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he) I were to allow all this, it will oniy prove that | trary, I considered that idea as an absurdity, into the law of election was different in queen Anne's which the ministry must inevitably fall if they rea time from what it is at present."

soned right upon their own principles. This, indeed, is more than I expected. The prin-| The case of Mr. Wollaston speaks for itself. The ciple, I know, has been maintained in fact; but I ministry assert, that expulsion alone creates an abso never expected to see it so formally declared. What lute, complete incapacity to be re-elected to sit in can he mean? Does he assume this language to the same parliament. This proposition they have satisfy the doubts of the people, or does he mean to uniformly maintained, without any condition or rouse their indignation ? Are the ministry daring modification whatsoever. Mr. Wollaston was exenough to affirm, that the house of commons have a pelled, re-elected, and admitted to take his seat in right to make and unmake the law of parliament, at the same parliament. I leave it to the public to de their pleasure ? Does the law of parliament, which termine, whether this be plain matter of fact, or mere we are often told is the law of the land, does the nonsense or declamation. common right of every subject of the realm, depend

JUNIUS. upon an arbitrary, capricious vote of one branch of the legislature? The voice of truth and reason must

LETTER XXII be silent.

The ministry tell us plainly, that this is no longer | TO THE PRINTER OF THE PUBLIC ADVERTISER. a question of right, but of power and force alone.


September 4, 1762 What was law yesterday is not law to-day : and now, it seems, we have no better rule to live by, than

Argument against Fact; or, a new System of Pothe temporary discretion and fluctuating integrity of

litical Logic, by which the ministry hare demonthe house of commons.

strated, to the satisfaction of their friends, that Professions of patriotism are become stale and expulsion alone creates a complete incapacity to be ridiculous. For my own part, I claim nc merit from re-el

re-elected, alias, That a subject of this realm may be endeavoring to do a service to my fellow-subjects.ro

obiecte | robbed of his common right by a vote of the house of I have done it to the best of my understanding: and,

commons. without looking for the approbation of other men,

FIRST FACT my conscience is satisfied. What remains to be done, concerns the collective body of the people. They

Mr. Wollaston, in 1698, was expelled, re-elected, and are now to determine for themselves, whether they

admitted to take his seat. will firmly and constitutionally assert their rights, or make an humble, slavish surrender of them at the feet of the ministry. To a generous mind there cannot be a doubt. We owe it to our ancestors, to pre

As this cannot be conveniently reconciled with our serve entire those rights which they have delivered

general proposition, it may be necessary to shift our to our care We owe it to our posterity, not to suffer

ground, and look back to the cause of Mr. Wollas their dearest inheritance to be destroyed. But, if it

ton's expulsion. From thence it will appear clearly, were possible for us to be insensible of these sacred

that, “ although he was expelled, he had not rendered claims, there is yet an obligation binding upon our

himself a culprit, too ignominious to sit in parliaselves, from which nothing can acquit us; a personal

ment; and that, having resigned his employment, he interest, which we cannot surrender. To alienate

was no longer incapacitated by law." Vide Seriores even our own rights, would be a crime as much more

Considerations, page 23. Or thus: “ The house, some enormous than suicide, as a life of civil security and

what inaccurately, used the word expelled; they should freedom is superior to a bare existence: and if life

have called it a motion.Vide Mungo's Case considered, be the bounty of Heaven, we scornfully reject the page 1. .

page 11. Or, in short, if these arguments should bi noblest part of the gift, if we consent to surrender

thought insufficient, we may fairly deny the fact. that certain rule of living, without which the condi

idi. For example: “I affirm that he was not re-elected. tion of human nature is not only miserable but con

The same Mr. Wollaston, who was expelled, was not temptible.


again elected. The same individual, if you please, walked into the house, and took his seat there; but

the same person, in law, was not admitted a member LETTER XXI..

of that parliament from which he had been dis

carded.” Vide Letter to Junius, page 12.
August 22, 1769.

