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been involved in imminent danger, if not destruction. I snatched up by the earth, because it can no way be

It is with the utmost elegance added in the fable, detained, when it has time and opportunity to fly off, that when Sphinx was conquered, her carcass was but is only wrought together and fixed by sudden laid upon an ass; for there is nothing so subtile and intermixture and comminution, in the same manner abstruse, but after being once made plain, intelligible, as if one should endeavor to mix air with water, and common, it may be received by the slowest which cannot otherwise be done than by a quick and capacity.

rapid agitation, that joins them together in froth We must not omit that Sphinx was conquered by whilst the air is thus caught up by the water. And a lame man, and impotent in his feet; tor men usually it is elegantly added, that Proserpine was ravished make too much haste to the solution of Sphinx's rid- whilst she gathered narcissus flowers, which have dles; whence it happens, that she prevailing, their their name from numbedness or stupefaction; for the minds are rather racked and torn by disputes, than spirit we speak of is in the fittest disposition to be invested with command by works and effects. embraced by terrestrial matter when it begins to coa

gulate, or grow torpid as it were. XXIX.-PROSERPINE, OR SPIRIT.

It is an honor justly attributed to Proserpine, and EXPLAINED OF THE SPIRIT INCLUDED IN NATURAL

not to any other wife of the gods, that of being the

lady or mistress of her husband, because this spirit BODIES.

performs all its operations in the subterraneal reThey tell us, Pluto having, upon that memorable!

prable gions, whilst Pluto, or the earth, remains stupid, or division of empire among the gods, received the in

in as it were ignorant of them. fernal regions for his share, despaired of winning any

The æther, or the efficacy of the heavenly bodies, one of the goddesses in marriage by an obsequious denoted by Ceres, endeavors with infinite diligence to courtship, and therefore through necessity resolved

force out this spirit, and restore it to its pristine state. upon a rape. Having watched his opportunity, he And by the torch in the hand of Ceres, or the æther, suddenly seized upon Proserpine, a most beautiful is doubtless meant the sun, which disperses light over virgin, the daughter of Ceres, as she was gathering the whole globe of the earth, and if the thing were narcissus flowers in the meads of Sicily, and hurrying possible, must have the greatest share in recovering her to his chariot, carried her with him to the sub-Proserpine, of reinstating the subterraneal spirit. terraneal regions, where she was treated with the Yet Proserpine still continues and dwells below, highest reverence, and styled the Lady of Dis. But after the manner excellently described in the condiCeres missing her only daughter, whom she extreme-tion betwixt Jupiter and Ceres. For first, it is cerly loved, grew pensive and anxious beyond measure,tain that there are two ways of detaining the spirit, and taking a lighted torch in her hand, wandered the in solid and terrestrial matter,-the one by condenworld over in quest of her daughter,-but all to no sation or obstruction, which is mere violence and impurpose, till, suspecting she might be carried to the prisonment; the other by administering a proper infernal regions, she,with great lamentation and abun- aliment, which is spontaneous and free. For after dance of tears, importuned Jupiter to restore her; and the included spirit begins to feed and nourish itself, with much ado prevailed so far as to recover and it is not in a hurry to fiy off, but remains as it were bring her away, if she had tasted nothing there. This fixed in its own earth. And this is the moral of proved a hard condition upon the mother, for Proser-Proserpine's tasting the pomegranate; and were it pine was found to have eaten three kernels of a pome- not for this she must long ago have been carried up granate. Ceres, however, desisted not, but fell to her by Ceres, who with her torch wandered the world oventreaties and lamentations afresh, insomuch that at er, and so the earth have been left without its spirit. last it was indulged her that Proserpine should di- For though the spirit in metals and minerals may vide the year betwixt her husband and ber mother, perhaps be, after a particular manner, wrought in by and live six months with the one and as many with the solidity of the mass, yet the spirit of vegetables the other. After this, Theseus and Perithus, with and animals has open passages to escape at, unless uncommon audacity, attempted to force Proserpine it be willingly detained, in the way of sipping and away from Plato's bed, but happening to grow tired tasting them. in their journey, and resting themselves upon a stone. The second article of agreement, that of Proserin the realms below, they could never rise from it pine's remaining six months with her mother and again, but remain sitting there for ever. Proserpine, six with her husband, is an elegant description of therefore, still continued queen of the lower regions, the division of the year ; for the spirit "diffused in honor of whom there was also added this grand through the earth lives above-ground in the vegetaprivilege, that though it had never been permitted ble world during the summer months, but in the any one to return after having once descended thith- / winter returns under-ground again. er, a particular exception was made, that he who The attempt of Theseus and Perithous to bring brought a golden bough as a present to Proserpine. Proserpine away, denotes that the more subtile spirmight on that condition descend and return. This its, which descend in many bodies to the earth, may was an ouly bough that grew in a large dark grove, | frequently be unable to drink in, unite with themnot from a tree of its own, but like the mistletoe. selves, and carry off the subterraneous spirit, but on from another, and when plucked away a fresh one

