The virtue of the ant without 10

ha ant without love and reirth, live then a life of love mind. Tell us, Christian, The gift of God."

| and mirth. Long mayest thou live; farewell. If thou canst (uggest anything better than such | leave those joys, which you vaunt to the sky with maxims as these, impart them, if not, make use of rapturous applause. what I place before thee. Amphis (Fr. Com. Gr., p. 646, M.) says:

NATURE. "Drink and play: life is mortal; there is little time upon earth: death is eternal when we are once dead."

Shouldst thou attempt to drive out nature by Mimnermus (Fr. 1, S.) says:

force, yet it will be ever returning, and in silent "What is life? what pleasure is there without the presence triumph break through thy affected disdain. of golden Venus? May I die, when such things are no longer

Aristophanes (Pax. 637) says to the same effect:cared for by me." Shakespeare (“ Taming of the Shrew," Ind. sc. 2) says:

They drove out this goddess with two-pronged clamors."

And again (Vesp. 1457): * Frame your mind to mirth and merriment,

“For it is difficult to renounce one's nature, which one has Which bars a thousand harms, and lengthens life.”

always had."

Cicero (Tusc. Quæst. v. 27) speaks of nature in the same THE GOOD AND WISE MAN.

way: The spendthrift and fool gives away what he “Custom could never get the better of nature, for she al. despises and hates. It is such a soil as this that way

his that ways comes off victorious." bas produced and will produce at all times a crop

Seneca (Ep. 119) says:

“Nature is obstinate; she cannot be overcome, she demands of ungrateful men. The good and wise declare what is her own." that they are ready to bestow favors on the And again (Ep. 90):worthy, and yet are not ignorant of the difference

“We have been brought into the world with everything

| prepared to our hand, but we have raised up difficulties by between a coin and a counter.

our disdainful rejection of what is easily got." Seneca (Ep. 120) says:" There are many who do not give, but throw away their


The man who is too much engrossed with fortBut if thou be unwilling that I should leave. une's favors will tremble when she takes her dethou wilt have to give me back my healthful parture; 11 thou

thfuil parture; if thou admirest anything greatly, thou lungs, my coal-black hair over my narrow fore

wilt be slow to give it up. Fly this world's grandhead; thou wilt have to give me back my beauti

eur; the poor man, who lives under an humble ful toned voice: thou wilt have to give me back roof, may enjoy greater happiness than kings and my enticing smile, and my feelings of regret for

their favorites. the escape of the wanton Cinara over my wine.

Atoninus (vii. 27) says:

"Beware, while thou art too much engrossed with the fleetThis is thus paraphrased by Lord Melbourne (see “Hay- i

ing pleasures of life, lest thou shouldst learn to attach too ward's Essays ");

much value to them, so that, if they take wings and fly away, ** "Tis late, and I must haste away,

thou shouldst be thrown into a state of misery.”
My usual hour of rest is near:
And do you press me yet to stay;

To stay, and revel longer here?
Then give me back the scorn of care

In the same way as the stag in the fable, the
Which spirits light in health allow,

man who from fear of poverty loses his liberty, And give me back the dark brown hair

more precious than all the wealth of this world, Which curl'd upon my even brow; And give me back the sportive jest,

intemperate in his desires, carries on his shoulders Which once could midnight hours beguile;

a master, and will live in eternal bondage because The life that bounded in my breast,

he could not find enjoyment in a frugal meal.
And joyous youth's becoming smile.
And give me back the fervid soul
Which love inflamed with strange delight,

When erst I sorrowed o'er the bowl

The man whom his fortune does not fit, is like At Chloe's coy and wanton flight.

the man in the fable with a shoe, which if too Tis late ... But give me this, and I will stay,

large, trips him up, if too small, pinches him. Will stay till morn, and revel here."

Demophilus (Orellii Opusc. I. p. 6) says:

“Both a shoe and a life that fits gives no pain." LITTLE FOLKS.

Lucian (Pro. Imagg. 10) says:For little folks become their little fate.

“He says, let not the shoe be larger than your foot, lest it So Callimachus (Fr. 179):

throw you on your face, as you are walking." * The gods always give little things to little folks.”

It is a sound maxim for every man to measure

Money put away in one's coffers is either the himself by his own proper standard.

master or slave of its possessor, though it ought

rather to be the impelled than impelling part of Cicero (Off, i. 1. 31) says to the same effect:"Let us follow our natural bias, so that even though other

life's machine. pursuits may be of greater importance and excellence, we Publius Syrus (998) såys:may yet regulate ourselves by a regard to our natural dispo "Money is a handmaiden, if thou knowest to use it; a misstion and character."

tress, if thou knowest not.”

