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commons should appear to be in perpetual contradic-| was advised to dissolve the present parliament, yon tion, not only to common sense, and to the laws we advised him tell his subjects, that “ he was careful are acquainted with (and which alone we can obey,) not to assume any of those powers which the constibut even to one another. I was led to trouble you tution had placed in other hands," etc. Yet queen with these observations by a passage, which, to speak | Anne, it seems, 'was justified in exerting her prerogain latestring, I met with this morning in the course of tive to stop a house of commons, whose proceedings, my reading, and upon which I mean to put a ques- compared with those of the assembly of which you tion to the advocates for privilege. On the 8th of are a most worthy member, were the perfection of March, 1704, (Vide Journals, Vol. xiv, p. 566,) the justice and reason. house thought proper to come to the following resolu- In what a labyrinth of nonsense does a man intions: 1. “That no commoner of England, committed volve himself who labors to maintain falsehood by by the house of commons for breach of privilege or argument! How much better would it become the contempt of that house, ought to be, by any writ of dignity of the house of commons, to speak plainly to Habeas Corpus, made to appear in any other place, or the people, and tell us, at once," that their will must before any other judicature, during that session of be obeyed: not because it is lawful and reasonable, parliament wherein such person was so committed.” | but because it is their will!” Their constituents
2. "That the sergeant-at-arms, attending this house, would have a better opinion of their candor, and, I do make no return of, or yield any obedience to, the promise you, not a worse opinion of their integrity. said writs of Habeas Corpus ; and for such refusal,
PHILO JUNIUS. that he have the protection of the house of commons."* Welbore Ellis, what say you? Is this the law of
LETTER XLVIII. parliament, or is it not? I am a plain man, sir, and cannot follow you through the phlegmatic forms of
TO HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF GRAFTON. an oration. Speak out, Gildrig, say yes or no. If MY LORD,
June 22, 1771. you say yes, I shall then inquire by what authority | The profound respect I bear to the gracious Mr. de Grey, the honest lord Mansfield, and the,
ne prince who governs this country, with no less honor barons of the exchequer, dared to grant a writ of to himself than satisfaction to his subjects, and who Habeas Corpus for bringing the bodies of the lord
restores you to your rank under his standard, will mayor and Mr. Oliver before them; and why the
save you from a multitude of reproaches. The atlieutenant of the Tower made any return to a writ,
tention I should have paid to your failings, is involwhich the house of commons had, of a similar in
untarily attracted to the hand that rewards them; stance, declared to be unlawful. If you say no, take
and though I am not so partial to the royal judgcare you do not at once give up the cause in support
ment as to affirm, that the favor of a king can reof which you have so long and so laboriously tortured
move mountains of infamy, it serves to lessen, at your understanding. Take care you do not confess
least, (for undoubtedly it divides) the burden. While that there is no test by which we can distinguish, no
I remember how much is due to his sacred character, evidence by which we can determine, what is, and
hat is, and I cannot, with any decent appearance of propriety, what is not, the law of parliament. The resolutions
call you the meanest and basest fellow in the kingI have quoted, stand upon your journals, uncontro- | dom. I protest, my lord, I do not think you so. verted and unrepealed : they contain a declaration von will
| You will have a dangerous rival in that kind of fame of the law of parliament, by a court competent to the
e to which you have hitherto so happily directed your question, and whose decision, as you and lord Mans
ambition, so long as there is one man living who field say, must be law, because there is no appeal thinks you are worthy of his confidence, and fit to be from it: and they were made not hastily, but after
trusted with any share in his government. I confess long deliberation upon a constitutional question.
you have great intrinsic merit; but take care you do What farther sanction or solemnity will you annex
not value it too highly. Consider how much of it to any resolution of the present house of commons.