SECOND FACT. I must beg of you to print a few lines in explanation of some passages of my last letter, which, I Mr. Walpole, having been committed to the Tower, and see, have been misunderstood.

expelled, for a high breach of trust, and notorious cor1. When I said that the house of commons never ruption in a public office, was declared incapable, etc. meant to found Mr. Walpole's incapacity on his expulsion only, I meant no more than to deny the

ARGUMENT. general proposition, that expulsion alone creates the incapacity. If there be any thing ambiguous in the | From the terms of this vote, nothing can be more expression, I beg leave to explain it, by saying, that, evident, than that the house of commons meant to in my opinion, expulsion neither creates nor in any fix the incapacity upon the punishment, and not upon part contributes to create the incapacity in question the crime; but, lest it should appear in a different

2. I carefully avoided entering into the merits of light to weak, uninformed persons, it may be advisaMr. Walpole's case. I did not inquire whether the ble to gut the resolution, and give it to the public, house of commons acted justly, or whether they with all possible solemnity, in the following terms. truly declared the law of parliament. My remarks viz.: “ Resolved, that Robert Walpole, esq., having went only to their apparent meaning and intention, been that session of parliament expelled the house, as it stands declared in their own resolution.

was and is incapable of being elected a member to 3. I never meant to affirm, that a commitment to serve in that present parliament." Vide Mungo, as the Tower created a disqualification. On the con-' the Use of Quotations, page 11.

N. B. The author of the answer to sir William | takes away all dignity from distress, and makes Meredith seems to have made use of Mungo's quota even calamity ridiculous.” tion : for, in page 18, he assures us, “ That the declar

PHILO JUNIUS. atory vote of the 17th of February, 1769, was, indeed, a literal copy of the resolution of the house in Mr. Walpole's case.”



MY LORD His opponent, Mr. Taylor, huving the smallest num

September 19, 1769. ber of rotes at the next election, was declared not duly marks of respect or esteem from the public, that if,

You are so little accustomed to receive any elected.

in the following lines, a compliment or expression of ARGUMENT.

applause should escape me, I fear you would consider

it as a mockery of your established character, This fact we consider as directly in point, to prove, and, perhaps an insult to your understanding. that Mr. Luttrell ought to be the sitting member, for You have nice feelings my lord, if we may judge the following reasons: “ The burgesses of Lynn could from your resentments. Cautious, therefore, of givdraw no other inference from this resolution but this; ing offense, where you have so little deserved it, I that, at a future election, and in case of a similar re- shall leave the illustration of your virtues to other turn, the house would receive the same candidate as hands. Your friends have a privilege to play upon duly elected whom they had before rejected." Vide the easiness of your temper, or, possibly, they are Postscript to Junius, page 37. Or thus: “This, their better acquainted with your good qualities than I resolution, leaves no room to doubt what part they am. You have done good by stealth. The rest is would have taken, if, upon a subsequent re-election upon record. You have still left ample room for of Mr. Walpole, there had been any other candidate speculation, when pa negyric is exhausted. in competition with him: for by their vote, they You are, indeed, a very considerable man. The could have no other intention than to admit such highest rank, a splendid fortune, and a name, glorious, other candidate.” Vide Mungo's Case considered, page till it was yours, were sufficient to have supported 39. Or, take it in this light: the burgesses of Lynn you with meaner abilities than I think you possess, having, in defiance of the house, retorted upon them From the first, you derive a constitutional claim to a person whom they had branded with the most igno- respect; from the second, a natural extensive authorminious marks of their displeasure, were thereby so ity; the last created a partial expectation of hereditwell entitled to favor and indulgence, that the house ary virtues. The use you have made of these uncould do no less than rob Mr. Taylor of a right legally common advantages might have been more honorvested in him, in order that the burgesses might be able to yourself, but could not be more instructive to apprised of the law of parliament; which law the mankind. We may trace it in the veneration of your house took a very direct way of explaining to them, country, the choice of your friends, and in the accomby resolving that the candidate with the fewest votes plishment of every sanguine hope which the public was not duly elected : “And was not this much more might have conceived from the illustrious name of equitable, more in the spirit of that equal and sub- Russell. stantial justice which is the end of all law, than it The eminence of your station gave you a commandthey had violently adhered to the strict maxims of ing prospect of your duty. The road which led to law ? " Vide Serious Considerations, pages 33 and 34. honor was open to your view. You could not lose it “And if the present house of commons had chosen by mistake, and you had no temptation to depart to follow the spirit of this resolution, they would have from it by design. Compare the natural dignity and received and established the candidate with the few- | importance of the highest peer of England: the noble est votes." Vide Answer to sir W. M., page 18. independence which he might have maintained in

