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during the reign of Augustus. In the year 1471 a To have nothing is not poverty, but beggary.

quarto volume appeared from the press of Jenson of Venice, entitled Æmilii Probi de vita excel

lentium, containing lives of twenty distinguished THE BRAVE.

commanders, nineteen Greek and one Persian. In adversity it is easy to despise life, the really Then followed three .

Then followed three chapters de Regibus, and brave man is he who can sul mit to lead a wretched

| lives of Hamilcar and Hannibal. In another edilife.

tion were added lives of Cato and Atticus. Lam

binus maintains that these lives are the production DEAD MEN'S SHOES.

of Cornelius Nepos, and not of Æmilius Probus.' You will give me nothing during your life; you This question has given rise to interminable disa say that you will give me something after your cussions. These biographies have, ever since their death: if you are not a fool, Maro, you know what first appearance, been a favorite school-book. I wish for.


Nothing ought to be despised in war.
Add to this the backbiting of provincial tongues,

THE COWARD. envy usurping the place of true criticism, and one

The mother of a coward does not usually weep. or two ill-conditioned persons,-a host in a small society,—with whom it is difficult daily to keep

EMPIRE. one's temper.

No government is safe unless it is strong in the FORTUNE GIVES TOO MUCH TO SOME. good-will of the people. Fortune gives too much to many, enough to


The affairs of a kingdom cannot be properly A CHARACTER.

conducted by a democracy. You are at once morose and agreeable, pleasing and repulsive. I can neither live with you nor

FEAR. without you.

The life of those is to be pitied, who prefer to Addison ("Spectator," No. 68) thus paraphrases it: be feared rather than loved. "In all thy humors, whether grave or mellow, Thou'rt such a touchy, testy, pleasant fellow,

NO EVIL GREAT WHICH IS THE LAST. Hast so much wit and mirth and spleen about thee.

That there's no living with thee nor without thee." No evil is great if it is the last which we are to And Goldsmith in his “Retaliation":

"Our Garrick's & salad: for in him we see
Oil, vinegar, sugar, and saltness agree."


We value great men by their virtue and not by HONEST MAN EASILY DECEIVED.

their success. An honest man is a child in worldly wit.


It is a common vice in great and free states for It is a country house in the city.

envy to be the attendant upon glory.

Euripides (Fr. Beller. 5) says:

“Men born of low degree are envious : envy is wont to atHe who weighs his responsibilities, can bear tack the noble.” them.

Nicomachus (Fr. Com. Gr. p. 1180, M.) says:-.
“ It is a difficult thing for a man living in the world to es-

cape the eyes of the envious."

La Bruyère says:

“I am told so much evil of that man, and I see so little of Whosoever is not more than wise enough is

it in him, that I begin to suspect that he possesses some inconvenient merit, which extinguishes that of others."


An honorable death is to be preferred to a base



It is the custom of kings to attribute adversity

to the fault of others, and to consider prosperity CORNELIUS NEPOS, the contemporary of Cicero, as the result of their own good fortune. Atticus, and Catullus, is supposed to have been born at Verona, but there are no particulars of his

THE SILENT. sistory on which reliance can be placed. He died' Concealing secrets entrusted to him, which is

sometimes not less advantageous to a man than man looks aloft, and with erect countenance turns eloquence.

his eyes to heaven and gazes on the stars.

PEACE. Peace is procured by war.

That he was accustomed to be a friend not to
fortune but to men.
Dante ("Inferno," is. 62) says :-

"A friend not of my fortune, but myself."

DESCRIPTION OF GOLDEN AGE. The golden age was first produced; honor and uprightness then sprung up spontaneously in man, without the aid of law or the commands of the lawgiver. The dread of punishment was unknown, nor were the menacing words of human statutes required to keep man to his duty. The stern looks of the judge did not then strike terror into suppliant crowds, but all lived in safety without the protection of law.

GOOD TASTE. More good taste than expense.

GOLDEN AGE. No trumpet's angry sound was heard, no helmet nor sword gleamed, but all nations passed in se curity a life of ease, unmolested by a rude soldiery,



There was a never-ending spring, and flowers BORN B.C. 43—DIED A.D. 18.

unsown were kissed by the warm western breeze. P. OVIDIUS Naso, born at Sulmo, in the mount

Then the unploughed land gave forth corn, and ains of the Peligni, and descended from an ancient

the ground, year after year, was white with full equestrian family, was intended for the legal pro-ears of grain. Rivers of milk, rivers of nectar ran, fession, but the hours which should have been and the yellow honey continued to pour from the devoted to the study of jurisprudence were given ever-green oak. up to the cultivation of his poetical talents. As