the contrary be coagulated by it, and rise no more, always shot up in its stead.

so as to increase the inhabitants and add to the doEXPLANATION.—This fable seems to regard natural

minion of Proserpine. philosophy, and searches deep into that rich and fruit-|

The alchemists will be apt to fall in with our inful virtue and supply in subterraneous bodies, from

terpretation of the golden bough, whether we will or whence all the things upon the earth's surface spring,

no, because they promise golden mountains, and the and into which they again relapse and return. By

restoration of natural bodies from their stone, as from Proserpine the ancients denoted that ethereal spirit

the gates of Pluto; but we are well assured that their shut up and detained within the earth, here repre

theory has no just foundation, and suspect they have sented by Pluto,--the spirit being separated from the Many philosophers hare certain speculations to this superior globe according to the expression of the purpose. Sir Isaac Newton, in particular, suspects that

the earth receives its vivifying spirit from the comets. poet. This spirit is conceived as ravished, or And the philosophical chemists and astrologers have spun "Sive recens tellus, seductaque nuper ab alta

the thought into many fantastical distinctions and varieÆthere, cognati retinebat semina celi."-Mentam i. 30.'ties. See Newton, Princip. lib. iii. p. 473, etc.

no very encouraging or practical proofs of its sound-L FABLE.-The Sirens are said to be the daughters ness. Leaving, therefore, their conceits to themselves, of Achelous and Terpsichore, one of the Muses. In we shall freely declare our own sentiments upon this their early days they had wings, but lost them upon last part of the fable. We are certain, from numer- being conquered by the Muses, with whom they ous figures and expressions of the ancients, that they rashly contended ; and with the feathers of these judged the conversation, and in some degree the ren- wings the Muses made themselves crowns, so that ovation, of natural bodies to be no desperate or im from this time the Muses wore wings on their heads possible thing, but rather abstruse and out of the excepting only the mother to the Sirens. common road than wholly impracticable. And this These Sirens resided in certain pleasant islands, and seems to be their opinion in the present case, as they when, from their watch-tower, they saw any ship aphave placed this bough among an infinite number of proaching, they first detained the sailors by their shrubs, in a spacious and thick wood. They sup- music, then, enticing them to shore, destroyed them. posed it of gold, because gold is the emblem of dura- Their singing was not of one and the same kind tion. They feigned it adventitious, not native, be- but they adapted their tunes exactly to the nature of cause such an effect is to be expected from art, and each person, in order to captivate and secure him not from any medicine or any simple or mere natural | And so destructive had they been, that these islands way of working

of the Sirens appeared, to a very great distance,

white with the bones of their unburied captives. XXX.-METIS, OR COUNSEL.

Two different remedies were invented to protect EXPLAINED OF PRINCES AND THEIR COUNCIL. persons against them, the one by Ulysses, the other The ancient poets relate that Jupiter took Metis

| by Orpheus. Ulysses commanded his associates to

stop their ears close with wax; and he, determining to wife, whose name plainly denotes counsel, and that

to make the trial, and yet avoid the danger, ordered he, perceiving that she was pregnant by him, would

himself to be tied fast to a mast of the ship, giving by no means wait the time of her delivery, but di

strict charge not to be unbound, even though himself rectly devoured her; whence himself also became

should entreat it; but Orpheus, without any bindpregnant, and was delivered in a wonderful manner;

ing at all, escaped the danger, by loudly chanting te for he from his head or brain brought forth Pallas

his harp the praises of the gods, whereby he drowned armed. EXPLANATION.-This fable, which in its literal

the voices of the Sirens.