Permit me now, sir, to show you, that the worthy parliament; and the real interest and respect which bo Dr. Blackstone sometimes contradicts the ministry, might have acquired, not only in parliament, but as well as himself. The speech without doors asserts, through the whole kingdom: compare these glorious page 9th, “That the legal effect of an incapacity, I distinctions, with the ambition of holding a share in founded on a judicial determination of a competent government, the emoluments of a place, the sale of a court, is precisely the same as that of an incapacity borough, or the purchase of a corporation, and though created by an act of parliament." Now for the doc- you may not regret the virtues which create respect. ' tor. “The law, and the opinion of the judge, are not you may see with anguish how much real importance always convertible terms, or one and the same thing; and authority you have lost. Consider the character since it sometimes may happen, that the judge may of an independent, virtuous duke of Bedford ; imagmistake the law." Commentaries, vol. I, p. 71.

ine what he might be in this country: then reflect The answer to sir W. M. asserts, page 23, “That one moment upon what you are. If it be possible the returning officer is not a judicial, but a purely for me to withdraw my attention from the fact, I will ministerial officer. His return is no judicial act." tell you in theory what such a man might be. At 'em again doctor. The sheriff, in his judicial cap- Conscious of his own weight and importance, his acity, is to hear and determine causes of forty shil conduct in parliament would be directed by nothing lings' value, and under, in his county court. He has but the constitutional duty of a peer. He would conalso a judicial power in divers other civil cases. He sider himself as a guardian of the laws. Willing to is likewise to decide the elections of knights of the support the just measures of government, bnt detershire (subject to the control of the house of commons,)mined to observe the conduct of a minister with susto judge of the qualification of voters, and to return picion, he would oppose the violence of faction with such as he shall determine to be duly elected.” Vide as much firmness as the encroachments of prerogative. Commentaries, vol. i. p. 332.

He would be as little capable of bargaining with What conclusion shall we draw from such facts, the minister for places for himself or his dependents, and such arguments, such contradictions? I cannot as of descending to mix himself in the intrigues of express my opinion of the present ministry more ex- opposition. Whenever an important question called actly than in the words of sir Richard Steele, “That for his opinion in parliament, he would be heard by we are governed by a set of drivellers, whose folly the most profligate minister with deference and re

spect. His authority would either sanction or dis- judgment, you have carried your own system into ex. grace the measures of government. The people ecution.. A great man, in the success, and even in would look up to him as to their protector; and a the magnitude, of his crimes, finds a rescue from convirtuous prince would have one honest man in his tempt. Your grace is every way unfortunate, Yet dominions, in whose integrity and judgment he I will not look back to those ridiculous scenes, by might safely confide. If it should be the will of which, in your earlier days, you thought it an honor Providence to afflict* him with a domestic misfors to be distinguished ;* the recorded stripes, the public tune, he would submit to the stroke with feeling, but infamy, your own sufferings, or Mr. Rigby's fortitude, not without dignity. He would consider the people These events undoubtedly left an impression, though ás his children, and receive a generous heartfelt con- not upon your mind. To such a mind, it may, persolation, in the sympathizing tears and blessings of haps, be a pleasure to reflect, that there is hardly a his country.