DESCRIPTION OF THE IRON AGE. might be expected, his father was opposed to his favorite pursuit: nature, however, was too strong, Next burst forth the iron age with its wnrightand it does not appear that he ever practised as eous deeds; modesty, truth, and honor forsook an advocate at the Roman bar. He studied at the earth, and in their place succeeded fraud, deAthens, and had the usual education which the ceit, plots, violence, and the unholy lust of gold. young Roman nobles received at that period. On

GOLD DUG FROM THE EARTH. his return he made an unfortunate marriage, as

But men penetrated into the bowels of the we find him shortly afterwards divorced from his wife. He was of profligate character, and at last

earth, and the precious ore, the allurement to Augustus banished him, it is said, on account of

every evil, was dug up, though placed by the gods

down close to Pluto's realm. an intrigue with his daughter Julia. He was ordered, A.D. 8, to transport himself to Tomi, a

JUSTICE RETURNS TO HEAVEN. town on the shores of the Black Sea near the

Filial affection lies on the ground in modrnful mouth of the Danube. The greater part of a year seems to have been consumed in the voyage, but

garb, and the virgin Astræa was the last of the he beguiled the time by the exercise of his poet

heavenly deities to leave the earth dripping with ical talent, several of his poems having been writ

human gore. ten on shipboard. It was a great change from the

JOVE. luxury of Rome to the mean abode and inhospitable soil of that remote region. Here he remained

Jove seated aloft, leaning on an ivory sceptre,

shook three and four times the terrific locks of his ten years in exile, and was never allowed to return, dying at Tomi A.D. 18, a year which was

head, with which he moved the earth, the sea, and also remarkable for the death of Livy.

the stars.


Every remedy was first tried, but a gangrened A being of a more exalted nature, and of higher limb must be lopt off, lest the healthy part should intellectual powers, that should rule and direct be affected. all other animals, was still wanting. It was then that man was brought into being, whether the

CONFLAGRATION OF THE WORLD. mighty Architect of the universe, having devel. He remembers, too, that it was decreed by Fate oped a nobler world, made him of divine particles, that a time would come when the sea, the earth, or whether the new-sprung earth, only lately with- and the palace of heaven would be seized by fire drawn from contact with heaven, still retained the and burnt, and the laboriously-wrought fabric of skyey influences. Prometheus, mingling these the universe be in danger of perishing. original seeds with living streams, formed man

St. Peter (2 Peter iil. 10) says: after the image of God, who rules the universe. “But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; Thus, while the mute creation bend downward, I in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noisa,

and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also, and thou shalt have it. This one thing only I deand the works that are therein, shall be burnt up."

cline to grant; it is an evil not a good thou askest, MAN BORN TO LABOR.

Phaëthon, thou askest what will prove a misfort

une instead of happiness. From this circumstance we are a hardy race, able to endure a laborious life, and show from

GOLDEN MEAN. what origin we are sprung.

Mounting higher, thou wilt fire the heaven itFRIENDLY DISCORD.

self; descending lower, the earth; the middle way

is safest. Agreeing to differ with friendly discord.


If he did not succeed in his attempt, yet he Ah me! that no herbs can cure the love-sick.

failed in a glorious undertaki EFFECTS OF HOPE AND FEAR.

The one is quick from hope, the other from fear.

Habit had produced the custon.

GUILT BETRAYED IN THE COUNTENANCE. Argus had his head encircled with a hundred eyes; two of them took rest, while the rest Alas! how difficult it is not to betray guilt by watched and stood on guard.

our countenance!

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DESCRIPTION OF ENVY. I am ashamed that these reproaches can be justly! Minerva sees within Envy gorging herself with cast at us, and cannot be refuted.

flesh of vipers, to nourish her vicious propensities,

and when she saw, she turned away her eyes in EXCELLENCE.

loathing; while Envy, rising slowly from the The work of the artist far surpassed even the ground, leaves the fragments of half-eaten serbeauty of the material.

pents, and stalas on with sullen step. When she

beheld the beauteous goddess clad in armor, she LIKENESS OF SISTERS.

heaved a sigh, and groaned from the bottom of Doris and her daughters were here carved, some her breast. Her face was pallid and her body of whom are seen swimming, others, sitting on a emaciated. Her eye never looked straight before rock, are drying their sea-green hair, others gliding her; her teeth were brown with rust; her breast on fishes' backs. All have not the same features, overflowed with gall, and from her tongue dripped nor yet can you say that they are different, but drops of poison. She never smiles except when such as sisters ought to be.

the wretched weep; nor does she enjoy rest;

ever kept moving by her sleepless cares, she sees THE SEASONS.

with evil eye the success of men, and pines away Here stood fresh Spring, bound with flowery as she beholds; she distresses others, and is herchaplet: Summer was unclothed, and bore a self distressed, and bears her own tormentor in wheaten garland; Autumn also was there, be-/ her breast. smeared with trodden grapes; and icy Winter,

A STATE FLOURISHING IN PEACE. rough with hoary locks. Worsley ("Phaëthon ") thus describes the seasons:

She looks upon the citadel flourishing in arts, "Spring flowery-zoned, and Summer wreathed with corn,

wealth, and joyous peace. Autumn with wine-blood splashed from heel to thigh, And Winter bending over beard of snow."


