« 이전계속 »
an erasure has not brought into perfect shape, and which has not been polished to a nicety like the sculptor's statue.
SUPERFLUITY. Everything that is superfluous flows out of the mind, like a liquid out of a full vessel.
PROFIT AND PLEASURE. For doubtless he will obtain the reward and To gain the applause of all, what is useful must fame of a poet, if he shall never submit to the bar- be mixed with the agreeable, and they must never ber Licinus a head not to be cured by the crop of be separated. three Anticyras.
BEAUTIES MORE NUMEROUS. Plato (Ion. c. 5, 534, B.) says of a poet:“For a poet is a light thing, with wings, sacred, unable to But where beauties in a poem are more numercompose poetry till he is inspired, and out of his sober senses, ous, I shall not be offended by a few faults, which his imagination being no longer under his control. For while arise from pardonable negligence and frailty, so a person is in complete possession of his wits, he cannot com
natural to man. pose verses or speak oracularly."
I too am indignant when honest Homer nods, Therefore I shall act as whetstone, which, though in a long work it is allowable for sleep to though unable to cut of itself, can give an edge: creep over the writer. though I write nothing myself, I shall point out the way to others, and teach them the rule which
POEMS AND PICTURES. ought to be their guide.
Poems are like pictures; some charm the nearer Isocrates being asked why he did not himself speak, when thou standest, others the farther thou art distant; he taught others to be orators, answered (Plut. Vit. x., Or. p. this loves the shade, that likes a stronger light 838, E.);
which dreads not the critic's piercing eye; this “Whetstones are not themselves able to cut, but make iron gives us pleasure for as
i gives us pleasure for a single view, and that ten shary, and capable of cutting."
times repeated still is new. GOOD SENSE.
POETASTERS. The knowledge of men and manners is the first Poets are not allowed to be in the second rank; principle and fountainhead of good writing. neither gods nor men nor booksellers' shops perLonginus (De Subl. c. 8) says:
mit it: all revolt against it. “For as there are five sources most productive of sublimity, ... the first and most powerful is a strong spring of
- MINERVA UNWILLING. common sense."
As for thee, I know that thou wilt neither do
nor say anything against thy natural bent; thou DRAMATIC POET.
hast too much good sense and too good an underHe who knows the duties that he owes to his standing. Yet if thou art tempted hereafter to Yatherland and friends, the affection due to a par- write some work, let it be submitted to the judg. ent and brother, how a guest ought to be treated, ment of the critic Mæcius, to that of thy father the obligations imposed on a senator, judge, and and mine, and keep it in thy portfolio for nine scenerals in active campaign, such a man cannot years. While thy manuscript is unpublished, thon but know what is the proper character to be as- canst erase whatever thou choosest; but a work, vigned to each.
like a word once uttered, cannot be recalled.
IS A GOOD POEM THE PRODUCTION OF ART OR
NATURE? I shall then recommend the poet who aims at being à skilful imitator to have nature before his
| It has long been a question whether a high-class
poem be the result of nature or art. For my own eyes as the great pattern of life and manners, and to draw from this source the lineaments of truth.
part, I do not see what art could do without the
aid of nature, nor nature without art; they require For it often happens that a comedy, full of beau
the assistance of each other, and ought always to tiful sentiments and where the characters are
be closely united. Observe the wrestlers; if they strongly marked, though it be in other respects void of grace, good versification or art, succeeds
be anxious to carry off the prize, they are not satbetter and charms the people more than pieces
isfied with having their body supple and slim; full of sound signifying nothing. The muse has
they exercise themselves, endure heat and cold. bestowed genius, a full and rich diction on the
A FLATTERER. Greeks, who court nothing but praise.