corner of any of his majesty's kingdoms, except Your grace may probably discover something more France, in which, at one time or other, your valuable intelligible in the negative part of this illustrious life has not been in danger. Amiable man! we see character. The man i have described would never and acknowledge the protection of Providence, by prostitute his dignity in parliament, by an indecent which you have so often escaped the personal detestviolence, either in opposing or defending a minister. ation of your fellow subjects, and are still reserved He would not at one moment rancorously persecute, for the public justice of your country. at another basely cringe to, the favorite of his Your history begins to be important at that auspisovereign. After outraging the royal dignity with cious period, at which you were deputed to represent peremptory conditions, little short of menace and the earl of Bute at the court of Versailles. It was hostility, he would never descend to the humility of an honorable office, and executed with the same soliciting an interviewt with the favorite, and of spirit with which it was accepted. Your patrons offering to recover, at any price, the honor of his wanted an ambassador who would submit to make friendship. Though deceived, perhaps, in his youth, concessions, without daring to insist upon any honorhe would not, through the course of a long life, have able condition for his sovereign. Their business reinvariably chosen his friends from among the most quired a man who had as little feeling for bis own profligate of mankind. His own honor would have dignity, as for the welfare of his country; and they forbidden him from mixing his private pleasures or found him in the first rank of the nobility. Belleconversation with jockeys, gamesters, blasphemers, | isle, Goree, Guadaloupe, St. Lucia, Martinique, The gladiators, or buffoons. He would then have never Fishery, and the Havana, are glorious monuments of felt, much less would he have submitted to, the dis- your grace's talents for negotiation. My lord, we are honest necessity of engaging in the interests and too well acquainted with your pecuniary character, intrigues of his dependents; of supplying their vices, to think it possible that so many public sacrifices or relieving their beggary, at the expense of his should have been made without some private comcountry. He would not have betrayed such igno- pensations. Your conduct carries with it an internal rance, or such conterapt, of the constitution, as openly evidence, beyond all the legal proofs of a court of to avow, in a court of justice, the purchase and sale justice. Even the callous pride of lord Egremont of a borough. He would not have thought it con- was alarmed. He saw and felt his own dishonor in sistent with his rank in the state, or even with his corresponding with you: and there certainly was a personal importance, to be the little tyrant of a little moment at which he meant to have resisted, had not corporation. He would never have been insulted a fatal lethargy prevailed over his faculties, and carwith virtues which he had labored to extinguish; | ried all sense and memory away with it. nor suffered the disgrace of a mortifying defeat, I will not pretend to speciiy the secret terms on which has made hiin ridiculous and contemptible which you were invited to support an administraeven to the few by whom he was not detested. I tion which lord Bute pretended to leave in full posreverence the afflictions of a good man; his sorrows session of their ministerial authority, and perfectly are sacred. But how can we take part in the dis- masters of themselves. He was not of a temper to tresses of a man whom we can neither love or relinquish power, though he retired from employesteem: or feel for a calamity of which he himself is ment. Stipulations were certainly made between insensible? Where was the father's heart, when he your grace and him, and certainly violated. After could look for, or fina, an immediate consolation for two years' submission you thought you had collected the loss of an only son, in consultations and bargains strength enough to control his influence, and that it for a place at court, and even in the misery of ballot- was your turn to be a tyrant, because you had been a ing at the India House ?

slave. When you found yourself mistaken in your Admitting, then, that you have mistaken or de- opinion of your gracious master's firmness, disapserted those honorable principles which onght to pointment got the better of all your humble discrehave directed your conduct; admitting that you have tion, and carried you to an excess of outrage to his as little claim to private affection as to public esteem, person, as distant from true spirit, as from all decency let us see with what abilities, with what degree of

* Mr. Heston Humphrey, a country attorney, horse * The duke had lately lost his only son by a fall from

whipped the duke, with equal justice, severity, and per

severance, on the course at Litchfield. Rigby and lord his horse.

Trentham were also cudgelled in a most exemplary man+ At this interview, which passed at the house of the

ner. This gave rise to the following story; "When the late lord Eglintoune, lord Bute told the duke, that he was

late king heard that sir Edward Hawke had given the determined never to have any connection with a man who French a drubbing, bis majesty, who had never received bad so basely betrayed bim.

that kind of chastisement, was pleased to ask lord Chee# In an answer in chancery, in a suit against him to re-terfield the meaning of the word.-"Sir," says lord Ches cover a large sum, paid him by a person whom he had terfield, "the meaning of the word-But here comes the

n to return to parliament for one of his grace's duke of Bedford, who is better able to explain it to your boroughs, he was compelled to repay the money.

majesty than I am.” *Of Bedford, where the tyrant was held in such con

+ This man, notwithstanding his pride and Tory princitempt and detestation, that, in order to deliver them

ples, had some English stuff in him. Upon an official letselves from him. they admitted a great number of

they admitted a great number of ter he wrote to the duke of Bedford, the duke desired to strangers to the freedom. To make his defeat truly be recalled, and it was with the utmost difficulty that lord ridiculous, he tried his whole strength against Mr. Horne, Bute could appease him. and was beaten uran bis own ground.