1 EXPLANATION.—This fable is of the moral kind sense appears monstrously absurd, seems to contain a

and appears no less elegant than easy to interpret. state secret, and shows with what art kings usually

For pleasures proceed from plenty and affluence, atcarry themselves towards their council, in order to

tended with activity or exultation of the mind." preserve their own authority and majesty not only

| Anciently their first incentives were quick, and inviolate, but so as to have it magnified and height

seized upon men as if they had been winged, but ened among the people. For kings commonly link themselves as it were in a nuptial bond to their coun

| learning and philosophy afterwards prevailing, had

| at least the power to lay the mind under some recil, and deliberate and communicate with them after

straint, and make it consider the issue of things, and a prudent and laudable custom upon matters of the

thus deprived pleasures of their wings. greatest importance, at the same time justly conceiv

This conquest redounded greatly to the honor and ing this no diminution of their majesty ; but when

ornament of the Muses; for after it appeared, by the the matter once ripens to a decree or order, which is

example of a few, that philosophy could introduce a a kind of birth, the king then suffers the council to

contempt of pleasures, it immediately seemed to be a go on no further, lest the act should seem to depend

sublime thing that could raise and elevate the soul, npon their pleasure. Now, therefore, the king usually

fixed in a manner down to the earth, and thus render assumes to himself whatever was wrought, elabora

men's thoughts, which reside in the head, winged as ted, or formed, as it were, in the womb of the coun

it were, or sublime. cil (unless it be a matter of an inviduous nature

Only the mother of the Sirens was not thus plumed which he is sure to put from him), so that the decree

on the head, which doubtless denotes superficial leartand the execution shall seem to flow from himself.a

ing, invented and used for delight and levity; an emiAnd as this decree or execution proceeds with pru

nent example whereof we have in Petronius, wba, dence and power, so as to imply necessity, it is ele

after receiving sentence of death, still continued his gantly wrapt up under the figure of Pallas armed. Nor are kings content to have this seem the effect

gay frothy humor, and, as Tacitus observes, used his

learning to solace or divert himself, and instead of of their own authority, free will, and uncontrollable

such discourses as give firmness and constancy of choice, unless they also take the whole honor to themselves, and make the people imagine that all

mind, read nothing but loose poems and verses good and wholesome decrees proceed entirely from

Such learning as this seems to pluck the crowns again

from the Muses' heads, and restore them to the Sirens their own head, that is, their o**n sole prudence and

The Sirens are said to inhabit certain islands, judgment.

because pleasures generally seek retirement, and often

shun society. And for their songs, with the manifold XXXI.--THE SIRENS, OR PLEASURES.

artifice and destructiveness thereof, this is too obvious EXPLAINED OF MEN'S PASSION FOR PLEASURES. and common to need explanation. But that particu

INTRODUCTION.-The fable of the Sirens is, in a | lar of the bones stretching like white cliffs along the vulgar sense, justly enough explained of the per

iustly enonoh explained of the per- shores, and appearing afar off, contains a more subtile nicious incentives to pleasure, but the ancient my- allegory, and denotes that the examples of others thology seems to us like a vintage ill-pressed and trod; for though something has been drawn from it. The one denoted by the river Achelous, and the otber yet all the more excellent parts remain behind in the by, Terpsichore, the muse that invented the cithara and

delighted in dancing grapes that are untouched.

b"Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus: a This policy strikingly characterized the conduct of

Rumoresque senum severiorum Louis XIV., who placed his generals under a particular

Omnes unius estimemus assis."Catull. Eleg. injunction, to advertise him of the success of any siege And again likely to be crowned with an immediate triumph, that he | "Jura senes norint, et quod sit fasque nefasque might attend in person and appear to take the town by a Inquirant tristes; legumque examina servent. cuip de main.