As those who are hired to mourn at funerals are
more vociferous in their grief than those who are POETS.
sincerely afflicted, in like manner the flatterer is It is the object of poets to instruct or to please, much louder in his praise than the real friend. or to mingle the two together, instructing while we are told that when men of high rank are prethey amuse. Do you wish to instruct? Be brief, pared to honor any one with their friendship, they that the mind may catch thy precepts and the try them with wine, to see if they are worthy of more easily retain them.
La Rochefoucauld says of flattery:
| whatever be their powers, such as mine and Clu" Flattery is false money, which would not pass current it vienus. it were not for our vanity."
SUBJECTS OF SATIRE. hate the way in which we are flattered."
Whatever men engage in, their wild desires, TRIFLES.
fears, rage, pleasures, joys, and varied pursuits Trifles, such as these, lead to serious mischief.
lead to serions mischief. form the motley subject of my page. LEECH.
DEATH. Like a leech that will not quit the skin till Hence sudden death and age without a will. gorged with blood.
"Sudden destruction was imaged by the Greeks, as póvov TTTepòv, destruction's wing.""
VICE. There will be nothing more that posterity can add to our immoral habits; our descendants must have the same desires and act the same follies as their sires. Every vice has reached its zenith.
FLOURISHED ABOUT A.D. 90.
DECIMUS JUNIUS JUVENALIS was born at Aqui
HENCE THE CAUSE OF ANGER. num, or at least resided the greater part of his life in that town. Of his history no facts have
Hence the cause of rage and tears. come down to us on which much dependence can
HYPOCRISY. be placed. He is said to have been the son of a freedman, and was much occupied for many years Who pretend to be Curii and live the life of in declamation more for pleasure than profit, de-Bacchanals. voting the latter part of his life to the composition of satirical poetry. Some of his satires attracted
HYPOCRISY. the attention of the court, and Domitian appointed
Trust not to outward show. him, though he was nearly eighty years of age, under the semblance of honorable distinction, to
THE GRACCHI. the command of a body of troops that were quartered in the most remote district of Egypt, where
Who could endure the Gracchi if they were to he is said to have died from vexation and disgust.
rail at the seditious mob? Who would not conThe extant works of Juvenal consist of sixteen
found heaven with earth and sea with heaven, if
Verres were to pretend to hate a thief, Milo a satires.
murderer ? If Clodius were to decry adultery, A LISTENER.
Catiline accuse Cethegus of factious views ? If Am I always to be a listener only? Shall 11SY
Sylla's three pupils were to declaim against Sylla's never repay in kind, though plagued so often with PT
ough plagued so often with proscriptions ? the Theseid of Codrus, hoarse with reciting it?
There is wonderful unanimity among the dissoTo spare paper that is sure to be wasted.
THE POWERFUL ARE ACQUITTED. In the present state of the world it is difficult
The verdict acquits the raven, but condemns the
Thev not to write lampoons.
dove. SPLEEN FPOM SEEING THE UNWORTHY.
The Germans say:For who can brook the wickedness of this city
“We hang the paltry thief, but let the big go free." and be so steeled as to restrain his pen, when he
“One man may steal a horse, while another may not look
over the hedge." sees pass the spick-span new litter of the lawyer Matho, filled with his fat corporation.
A WICKED MAN.
No one ever reached the climax of vice at one HONOR STARVES ON UNIVERSAL PRAISE.
| leap. Dare some deed to merit the prison of the tiny
y So Psalm lxix. 27:Gyaros if thou wishest to be a man of note. " Add iniquity unto their iniquity." Honesty, nowadays, is commended, and starves Beaumont and Fletcher (" A King and no King," act v. sc. 4) on universal praise.
“ There is a method in man's wickedness,
It grows up by degrees."
“There is no man suddenly either excellently good or ex. ings would of themselves give birth to verses, I tremely evil."
bear. He stands in front of you and orders you That there are departed spirits and subterranean
to stand. Obey you must. For what can you do, regions below Charon's pole, and filthy frogs in the
when he who gives the orders is maddened with Stygian pool, that so many souls are ferried across
wine and at the same time stronger than you. in one frail boat not even boys believe, except they
"Whence do you come ?” he thunders out. be so young as not to be charged for their bath.