Mr. Grenville, lord Halifax, and lord Egremont.

and respect.* After robbing him of the rights of a | get that you are now in the last act of life? Can king, you would not permit him to preserve the gray hairs make folly venerable ? And is there no honor of a gentleman. It was then lord Weymouth period to be reserved for meditation and retirement ? was nominated to Ireland, and despatched (we well For shame, my lord ! let it not be recorded of you, remember with what indecent hurry) to plunder the that the latest moments of your life were dedicated treasury of the first fruits of an employment, which to the same unworthy pursuits, the same busy agitayou well knew he was never to execute.†

tions, in which your youth and manhood were exThis sudden declaration of war against the favor- | hausted. Consider that, although you cannot disgrace ite, might have given you a momentary merit with your former life, you are violating the character of the public, if it had either been adopted upon princi- age, and exposing the impotent imbecility, after you ple, or maintained with resolution. Without looking have lost the vigor of the passions. back to all your former servility, we need only ob-l Your friends will ask, perhaps, Whither shall this serve your subsequent conduct, to see upon what mo- unhappy old man retire? Can he remain in the metives you acted. Apparently united with Mr. Gren- | tropolis, where his life has been so often threatened. ville, you waited until lord Rockingham's feeble and his palace so often attacked ? If he returns to administration should dissolve in its own weakness. Woburn, scorn and mockery await him. He must The moment their dismission was suspected, the create a solitude round his estate, if he would avoid moment you perceived that another system was the face of reproach and derision. At Plymouth, his adopted in the closet, you thought it no disgrace to destruction would be more than probable; at Exeter, return to your former dependence, and solicit once inevitable. No honest Englishman will ever forget more the friendship of lord Bute. You begged an his attachment, nor any honest Scotchman forgive interview, at which he had spirit enough to treat you his treachery, to lord Bute. At every town he enters, with contempt.

he must change his liveries and name. Whichever It would now be of little use to point out by what way he flies, the hue and cry of the country pursues a train of weak, injudicious measures, it became nec- | him. essary, or was thought so, to call you back to a share In another kingdom, indeed, the blessings of his in the administration. $ The friends, whom you did administration have been more sensibly felt; his virnot in the last instance desert, were not of a character tues better understood ; or, at worst, they will not, to add strength or credit to government; and, at that for him alone, forget their hospitality. As well time, your alliance with the duke of Grafton, was, I might Verres have returned to Sicily. You have presume, hardly foreseen. We must look for other twice escaped, my lord; beware of a third experiment. stipulations to account for that sudden resolution of The indignation of a whole people, plundered, inthe closet, by which three of your dependentst (whose sulted, and oppressed, as they have been, will not characters, I think, cannot be less respected than they always be disappointed. are) were advanced to offices, through which yon. It is in vain, therefore, to shift the scene. You can might again control the minister, and probably en- no more fly from your enemies, than from yourself. gross the whole direction of affairs.