would have been lost to the world, if the king had beyond what appears upon the face of those two reso
not graciously affixed his stamp, and given it curlutions, the legality of which you now deny? If
rency among his subjects. If it be true that a virtuyou say that parliaments are not infallible, and that
ous man, struggling with adversity, be a scene queen Anne, in consequence of the violent proceed
worthy of the gods, the glorious contention between ings of that house of commons, was obliged to pro
you and the best of princes deserves a circle equally rogue and dissolve them, I shall agree with you very
attentive and respectable : I think I already see heartily, and think that the precedent ought to be
other gods rising from the earth to behold it. followed immediately. But you, Mr. Ellis, who hold
But this language is too mild for the occasion. The this language, are inconsistent with your own prin- | king is determined that our abilities shall not be lost ciples. You have hitherto maintained, that the house
to society. The perpetration and description of new of commons are the sole judges of their own privileges,
crimes will find employment for us both. My lord, and that their declaration does ipso facto constitute if the persons who have been loudest in their prothe law of parliament; yet now you confess that par
fessions of patriotism, had done their duty to the liaments are fallible, and that their resolutions may
public with the same zeal snd perseverance that I be illegal; consequently that their resolutions do
did, I will not assert that government would have not constitute the law of parliament. When the king
recovered its dignity, but at least our gracions
sovereign must have spared his subjects this last in* If there be, in reality, any such law in England as the sult:* which, if there be any feeling left among us, law of parliament, which (under the exception stated in my letter on privilege) I confess, after long deliberation, they will resent more than even the real injuries I very much doubt, it certainly is not constituted by, nor they received from every measure of your grace's can it be collected from, the resolutions of either bouse, administration. In vain would he have looked whether enacting or declaratory. I desire the resider will
round him for another character so consummate as compare the above resolutions of the year 1704, with the following of the 3d of April, 1628.-" Resolved, That the yours. Lord Mansfield shrinks from his principles : writs of Habeas Corpus cannot be denied, but ought to be granted to every man that is committed or detained in prison, or otherwise restrained by the command of the your own, but his heart disgraces the theory of his king, the privy council, or any other, he praying the Ame.
* The duke was lately appointed lord privy seal.
understanding. Charles Fox is yet in blossom ; and Enough has been said of that detestable transactiot ils for Mr. Wedderburne, there is something about which ended in the death of Mr. Yorke: I cannot him which even treachery cannot trust. For the speak of it without horror and compassion. To ex present, therefore, the best of princes must have con- cuse yourself, you publicly impeach your accomplice tented himself with lord Sandwich. You would long nod to his mind, perhaps, the accusation may be since have received your final dismission and reward, flattery. But in murder you are both principals. It and I, my lord, who do not esteem you the more for was once a question of emulation; and, if the event the high office you possess, would willingly have had not disappointed the immediate schemes of the followed you to your retirement. There is surely closet, it might still have been a hopeful subject of something singularly benevolent in the character of jest and merriment between you. our sovereign. From the moment he ascended the This letter, my lord, is only a preface to my future throne, there is no crime of which human nature is correspondence. The remainder of the summer shall capable (and I call upon the recorder to witness it) be dedicated to your amusement. I mean now and that has not appeared venial in his sight. With any then to relieve the severity of your morning studies, other prince, the shameful desertion of him in the and to prepare you for the business of the day. midst of that distress which you alone had created, Without pretending to more than Mr. Bradshaw's in the very crisis of danger, when he fancied he saw sincerity, you may rely upon my attachment as long the throne surrounded by men of virtue and abilities, as you are in office, would have outweighed the memory of your former! Will your grace forgive me, if I venture to express services. But his majesty is full of justice, and un- I some anxiety for a man whom I know you do not derstands the doctrine of compensations. He re- love? My lord Weymouth has cowardice to plead, members, with gratitude, how soon you had accom- land a desertion of a later date than your own. You modated your morals to the necessity of his service; / know the privy-seal was intended for him: and if how cheerfully you had abandoned the engagements you consider the dignity of the post he deserted, you of private friendship, and renounced the most solemn will hardly think it decent to quarter him on Mr. professions to the public. The sacrifice of lord Chat- Rigby. Yet he must have bread, my lord ; or, ham was not lost upon him. Even the cowardice
rather, he must have wine. If you deny him the and perfidy of deserting him may have done you no cup, there will be no keeping him within the pale of disservice in his esteem. The instance was painful, the ministry. but the principle might please.