“ With whose vinegar or beans are you stuffed?
What cobbler has been feasting with you on CHARACTER OF THE ROMANS.
chopped leek or boiled sheep's head? Don't you What could I do at Rome? I cannot teach my answer? Speak or be kicked! Say where do you lips to lie. If a book be bad, I cannot praise it and hang out, or in what beggar's stand shall I find beg a copy. I am no astrologer; I neither will nor you?” Whether you attempt to speak or retire can promise a father's death: I have never exam
in silence is all the same. They beat you and then ined the entrails of a toad for poison.
make you to find bail to answer for the assanlt.
This is a poor man's liberty.
Once more behold Crispinus, and often shall I THE GREEKS.
have to summon him to the stage. Bid the hungry Greek go to heaven! He'll go.
THE GUILTY. So Johnson: “All sciences the hungry Monsieur knows,
What matters it, then, in what long colonnades And bid him go to hell-to hell he goes."
he tires his mules? through what extensive glades
his rides extend? how many acres near to the FoA FLATTERER.
rum, and what palaces he has bought? Peace This nation, deeply versed in flattery, praises visits not the guilty mind. the conversation of an ignoramus, the face of a
So Psalm xxxii.10 :supremely ugly friend.
“Many sorrows shall be to the wicked."
A TYRANT. There every man is an actor. Do you smile? For tyrant's ears, alas! are ticklish things. His sides burst with laughter; if he spies a tear in a friend's eye, he melts in tears, though in reality
THE COWARDLY. he feels no grief. If at mid-winter you ask for a He never attempted to swim against the current, little fire, he calls for his great-coat. If you say nor was he a citizen who dared speak with bold I am hot, he breaks into a sweat.
freedom and sacrifice his life for truth. MONEY.
This last expression was a favorite saying of Rousseau. In proportion to the money a man keeps in his
THE GREAT AND GOOD. chest is credit given to him.
Would that he had devoted to such trifles as POVERTY,
these all those years of cruelty, during which he
robbed the city of those mighty and illustrious Cheerless poverty has no greater evil than that
spirits unchecked, and with none to avenge the it makes man the contempt and laughter of his
dead! fellows. POVERTY.
GENEROSITY. Those with difficulty emerge from obscurity No one looks for such gifts as Seneca, Piso, or whose noble qualities are depressed by narrow Cotta used to send to their humble friends; for in means at home; but at Rome for such like the at- days of old, generosity was of higher value than tempt is still more hopeless; it is only at an exor- birth or power. bitant rate that a wretched lodging can be got, a mean attendance, and frugal cheer.
Be, as many now are, luxurious when alone,
| parsimonious to your guests. This is a fault of which we are all guilty. Here we all in the midst of poverty ape our betters.
A BARREN WIFE. Why should I take up your time? Everything at
A barren wife procures Rome is very dear.
The kindest, truest friends; such, then, be yours. A MAN'S OWN IS PRECIOUS, HOWEVER SMALL.
A GOOD DINNER. It is something in any place and in any retreat
| He thinks you a vile slave, drawn by the smell whatever to have made oneself master even of a
of his warm kitchen. single lizard. THE POOR.
DOWRY. Mark the prelude of this miserable fray, if fray And 'twas her dower that winged the unerring it can be called, where he only cudgels and I only | dart.
PASCRIPTION OF A RICH AND NOBLE WIFE.