-Metam ir 55

calamity and misfortunes, though ever so manifest ness of pleasures, without complying or being wholly and apparent, have yet but little force to deter the given up to them; which is what Solomon professes corrupt nature of man from pleasures.

of himself when he closes the account of all the The allegory of the remedies against the Sirens is numerous pleasures he gave a loose to, with this exnot difficult, but very wise and noble: it proposes, in pression, " But wisdom still continued with me." effect, three remedies, as well against subtile as vio- Such heroes in virtue may, therefore, remain unmoved lent mischiefs, two drawn from philosophy and one by the greatest incentives to pleasure, and stop themfrom religion.

selves on the very precipice of danger; if, according The first means of escaping is to resist the earliest to the example of Ulysses, they turn a deaf ear to temptation in the beginning, and diligently avoid and pernicious counsel, and the flatteries of their friends cut off all occasions that may solicit or sway the and companions, which have the greatest power to mind; and this is well represented by shutting up shake and unsettle the mind. the oars, a kind of remedy to be necessarily used with But the most excellent remedy, in every temptamean and vulgar minds, such as the retinue of Ulysses. tion is that of Orpheus, who, by loudly chanting and

But nobler spirits may converse, even in the midst resounding the praises of the gods, confounded the of pleasures, if the mind be well guarded with con-voices, and kept himself from hearing the music of stancy and resolution. And thus some delight to the Sirens for divine contemplations exceed the pleamake a severe trial of their own virtue, and thor- sures of sense, not only in power but also in sweet oughly acquaint themselves with the folly and mad- I ness.




ALEATOR, quanto in arte est melior, tanto est ne-, Hæredis fletus sub persona risus est—The tears of quior-A gamester, the greater master he is in his art, an heir are laughter under a mask. the worse man he is.

| Jucundum nihil'est, nisi quod reficit varietas Arcum, intensio frangit; animum, remissio-Much Nothing is pleasant which is not spiced with variety. bending breaks the bow; much unbending, the mind. Invidiam ferre, aut fortis, aux felix potest—He

Bis vincit, qui se vincit in victorio-He conquers may be envied, who is either courageous or happy. twice, who restrains himself in victory.

In malis sperare bonum, nisi innocens, nemo poCum vitia prosint, peccat qui recte facit,If vices test-In adversity, only the virtuous can entertain were profitable, the virtuous man wouldbe thesinner. hope.

Bene dormit, qui non sentit quod male dormiat-| In vindicando, criminosa est celeritas-In revenge, He sleeps well, who is not conscious that he sleeps haste is criminal ill.

In calamitoso risus etiam injuria est-In misforDeliberare utilia, mora est tutissima-To deliberate tune, even to smile is to offend. about useful things is the safest delay.

| Improbe Neptunum accusat, qui iterum naufraDolor decrescit, ubi quo crescat non habet-The gium facit-He accuseth Neptune unjustly, who inflood of grief decreaseth, when it can swell no higher. curs shipwreck a second time.

Etiam innocentes cogit mentiri dolor-Pain makes Multis nimatur, qui uni facit injuriam-He that even the innocent man a liar.

| injures one, threatens many. Etiam celeritas in desiderio, mora est-In desire, Mora omnis ingrata est, sed facit sapientiam-AJI swiftness itself is delay.

delay is unpleasant, but we are the wiser for it. Etiam capillus unus habet umbram suam-Even Mori est felicis antequam mortem invocet-Happy a single hair casts a shadow.

he who dies ere he calls on death. Fidem qui perdit, quo se servat in reliquum?-He Malus ubi bonum se simulat, tunc est pessimus-A that has lost his faith, what staff has he left? | bad man is worse when he pretends to be a saint.

Formosa facies muta commendatio est-A beauti- Magno cum periculo custoditur, quod multis placet sul face is a silent commendation.

--Lock and key will scarce keep that secure which Fortuna nimium quem fovet, stultum facit-For- pleases everybody. tune makes him fool, whom she makes her darling. Male vivunt qui se semper victuros putant-They

Fortuna obesse nulli contenta est semel-Fortune live ill, who think to live for ever. is not content to do a man one ill turn.

Male secum agit æger, medicum qui hæredem facit Facit gratum fortuna, quem nemo videt-The for- - That sick man does ill for himself, who makes his tune which nobody sees makes a man happy and un

physician his heir. envied.

Multos timere debet, quem multi timent-He of Hen! quam miserum est ab illo lædi, de quo non whom many are afraid, ought himself to fear many. possis queri-0! what a miserable thing it is to be Nulla tam bona est fortuna, de qua nil possis quere injured by those of whom we cannot complain.

-There's no fortune so good, but it has its alloy. Homo toties moritur quoties amittit suos--A man Pars beneficii est quod petitur, si bene neges—That dies as often as he loses his friends.