Persecuted abroad, you look into your own heart for The possession of absolute power is now once more consolation, and find nothing but reproaches and deswithin your reach. The measures you have taken to pair. But, my lord, you may quit the field of busiobtain and confirm it, are too gross to escape the eyes ness, though not the field of danger, and though you of a discerning, judicious prince. His palace is be- cannot be safe, you may cease to be ridiculous. I sieged; the lines of circumvallation are drawing fear you have listened too long to the advice of those round him; and, unless he finds a resource in his own pernicious friends, with whose interests you have soractivity, or in the attachment of the real friends of didly united your own, and for whom you have sachis family, the best of princes must submit to the rificed every thing that ought to be dear to a man of confinement of a state prisoner, until your grace's honor. They are still base enough to encourage the death, or some less fortunate event, shall raise the follies of your age, as they once did the vices of your siege. For the present, you may safely resume that youth. As little acquainted with the rules of destyle of insult and menace, which even a private gen-corum as with the laws of morality, they will not tleman cannot subniit to hear without being con- suffer you to profit by experience, nor even to consult temptible. Mr. M'Kenzie's history is not yet forgot the propriety of a bad character. Even now they ten; and you may find precedents enough of the tell you that life is no more than a dramatic scene, in mode in which an imperious subject may signify his which the hero should preserve his consistency to the pleasure to his sovereign. Where will this gracious last; and that as you lived without virtue, you should monarch look for assistance, when the wretched Graf- die without repentance. ton could forget his obligations to his master, and

JUNIUS. desert him for a hollow alliance with such a man as the duke of Bedford ! Let us consider you, then, as arrived at the summit

LETTER XXIV. of worldly greatness; let us suppose that all your plans of avarice and ambition are accomplished, and

TO JUNIUS. your most sanguine wishes gratified, in the fear as SIR,

September 14, 1769. well as the hatred of the people; can age itself for Having accidentally seen a republication of your * The ministry having endeavored to exclude the dow-I had sold the companions of my success, I am again

letters, wherein you have been pleased to assert, that ager out of the Regency Bill, the earl of Bute determined to dismiss them Upon this, the duke of Bedford obliged to declare the said assertion to be a most indemanded an audience of the ................ reproached famous and malicious falsehood; and I again call upbim in plain terms with his duplicity, baseness, falsehood, treachery, and hypocrisy; repeatedly gave him the

on you to stand forth, avow yourself, and prove the lie, and left him in convulsions.

charge. If you can make it out to the satisfaction + He received three thousand pounds for plate and

of any one man in the kingdom, I will be content to equipage money.

be thought the worst man in it; if you do not, what * When earl Gower was appointed president of the must the nation think of you? Party has nothing council, the king, with his usual sincerity, assured him. to do in this affair: you have made a personal attack that he had not had one happy moment since the duke of Bedford left him.

upon my honor, defamed me by a most vile calumny, + Lords Gower, Weymouth, and Sandwich.