And Seneca (De Beat. vit. 26):-

"Riches in the hand of the wise yield obedience, in that of I live and am as happy as a king as soon as I l the fool command.”


DISCONTENT. Receive with gratitude the hours that fortune He who envies another's lot is evidently dissatbestows upon thee, and put not off the enjoyment isfied with his own. All are foolish who blame of life to some distant time, that thou mayest be the place where they live as the cause of their disable to say, in whatever region of the world thou tress: in the mind alone the fault lies, the mind art, that thou hast lived happily; for, if it is a wise that can never fly from itself. understanding and prudent conduct that rid us

Pope says:of the cares of life, and not the beauty of the landscape that surrounds us, those who cross the sea

“Men would be angels, angels would be gods." change the climate but not their passions. We are occupied iu busy idleness, seeking happiness

FOLLIES. in yachts and carriages. Whereas what thou seek- I am not ashamed to own my follies, but I am est is here, is even in the midst of deserted Ulu- ashamed not to put an end to them. bræ, if only thou possess a well-balanced mind. In Diogenes Laertius (vi. 7, 4, or 98) we find a passage from

CONTENTMENT. Crates, the tragic writer, to this effect:

“My dwelling place is not one tower or house, but the cities. The lazy ox wishes for the horse's trappings and houses of the whole earth prepared for us to dwell in." the horse wishes to plough. In my opinion each Æschines (Adv. Ctesiph. 78) says:

should follow with cheerfulness the profession “For he did not change his passions, but merely the place

which he best understards.

in of his abode." Cowper (“The Task," towards end of “Sofa") says:-

Aristophanes (Vesp. 1431) says:“Who borne about

“Let every one practise the craft with which he is a In chariots and sedans, know no fatigue

But that of idleness."
As to happiness, Pope (“Essay on Man," Ep. iv. 1. 15) says:-

“Fix'd to no spot is happiness sincere,
'Tis nowhere to be found or everywhere."

Thou livest as thou oughtest if thou takest car And Milton (“Paradise Lost," i. 253):

to be what thou art considered by the world. Al "A mind is not to be changed by place or time, we Romans have long declared thee happy, but The mind is its own place, and in itself

am afraid lest thou shouldest listen more t Can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven."

others regarding thyself than to the suggestion And of idleness, Goldsmith ("Traveller," I. 256) says:

of thine own conscience, and mayest imagine tha "Thus idly busy rolls their world away."

one may be happy who is other than wise an ENOUGH.


Æschylus (8. C. Th. 588) says: Cease thy grumbling; he is not poor who has

“For he does not wish to seem, but to be the noblest." enough for the simple wants of nature. If thou Publius Syrus says:art sound in stomach, side, and feet, the riches of

“The question is what you are, not what you are reckoned a king will add nothing to thy happiness.

FALSE SHAME. Plutarch (Sol. 2) quotes the following verses of Solon:"The man who has stores of silver, gold, and wheat-bearing It is the false shame of fools alone that hide fields, I call not happier than the swain who has enough for. his support, is sound in body, and has a youthful wife and

1 ulcered sores. blooming children."


Whom does undeserved honor delight or lyin Discordant concord.

calumny terrify, except the vicious and the ma Pope (“Essay on Man," iv. 56) expresses the principle thus:

whose life requires to be amended. Who, then, i "All Nature's difference keeps all Nature's peace.”

the good man? The world answers, He wh And again, in his “Windsor Forest”:

carefully observes the decrees of the senate, an “The world harmoniously composed:

swerves not from the known rules of justice and th Where order in variety we see:

laws; by whose judgment many and weighty cause And where, though all things differ, all agree." are decided, whose bail secures, whose oath main Ben Jonson ("Cynthia's Revels," act v. sc. 2) says:

tains a cause, yet his own household and all h “All concord's born of contraries."

neighbors know that he is inwardly base, thong Compare what Burke (“ French Revolution," p. 81) says:- imposing on the world with a fair outside. "You had that action and counteraction, which, in the natural and in the political world, from the reciprocal strug

So Matthew xix 17:gle of discordant parties draws out the harmony of nature."

“There is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou w enter into life, keep the commandments."


THE GOOD. We can get a crop of friends at a cheap rate, The good hate sin from an innate love of virtue. when it is the good who are in distress. This is very much the same idea in Xenophon (Mem. il. 40,

THE COVETOUS. 4):“Now, on account of the state of public affairs, it is possi

| The covetous is the slave of fear; moreover, I ble to get good men as friends at a very cheap rate."

who lives in fear, will ever be a bondman.

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