Kingly dignity and love do not well agree, nor MAN AND HIS ASPIRATIONS.

do they remain together. Thy destiny is that of man, thy aspirations are those of a god.

SPIRIT. Lamartine in his second meditation "L'Homme," dedicated A spirit superior to every hostile weapon, to Lord Byron, has this sublime verse:

" Bounded in his nature, infinite in his desires, man is a fallen god who has a recollection of heaven."

NO MAN BLESSED BEFORE HE DIES. And Voltaire (“La Liberté "') says:

But in truth we must always wait for the last * Thy destiny is that of man, and thy desires are those of god."

day of man's life: no one is to be considered blest

before he die, and has received the last funeral EXERTION.

rites. I steer against them, nor has the force, to which

A BLUSH. all others must yield, any effect on me; I move on in a direction contrary to the rapid-whirling world. The hue given back by the clouds from the re

flected rays of the sun or the purple morn, such was PRAYERS NOT TO BE GRANTED.

the countenance of Diana when she was discovered ) . Choose some gift from heaven, earth, or sea, I unclothed.




BLINDNESS OF MANKIND. He was chosen umpire in this sportive contest. | Oye gods! what thick encircling darkness blinds

the minds of men! ECHO. That tuneful Nymph the babbling Foho whol THE EVIL THAT I WOULD NOT, THAT I DO. has not learnt to conceal what is told her, nor yet If it were in my power, I would be wiser, but a is able to speak till another speaks.

newly-felt power carries me off in spite of myself;

love leads me one way, my understanding leads DEATH A RELIEF FROM PAIN.

me another. I see and approve the right, and yet Death is not grievous to me, who am about to the wrong pursue. lay aside my pains by death. A COWARD.

For what cannot poetry accomplish ?
It is the act of a coward to wish for death.


No one enjoys pure, unalloyed pleasure; there
The cause is secret, but th' effect is known. is always some bitter mingled with the sweet

Euripides (Fr. Antig. 14) says:

“Be not willing to grieve thyself, knowing that grief often The foe teaches me what to do; it is allowable brings joy afterwards, and evil is the proximate cause of to be taught even by an enemy. DESCRIPTION OF Styx,

CONTAGION. The sluggish 'Styx exhales its fogs; those just! Contagion is hurtful by breath, and is carried dead, who have enjoyed funeral rites, descend / thereby to a distance. hither: paleness and wintry cold inhabit this

PESTILENCE. dreary place; ghosts newly arrived know not the road that leads to grim Pluto's palace, nor where

The nearer one is to the sick, and the more is the metropolis of hell. This mighty city has a

faithfully he is watched, the quicker the watcher thousand avenues and cates forever open. And i approaches death. The hope of safety has vanas the rivers flow all into the ocean, so this vast sned, and they see the end

this vast ished, and they see the end of the disease in the city receives all the shades; nor is there ever

deaths around. want of room, nor is it ever crowded. The disem

THE EFFEMINACY OF MAN. bodied spirits roam bloodless; and in imitation of their life on earth, some frequent the courts ofl. 1

They indulge themselves and care not for what law, others the court of hell's tyrant, others prac- | 18 useful. tise various arts, and others suffer the punishment

THE CREDULITY OF LOVE. due to their crimes.

Love is a credulous thing.

Tantalus, no water is caught by thee, and the
tree, which overhangs thy head, eludes thy grasp.

Every one without doubt becomes his own god

to lead him on to fortune; that goddess listens UNCEASING LABOR.

not to the prayers of the slothful. Thou, Sisyphus, either pursuest or pushest for

MURDER. ward the stone, that is destined to fall back again.

Death is to be expatiated by death.

CONQUER AT ALL HAZARDS. No sooner was she seen than she was beloved You will with difficulty conquer, but conquer and carried off by Pluto.


THE POWER OF HEAVEN. I am on a higher pinnacle than fortune can The power of heaven is immeasurable and reach.

boundless, accomplishing whatever it wills. COMMON RIGHTS.