JUNIUS. You did not neglect the magistrate while you flattered the man. The expulsion of Mr. Wilkes,
LETTER XLIX. predetermined in the cabinet; the power of depriving the subject of his birthriglt, attributed to a
TO AIS GRACE THE DUKE OF GRAFTON. resolution of one branch of the legislature; the con MY LORD,
July 9, 1771. stitution impudently invaded by the house of com
The influence of your grace's fortune still mons; the right of defending it treacherously re
seems to preside over the treasury. The genius of nounced by the house of lords ; these are the strokes, | Mr. Bradshaw inspires Mr. Robinson.* How remarkmy lord, which, in the present reign, recommend to
able it is (and I speak of it not as a matter of reoffice and constitute a minister. They would have
ave proach, but as something peculiar to your character) determined your sovereign's judgment, if they had that you have never yet formed a friendship, which made no impression upon his heart. We need not
has not been fatal to the object of it; nor adopted a look for any other species of merit to account for his
cause, to which, one way or other, you have not done taking the earliest opportunity to recall you to his
mischief! Your attachment is infamy while it lasts; conncils. But you have other merit in abundance. and, which ever way it turns, leaves ruin and disMr. Hine, the duke of Portland, and Mr. Yorke:
grace behind it. The deluded girl, who yields to Breach of trust, robbery, and murder. You would such a profligate, even while he is constant, forfeits think it a compliment to your gallantry, if I added her reputation as well as her innocence, and finds rape to the catalogue; but the style of your amours herself abandoned at last to misery and shame. Thus secures you from resistance. I know how well these it happened with the best of princes. Poor Dingley, several charges have been defended. In the first too! I protest I hardly know which of them instance, the breach of trust is supposed to have been ought most to lament; the unhappy man who sinks its own reward. Mr. Bradshaw affirms, upon his under the sense of his dishonor, or him who survives honor, and so may the gift of smiling never depart it. Characters so finished are placed beyond the from him!) that you reserved no part of Mr. Hine's reach of panegyric. Death has fixed his seal upon purchase-money for your own use, but that every Dingley ; and you, my lord, have set your mark upshilling of it was scrupulously paid to governor
on the other. Burgoyne. Make haste, my lord; another patent, The only letter I ever addressed to the king was applied in time, may keep the Oaks* in the family. so unkindly received, that I believe I shall never If not, Birnham-Wood, I fear, must come to the
presume to trouble his majesty in that way again. Macaroni.
But my zeal for his service is superior to neglect; The duke of Portland was in life your earliest and, like Mr. Wilkes's patriotism, thrives by perseenfriend. In defense of his property, he had nothing tion. Yet his majesty is much addicted to useful to plead but equity against sir James Lowther, and reading; and, if I am not il-informed, has honored prescription against the crown. You felt for your the Public Advertiser with particular attention. I friend: but the law must take its course. Posterity have endeavored, therefore, and not without success, will scarce believe that lord Bute's son-in-law had(as perhaps, you may remember,) to furnish it with barely interest enough at the treasury to get his such interesting and edifying intelligence, as probgrant completed before the general election.t
ably would not reach him through any other chan
nel. The services you have done the nation, your * A superb villa of colonel Burgoyne, about this time advertised for sale.
integrity in office, and signal fidelity to your ap+ It will appear by a subsequent letter, that the duke's precipitation proved fatal to the grant. It looks like the * By an intercepted letter from the secretary of tbe hurry and confusion of a young highwayman, who takes treasury, it appeared, that the friends of government rete a few shillings, but leaves the purse and watch hebind to be very actire in supporting the ministerial nominntion him. And yet the duke was an old offender.
I of sheriffa.
prored good master, have been faithfully recorded. | descent from Charles the Second is only a bar to Nor have his own virtues been entirely neglected. your pretentions to the crown, and no way interrupts These letters, my lord, are read in other countries, the regularity of your succession to all the virtues and in other languages ; and I think I may affirm, of the Stuarts. without vanity, that the gracious character of the The unfortunate success of the reverend Mr. Horpe's best of princes is by this time, not only perfectly endeavors in support of the ministerial nomination known to his subjects, but tolerably well understood of sheriffs, will, 1 fear, obstruct his preferment. Perby the rest of Europe. In this respect alone I have mit me to recommend him to your grace's protection. the advantage of Mr. Whitehead. His plan I think You will find him copiously gifted with those qualiis too narrow. He seems to manufacture his verses ties of the heart which usually direct you in the for the sole use of the hero who is supposed to be choice of your friendships. He too was Mr. Wilkes's the subject of them, and, that his meaning may not friend, and as incapable as you are of the liberal rebe exported in foreign bottoms, sets all translation at sentment of a gentleman. No, my lord ; it was the defiance.