ALL WISH TO KNOW. A very phenix upon earth, and rare as a black All wish to know; but none the price will pay. swan-who could endure a wife in which all excellencies are united? I would rather, far rather,
A WHITE CROW. marry a country girl of Venusia, than thee, O Yet he indeed was lucky, a greater rarity than Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, if along with thy a white crow. mightiness thou broughtest a proud and disdainful spirit, and countest as part of thy dower the
TEACHERS. innumerable triumphs of thy family. Away, 1 Lightly lie the turf, ye gods, and void of weight, beg, with thy Hannibal and Syphax conquered in on our grandsires' shades, and round their urn his camp-troop, with the whole of thy Carthage. may the fragrant crocus bloom and eternal spring,
who maintained that a tutor should have the place GREEK LANGUAGE.
and honor of a revered parent. Everything is in Greek, while surely it is more
PEDIGREE. disgraceful not to know our mother-tongue.
What are the wondrous merits of a pedigree?
What boots it, Ponticus, to be accounted of an LET MY WILL STAND FOR A REASON.
ancient line and to display the painted faces of When a man's life is in debate, no deliberation
your ancestors? is too long. Fool, so a slave is a man! He may have done nothing deserving of death; I grant it, I
A GENTLEMAN. will it, I insist on it! My will; let that, sir, for
Though all the heroes of thy line bedeck thy a reason stand.
halls, believe me, virtue alone is true nobility. WOMEN.
Be a Paulus, Cossus, Drusus in moral character. There is scarcely a single cause in which a
Let the bright examples of their lives be placed woman is not in some way engaged in fomenting
before the images of thy ancestors. Let that,
when thou art consul, take the place of thy rods. the suit.
Oh give me inborn worth! If thou really merit the “Women's jars breed men's wars."
character of blameless integrity, of staunch love
of justice both in words and deeds, then I recogCURTAIN LECTURES.
nize thy right to be esteemed a gentleman. The marriage-bed is still the scene of strife and
Tennyson (“* Lady Clara Vere de Vere"):mutual recriminations; there quiet never comes,
"Howe'er it be, it seems to me that comes to all.
'Tis only noble to be good;
Kind hearts are more than coronets,
And simple faith than Norman blood."
THE IGNOBLY BORN. ready, only waiting her orders which way to flow.
“You are the populace,” he says, “the very EVILS OF PEACE.
dregs of the people; not a man of you can tell me
where his father was born-but I am a Cecropid!” Now we are suffering all the evils of long peace.
“Long life to thee, and mayest thou revel in the Luxury more terrible than war, broods over Rome,
delights of such a descent! Yet from the lowest and avenges the conquered world.
of the people thou wilt find a Roman distinguished
for his eloquence. It is he that usually defends THE KEEPERS.
the suits of the ignorant noble. From the toga'd “Put on a lock; keep her in confinement." But crowd will come one that can solve the knotty who is to keep the keepers themselves?
points of law and the enigmas of the statutes."
ITCH OF SCRIBBLING.
COMMON SENSE. An incurable itch of scribbling clings to many, For in that high state a perception of thie wants and grows inveterate in their distempered breast. and wishes of others rarely shall we find.
Seneca (De Benef. i. 12) says:-
"In the conferring of kindnesses let there be a due percep
tion of the wants of others; let time, place, and parties be Such an one as I cannot paint in words, though
taken into consideration." I can body him forth in my mind's eye.
TO BUILD ON THE FAME OF OTHERS.
It is sad to build on another's fame, lest the : It is repetition, like hashed cabbage served for whole pile fall to the ground when the supporting each repast, that wears out the schoolmaster's pillars are withdrawn. Stretched on the ground,
the vine's weak tendrils try to clasp the elms they Shakespeare (“King John," act ili. sc. 4) says:
| drop from. Prove thyself brave, a faithful guard"Life is as tedious as a twice-told tale,
ian, an incorruptible judge. If ever thou be sumVexing the dull ear of a drowsy man."
moned witness in a dubious and uncertain cause,
though Phalaris himself command thee to for- | And Shakespeare says:swear thyself, and dictate the perjuries with his
“We, ignorant of ourseives,
Beg often our own barms, which the wise powers bull placed before thy eyes, deem it the highest
Deny us for our good: so find we profit crime to prefer existence to honor, and sacrifice
By losing of our prayers." for life life's only end.