which might possibly have sunk into oblivion, hed

not such uncommon pains been taken to renew and last letter shall be short; for I write to you with reperpetuate this scandal, chiefly because it has been luctance, and I hope we shall now conclude our cortold in good language; for I give you full credit for respondence forever. your elegant diction, well-turned periods, and Attic Had you been originally, and without provocation, wit: but wit is oftentimes false, though it may ap- attacked by an anonymous writer, you would have pear brilliant; which is exactly the case of your whole some right to demand his name. But in this cause performance. But, sir, I am obliged, in the most se- you are a volunteer. You engaged in it with the unrious manner, to accuse you of being guilty of falsi- premeditated gallantry of a soldier. You were conties. You have said the thing that is not. To sup- tent to set your name in opposition to a man who port your story, you have recourge to the following would probably continue in concealment. You unirresistible argument: “You sold the companions of derstood the terms upon which we were to correspond, your victory, because, when the 16th regiment was and gave at least a tacit assent to them. After rol. given to you, you were silent. The conclusion is in- untarily attacking me, under the character of Junius, evitable. I believe that such deep and acute reas- what possible right have you to know me under any oning could only come from such an extraordinary other? Will you forgive me if I insinuate to you, writer as Junius. But, unfortunately for you, the that you foresaw some honor in the apparent spirit premises, as well as the conclusion, are absolutely of coming forward in person, and that you were not false. Many applications have been made to the quite indifferent to the display of your literary qualiministry, on the subject of the Manilla ransom, since fications. the time of my being colonel of that regiment. As I You cannot but know, that the republication of have for some years quitted London, I was obliged my letters was no more than a catch-penny contriv. to have recourse to the honorable colonel Monson, ance of a printer, in which it was impossible I should and sir Samuel Cornish, to negotiate for me. In the be concerned, and for which I am no way answerable. last autumn, I personally delivered a memorial to At the same time, I wish you to understand, that if the earl of Shelburne, at his seat in Wiltshire. As I do not take the trouble of reprinting these paper, you have told us of your importance, that you are a it is not from any fear of giving offense to sir Wilperson of rank and fortune, and above a common liam Draper. bribe, you may, in all probability, be not unknown Your remarks upon a signature adoped merely for to his lordship, who can satisfy you of the truth of distinction, are unworthy of notice: but when you what I say. But I shall now take the liberty, sir, to tell me I have submitted to be called a liar and a seize your battery, and turn it against yourself. If coward, I must ask you, in my turn, whether you your puerile and tinsel logic could carry the least seriously think it any way incumbent on me to take weight or conviction with it, how must you stand notice of the silly invectives of every simpleton who affected by the inevitable conclusion, as you are writes in a newspaper; and what opinion you would pleased to term it? According to Junius, silence is have conceived of my discretion, if I had suffered guilt. In many of the public papers, you have been myself to be the dupe of so shallow an artifice ? called, in the most direct and offensive terms, a liar Your appeal to the sword, though consistent and a coward. When did you reply to these foul ac-enough with your late profession, will neither prove cusations? You have been quite silent, quite chop- your innocence, nor clear you from suspicion. Your fallen: therefore, because you was silent, the nation complaints with regard to the Manilla ransom, were, has a right to pronounce you to be both a liar and a for a considerable time, a distress to government. coward, from your own argument. But, sir, I will You were appointed (greatly out of your turn) to give you fair play; I will afford you an opportunity the command of a regiment; and during that adto wipe off the first appellation, by desiring the ministration we heard no more of sir William Draper. proofs of your charge against me. Produce them! The facts of which I speak may, indeed, be variously to wipe off the last, produce yourself. People cannot accounted for; but they are too notorious to be debear any longer your lion's skin, and the despicable nied; and I think you might have learned, at the imposture of the old Roman name which you have university, that a false conclusion is an error in arguaffected. For the future, assume the name of some ment, not a breach of veracity. Your solicitations, I modern* bravo and dark assassin : let your appella-doubt not, were renewed under another administration have some affinity to your practice. But if I tion. Admitting the fact, I fear an indifferent person must perish, Junius, let me perish in the face of day: would only infer from it, that experience had made be for once a generous and open enemy. I allow that you acquainted with the benefits of complaining. Gothic appeals to cold iron, are no better proofs of a Remember, sir, that you have yourself confessed, that, man's honesty and veracity, than hot iron and burn- considering the critical situation of this country, the ing ploughshares are of female chastity; but a ministry are in the right to temporize with Spain. This soldier's honor is as delicate as a woman's: it must confession reduces you to an unfortunate dilemma not be suspected. You have dared to throw more By renewing your solicitations, you must either than a suspicion upon mine: you cannot but know mean to force your country into a war at a most une the consequences, which even the meekness of Chris- seasonable juncture, or having no view or expects. tianity would pardon me for, after the injury you tion of that kind, that you look for nothing bat a have done me.

private compensation to yourself. WILLIAM DRAPER. As to me, it is by no means necessary that I should

be exposed to the resentment of the worst and the LETTER XXV.

most powerful men in this country, though I may be

indifferent about yours. Though you would fight, Hæret lateri lethalis arundo.

there are others who would assassinate

But, after all, sir, where is the injury? You assure TO SIR WILLIAM DRAPER, KNIGHT OF THE BATH. me, that my logic is puerile and tinsel ; that it carSIR,

September 25, 1769. ries not the least weight or conviction; that my After so long an interval, I did not expect to see premises are false, and my conclusions absurd. li the debate revived between us. My answer to your this be a just description of me, how is it possible for

such a writer to disturb your peace of mind, or to * Was Brutus an ancient bravo and dark assassin ? Or iniure a character so well established as yours? Take does Sir W. D. think it criminal to stab a tyrant to the heart?

care, sir William, how you indulge this unruly tem

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