solitary, vindictive malice of a monk, brooding over Your grace's re-appointment to a seat in the cabi- the intirmities of his friend, until he thought they net was announced to the public by the ominous re- quickened into public life, and feasting with a ranturn of lord Bute to this country. When that nox- corous rapture upon the sordid catalogue of his disious planet approaches England, he never fails to tresses. Now let him go back to his cloister. The bring plague and pestilence along with him. The church is a proper retreat for him. In his principles king already feels the malignant effect of your influ. he is already a bishop. ence over his councils. Your former administration The mention of this man has moved me from my made Mr. Wilkes an alderman of London and repre-natural moderation. Let me return to your grace. sentative of Middlesex. Your next appearance in You are the pillow upon which I am determined to office is marked with his election to the shrievalty. rest all my resentments. What idea can the best of In whatever measure you are concerned, you are not sovereigns form to himself of his own government? only disappointed of success, but always contrive to In what repute can he conceive that he stands with make the government of the best of princes contemp- the people, when he sees, beyond the possibility of a tible in his own eyes, and ridiculous to the whole doubt, that, whatever be the office, the suspicion of world. Making all due allowance for the effect of his favor is fatal to the candidate; and that, when the minister's declared interposition, Mr. Robinson's the party he wishes well to, has the fairest prospect activity, and Mr. Horne's new zeal in support of ad- of success, if his royal inclination should unfortuministration, we still want the genius of the duke of nately be discovered, it drops like an acid, and turns Grafton to account for committing the whole interest the election? of government in the city to the conduct of Mr. Har- This event, among others, may, perhaps, contribute ley. I will not bear hard upon your faithful friend to open his majesty's eyes to his real honor and inand emissary, Mr. Touchet; for I know the difficul- terest. In spite of all your grace's ingenuity, he may, ties of his situation, and that a few lottery tickets at last, perceive the inconvenience of selecting, with are of use to his economy. There is a proverb con- such a curious felicity, every villain in the nation to cerning persons in the predicament of this gentleman, fill the various departments of his government. Yet which, however, cannot be strictly applied to him; I should be sorry to confine him in the choice either of They commence dupes and finish knaves. Now, Mr. his footmen or his friends. Touchet's character is uniform. I am convinced that
JUNIUS. his sentiments never depended upon his circumstances; and that, in the most prosperous state of his fortune, he was always the very man he is at
LETTER L. present. But was there no other person of rank and
FROM THE REV. MR. HORNB TO JUNIUS. consequence in the city, whom government could confide in, but a notorious Jacobite? Did you imag
July 13, 1771. ine that the whole body of the dissenters, that the Farse, Comedy, and Tragedy.--Wilkes, Foote, whole whig interest of London, would attend at the and Junius-united at the same time against one leree, and submit to the directions of a notorious poor parson, are fearful odds. The two former are Jacobite ? Was there no whig magistrate in the only laboring in their vocation, and may equally city, to whom the servants of George the Third could plead, in excuse, that their aim is a livelihood. I entrust the management of a business so very inter- admit the plea for the second : his is an honest calling esting to their master as the election of sheriffs? Is and my clothes were lawful game; but I cannot so there no room at St. James's but for Scotchmen readily approve .Mr. Wilkes, or commend him for and Jacobites? My lord, I do not mean to question making patriotism a trade, and a fraudulent trade. the sincerity of Mr. Harley's attachment to his But what shall I say to Junius ? the grave, the majesty's government. Since the commencement of solemn, the didactie! Ridicule, indeed, has been the present reign, I have seen still greater contradic- ridiculously called the test of truth: but surely, to tions reconciled. The principles of these worthy confess that you lose your natural moderation when Jacobites are not so absurd as they have been repre- mention is made of the man, does not promise much sented. Their ideas of divine right are not so truth or justice when you speak of him yourself. much annexed to the person or family, ! You charge me with "a new zeal in support of adas to the political character of the sovereign ministration,” and with “ endeavors in support of the Had there ever been an honest man among the Stuarts, ministerial nomination of sheriffs.” The reputation his majesty's present friends would have been whigs which your talents have deservedly gained to the upon principle. But the conversion of the best of signature of Junius, draws from me a reply, which I princes has removed their scruples. They have for- disdained to give to the anonymous lies of Mr. Wilkes. given him the sins of his Hanoverian ancestors, and you make frequent use of the word gentleman; I only acknowledged the hand of Providence in the descent call myself a man, and desire no other distinction. If of the crown upon the head of a true Stuart. In you you are either, you are bound to make good your my lord, they also behold, with a kind of predilection charges, or to confess that you have done me a hasty which borders upon loyalty, the natural representa- injustice upon no authority. tive of that illustrious family. The mode of your I put the matter fairly to issue. I say that, so far