So 1 Chronicles xxix. 12:

“Thou reignest over all; and in Thine hand is power and Why do you debar me from water ? surely this might." is a common right; nature hath given no man a peculiar property in sun, air, or water: I have

THE RIGHTEOUS. come to crave a bounty that is shared by all,

The pious are cared for by the gods, and those

are attended to, who have attended to their duties A CUP OF COLD WATER.

to the gods. A cup of cold water will be nectar to me, and I

So Hebrews xiii. 4:shall confess that I have received life with it; you "The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall will have given me life by the water.

do unto me."


in the hollow of a mountain, where dwells the There is an icy zone on the extreme borders of drowsy god of sleep; whose gloomy mansion is Scythia, a melancholy waste, barren and treeless;

never visited by the rising, mid-day, nor setting there dwell sluggish cold, pallid looks, trembling sun. Dark fogs rise, and a perpetual twilight preague, and pining want.

vails around. No crowing cock with crested head

wakes the morn, nor is the silence broken by the DESCRIPTION OF FAMINE.

bark of watchful dog, or the cackling of more There she found Famine in a stony field, scratch wakeful geese. No beast, wild or tame, no trees ing up a few roots with her talons and teeth.

rocked by tempest, nor reproachful sound of huHer locks were matted, her eyes were sunken;

man voice, strike upon the ear. Mute silence has paleness overspread her face; her lips were wan

its habitation here. Yet from the bottom of a from want, her teeth brown with rust; her skin

rock issues forth the rivulet of Lethe; the waters was hard, and through it the entrails were seen to

seen to of which, flowing with soft murmur over the rummove; the sapless bones seemed to start from her

bling pebbles, invite to sleep. Around its entry bent loins, and for a belly was a belly's space.

nodding poppies grow and herbs without number, Thou wouldst have supposed that her breast was

from whose milky sap night drains their sleepy hung up and tacked to her body only by the chine

virtue, and scatters it in dew over the silent of the back. Her joints were protuberant from

plains. No door on creaking hinges was in the leanness; the orbits of her knees bunched out,

whole house; no watch was there to guard the while her ankle bones jutted to undue propor

entrance. But in the middle was a bed, raised tions.

aloft on black ebony, stuffed with feathers, of one

color, with a dark coverlet, where lies the god THE POWER OF RECOLLECTION.

himself with his limbs stretched out at ease. The power of recollection is a part of our pain.

Around him everywhere fantastic dreams, imitat

ing various shapes, lie numerous as the ears of THE GRAVE.

grain, the leaves on trees, or sand on the seaI entreat you by the horrors of these realms, sho this vast chaos and kingdom where silence reigns, give back Eurydice, weave again her quick-spun

DESCRIPTION OF FAME. thread. All our possessions are but loans from

Fame has her seat of power on the summit of a you, and after a little space, sooner or later we

lofty tower; entrances without number, and a hasten to one bourn; we are all going the same road, this is our last home; you hold an endless

thousand avenues lead to her palace, while no empire over the human race. She, too, when she

closed doors prevent approach: night and day shall have reached a ripe old age, must be yours

they stand open. It is wholly built of rattling

brass, rumbling and giving back echoes on echoes. again.

Quiet there is none within, nor silence, nor yet is TIME PASSES RAPIDLY.

there clamorous noise, but a low murmur of humSwift Aying time glides op unmarked and un

ming voices, like the hollow roar of the ocean's perceived; nothing passes more quickly than

waters or the sound of distant thunders, when

Jupiter clashes the dark clouds together. A years, Dryden says:

crowd occupies the halls, a light throng entering "Old age creeps on us, ere we think it nigh."

or issuing forth: a thousand rumors, mixed with And Moore:

truth, wander through the air, and a confused “Oh, sweet youth, how soon it fades!

sound of words rolls around. Some fill the ears Sweet joys of youth how fleeting!"

with empty sounds; others eagerly repeat what

they have heard, amplifying the lie they are reBLACK LOOK WHITE, AND WHITE LOOK BLACK. lating, while every story-teller adds some embel

Skilled in every artifice, no degenerate son of lishment. Here sit vain credulity, rash error, his father, he could at will make white look black foolish joys, panic fears, sudden sedition, and and black look white.

whispers of uncertain origin. Fame sits aloft, beThis is the description of Belial by Milton ("Paradise Lost,"

holding what is done in heaven, sea, and earth book ii):

and searching through the whole world. “All was false and hollow; though his tongue

Pope, in his “ Temple of Fame," says:-
Dropt manna, and could make the worse appear
The better reason, to perplex and dash

“Like broken thunders that at distance roar, Maturest counsels; for his thoughts were low

Or billows murmuring on the hollow shore."
To vice industrious, but to nobler deeds
Timorous and slothful."


Now he is nothing but ashes, and of the mighty The violence of winter increases, and on all Achilles there remains only some little dust, which sides fierce winds struggle and clash the indignant cannot so much as fill an urn: yet his fame still waves.

lives so as to fill a whole world. This is the meas

ure that corresponds with such a hero; in this DESCRIPTION OF SLEEP.

Achilles is equal to himself, nor has Tartarus with Near the Cimmerians there is a deep cavern lits empty shades any effect on him.

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