I is half granted which is denied graciously.

Timidus vocat se cautum, parcum sordidus—The art a man; remember thou art God's vicegerent. co ward calls himself a cautious man; and the paiser The one bridleth their power, and the other their says, he is frugal.

will. O vita! misero longa, felici brevis-0 life! an age Things will have their first or second agitation. Il to the miserable, a moment to the happy.

they be not tossed upon the arguments of counsel, The following are sentences extracted from the they will be tossed upon the waves of fortune. writings of Lord Bacon :

The true composition of a counsellor, is rather to It is a strange desire which men have, to seek be skilled in his master's business than his nature; power and lose liberty.

for then he is like to advise him, and not to feed his Children increase the cares of life: but they miti

humor. gate the remembrance of death.

Fortune sometimes turneth the handle of the bottle, Round dealing is the honor of man's nature; and

which is easy to be taken hold of; and after the a mixture of falsehood is like alloy in gold and silver,

belly, which is hard to grasp. which may make the metal work the better, but it! Generally it is good to commit the beginning of all debaseth it.

great actions to Argus with an hundred eyes; and Death openeth the gate to good fame, and extin

the ends of them to Briareus with an hundred hands; guisheth envy.

first to watch and then to speed. Revenge is a kind of wild justice, which the more

There is a great difference betwixt a cunning man a man's nature runs to, the more pught law to weed

and a wise man. There be that can pack the cards,

who yet can't play well; they are good in canvasses it out.

and factions, and yet otherwise mean men. He that studieth revenge, keepeth his own wounds

Extreme self-lovers will set a man's house on fire, green,

though it were but to roast their eggs. It was a high speech of Seneca (after the manner of toe Stoics), that the good things which belong to

| New things, like strangers, are more admired and prosperity are to be wished ; but the good things

less favored. which belong to adversity are to be admired.

It were good that men, in their innovations, would He that cannot see well, let him go softly.

| follow the example of time itself, which indeed in

novateth greatly, but quietly, and by degrees searce If a man be thought secret, it inviteth discovery ; I to be perceived. as the more close air sucketh in the more open.

They that reverence too much old time, are but a Keep your authority wholly from your children, I scorn to the new. not so your purse.

The Spaniards and Spartans have been noted to be Men of noble birth are noted to be envious towards of small despatch. Mi venga la muerte de Spagnanew men when they rise. For the distance is altered; Let my death come from Spain; for then it will be and it is like a deceit of the eye, that when others sure to be long a-coming. come on, they think themselves go back.

You had better take for business a man somewhat As in nature things move more violently to their absurd, than over-formal. place, and calmly in their place : so virtue in ambi

Those who want friends to whom to open their tion is violent; in authority, settled and calm.

griefs, are cannibals of their own hearts. Boldness in civil business, is like pronunciation in the orator of Demosthenes; the first, second, and

1 Number itself importeth not much in armies, third thing.

where the people are of weak courage ; for (as Virgil

says) it never troubles a wolf how nany the sheep Boldness is blind: whereof 'tis ill in counsel, but be. good in execution. For in counsel it is good to see Let states, that aim at greatness, take heed how dangers, in execution not to see them, except they be their nobility and gentry multiply too fast. In coppice very great.

woods, if you leave your staddles too thick, you sball Without good nature, man is but a better kind of never have clean underwood, but shrubs and bushes. vermin.

A civil war is like the heat of a fever; but a forGod never wrought miracles to convince atheism, eign war is like the heat of exercise, and serveth to because his ordinary works convince it.

keep the body iu health. The great atheists indeed are hypocrites, who are Suspicions among thoughts are like bats among always handling holy things, but without feeling, so birds, they ever fly by twilight. as they must need be cauterized in the end.

Base natures, if they find themselves once susThe master of superstition is the people. And in pected, will never be true. all superstition, wise men follow fools.

Men ought to find the difference between saltness In removing superstitions, care should be had, and bitterness. Certainly he that hath a satirical that (as it fareth in ill purgings) the good be not vein, as he maketh others afraid of his wit, so he had taken away with the bad, which commonly is done, I need be afraid of others' memory. when the people is the physician.