And Roscommon thus tells the story of Milo:So Matthew xvi. 286:
“Remember Milo's end“For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole
Wedged in the timber which he strove to rend." world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?"
It is rarely that a marauder pays his visit to a VICE IN HIGH PLACES.
garret. Vice glares more strongly in the public eye as
GOLD. he who sins is high in power or place.
The traveller with empty pockets will sing even SIGNS OF YOUTH.
in the bandit's face. The prayers that are gener
ally first offered up and best known in our temples, Brief let our follies be; and youthful sin
are that our riches and wealth may increase, that Fall with the firstlings of the manly chin.
our money-chest be the largest in the whole
Forum. But no aconite is drunk from earthenSENECA AND NERO.
ware. Then is the time to dread it when thou Who, Nero, so depraved, if choice were free,
quaffest from jewelled cups and the ruddy Setine To hesitate 'twixt Seneca and thee?
glows in the broad gold.
Ovid (Nux. 48) says to the same effect:-
“Thus the traveller who knows that he possesses anything I had rather that vile Thersites were thy sire, of value is afraid of being waylaid: the empty-handed goes
i on his journey in safety.” so thou wert like Achilles, and couldst wieldo Vulcanian arms, than that Achilles should be thy
A VERBOSE EPISTLE. father, and thou be like to vile Thersites. And
A huge, wordy letter came to-day yet, however far thou tracest thy descent and
From Capreæ. name back, thou dost but derive thy origin from the infamous sanctuary. The first of thy ances
PUBLIC CORRUPTION. tors, whoever he was, was either a shepherd or
Ever since we sold our votes to none, the people else—what I would rather not mention.
have thrown aside all anxiety for the public weal.
For that sovereign people that once gave away THE TONGUE.
military commands, consulships, legions, everyThe tongue is the vile slave's vilest part. thing, now bridles its desires, and anxiously prays
only for two things-bread and the games of the YOUTH.
circus. For the short-lived bloom and contracted span
LOVE OF POWER. of brief and wretched life is fast fleeting away!
'Tis nature this; even those who want the will While we are drinking and calling for garlands, ointments, and women, old age steals swiftly on
Pant for the dreadful privilege to kill. with noiseless step.
HIGH FORTUNE. It is thus translated by Gifford:-
For he, who wished for excessive honors and “The noiseless foot of Time steals swiftly by,
prayed for excessive wealth, was raising, stage And ere we dream of manhood age is nigh."
above stage, a tottering tower, only that the fall BLINDNESS OF MAN.
might be the greater, “ with hideous ruin and
combustion down.” In every clime, from Gades to Ganges' distant
Johnson says: stream, few can distinguish between what is really
“What gave great Villiers to th' assassin's knife, a blessing and its opposite, freed from the clouds
And fix'd disease on Harley's closing life ? of mental error. For what is there that we either What murder'd Wentworth, and what exiled Hyde, seek or shun from the dictates of reason? What By kings protected and to kings allied ! is there that thou beginnest so auspiciously that
What but the wish indulged in courts to shine, thou dost not repent of thy undertaking and the
And power too great to keep or to resign." accomplishment of thy wishes ? Too indulgent
CICERO AND DEMOSTHENES. heaven has overturned whole families by grant
“How fortunate a natal day was thine, ing their owners' prayers.' We beg for what will
In that late consulate, O Rome, of mine!” injure us in peace and injure us in war. To many a full and rapid flow of eloquence has proved
He might have scorned the swords of Antony fatal. Even strength itself is fatal. Milo, trust- | if he had uttered nothing better than this. I had ing to his muscles, met his death.
rather write poems, a common jest, than thee, diCicero (De Fin. i. 13) says:
vine Philippic, of distinguished fame, that second "The granting of desires has overthrown not only single scroll! A cruel fate, too, carried him off, whom individuals but whole families."
| Athens used to admire, while his eloquence over