Discretion in speech is more than eloquence. He that goeth into a country before he hath some Men seem neither well to understand their riches, entrance into the language, goeth to school, and not | nor their strength ; of the former they believe greater to travel.

things than they should and of the latter much less It is a miserable state of mind (and yet it is com

And from hence fatal pillars have bounded the promonly the case of kings) to have few things to desire, gress of and many to fear.

Riches are the baggage of virtue; they cannot be Depression of the nobility may make a king more spared nor left behind, but they hinder the march. absolute, but less safe.

Great riches hare sold more men than ever they All precepts concerning kings are, in effect, comprehended in these remembrances : Remember thou He that defers his charity till he is dead, is (1 *



man weighs it rightly) rather liberal of another man's, In great place ask counsel of both times: of the than of his own.

ancient time what is best, and of the latter time what Ambition is like choler; if he can move, it makes is fittest. men active; if it be stopped, it becomes adust, and The virtue of prosperity is temperance, of advermakes men melancholy.

sity fortitude, which in morals is the more heroical To take a soldier without ambition, is to pull off virtue. Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testahis spurs.

ment, adversity the blessing of the New which carri

eth the greater benediction and the clearer revelation Some ambitious men seem as screens to princes in

of God's favor. matters of danger and envy. For no man will take such parts, except he be like the seel'd dove, that mounts and mounts, because he cannot see about him. Princes and states should choose such ministers as

SHORT NOTES FOR CIVIL CONVERSATION. are more sensible of duty than rising; and should discern a busy nature from a willing mind.

To deceive men's expectations generally (with cauA man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds; tel,) argueth a staid mind, and unexpected constancy; therefore let him seasonably water the one, and de

viz., in matters of fear, anger, sudden joy or grief, and

all things which may affect or alter the mind in pubstroy the other.

lic or sudden accidents, or such like. If a man look sharp and attentively, he shall see fortune; for though she be blind, she is not invisible.

It is necessary to use a steadfast countenance, not

waving with action, as in moving the head or hand Usury bringeth the treasure of the realm or state

too much, which showeth a fantastical light and fickle into a few hands: for the usurer being at certainties,

operation of the spirit, and consequently like mind as and the others at uncertainties; at the end of the

gesture: only it is sufficient, with leisure, to use a game most of the money will be in the box.

modest action in either. Beauty is best in a body that hath rather dignity

In all kinds of speech, either pleasant, grave, severe, of presence, than beauty of aspect. The beautiful

or ordinary, it is convenient to speak leisurely, and prove accomplished, but not of great spirit; and rather drawingly, than hastily ; because hasty speech study, for the most part, rather behavior than vir I confounds the memory, and oftentiines (besides un

seemliness) drives a man either to a nonplus or unThe best part of beauty, is that which a picture

seemly stammering, harping upon that which should cannot express.

follow; whereas a slow speech confirmeth the memHe who builds a fair house upon an ill seat, com- ory, addeth a conceit of wisdom to the hearers, besides mits himself to prison.

a seemliness of speech and countenance. If you would work on any man, you must either To desire in discourse to hold all arguments, is know his nature and fashions, and so lead him; or ridiculous, wanting true judgment; for in all things his ends, and so persuade him, or his weaknesses no man can be exquisite. and disadvantages, and so awe him; or those that To have common-places to discourse, and to want have interested in him, and so govern him.

variety, is both tedious to the hearers, and shows a Costly followers (among whom we may reckon shallowness of conceit; therefore it is good to vary, those who are importunate in suits) are not to be and suit speeches with the present occasions; and to liked ; lest while a man maketh his train longer, he have a moderation in all our speeches, especially in maketh his wings shorter.

jesting of religion, state, great persons, weighty and Fame is like a river, that beareth up things light important business, poverty, or anything deserving and swollen, and drowns things weighty and solid. pity.

Seneca saith well, that anger is like rain, that To use many circumstances, ere you come to matbreaks itself upon that it falls.

ter, is wearisome: and to use none at all, is but Excusations, cessions, modesty itself well governed,

blunt. are but arts of ostentation.

Bashfulness is a great hinderance to a man, both of High treason is not written in ice; that when the

uttering his conceit, and understanding what is probody relenteth, the impression should go away.

pounded unto him; wherefore, it is good to press

... himself forwards with discretion, both in speech, and The best governments are always subject to be like

company of the better sort. the fairest crystals, when every icicle or grain is seen, which in a fouler stone is never perceived.

Usus promptos facit.



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