from any “new zeal in support of administration," I your personal hatred of Mr. Wilkes, you sacrificed, as am possessed with the utmost abhorrence of their far as depended on your interest and abilities, the measures; and that I have ever shown myself, and cause of the country? I can make allowances for the ani still ready, in any rational manner, to lay down violence of the passions; and if ever I should be conall I have my life, in opposition to those measures. vinced that you had no motive but to destroy Wilkes, I say, that I have not, and never have had, any com- I shall then be ready to do justice to your character, munication or connection of any kind, directly or in and to declare to the world, that I despise you some directly, with any courtier or ministerial man, or what less than I do at present. But, as a public man any of their adherents; that I never have received, I must for ever condemn you. You cannot but know, or solicited, or expected, or desired, or do now hope (nay, you dare not pretend to be ignorant) that tbe for, any reward of any sort, from any part or set of highest gratifications of which the most detestable men in administration or opposition. I say, that I * * in this nation is capable, would have been the never used any “ endeavors in support of the minis- defeat of Wilkes. I know that man much better than terial nomination of sheriffs ;” that I did not solicit any of you. Nature intended him only for a goodany one liveryman for his vote for any one of the humored fool. A systematical education, with long candidates, nor employ any other person to solicit; | practice, has made him a consummate hypocrite. Yet and that I did not write one single line or word in this man, to say nothing of his worthy ministers, you favor of Messrs. Plumbe and Kirkman, whom-I under- have most assiduously labored to gratify. To exclude stand to have been supported by the ministry. Wilkes, it was not necessary you should solicit rote
You are bound to refute what I here advance, or for his opponents. We incline the balance as effectto lose your credit for veracity. You must produce ually by lessening the weight in one scale, as increasfacts; surmise and general abuse, in however elegant ing it in the other. language, ought not to pass for proofs. You have The mode of your attack upon Wilkes (though I every advantage, and I have every disadvantage: you am far from thinking meanly of your abilities) conare unknown; I give my name. All parties, both in vinces me that you either want judgment extremely, and out of administration, have their reasons (which or that you are blinded by you resentment. Yon I shall relate hereafter) for uniting in their wishes ought to have foreseen that the charges yon urged against me: and the popular prejudice is as strongly against Wilkes could never do him any mischief in your favor as it is violent against the parson. After all, when we expected discoveries highly inter
Singular as my present situation is, it is neither esting to the community, what a pitiful detail did it painful, nor was it unforseen. He is not fit for public end in !--some old clothes,-a Welch pony-a French business, who does not, even at his entrance, prepare footman-and a hamper of claret. Indeed, Mr. Horne, his mind for such an event. Health, fortune, tran the public should and will forgive him his claret and quillity, and private connections, I have sacrificed his footman, and even the ambition of making his upon the altar of the public; and the only return I brother chamberlain of London, as long as he stands received, because I will not concur to dupe and mis- forth against a ministry and parliament who are dolead a senseless multitude, is barely, that they have ing every thing they can to enslave the country, and not yet torn me in pieces. That this has been the as long as he is a thorn in the king's side. You will only return is my pride and a source of more real not suspect me of setting up Wilkes for a perfect charsatisfaction than honors or prosperity. I can practice, acter. The question to the pubiic is, where shall we before I am old, the lessons I learned in my youth; find a man who, with purer principles, will go the nor shall I forget the words of my ancient monitor: lengths, and run the hazards, that he has done? The "'Tis the last key-stone
season calls for such a man, and he ought to be sup That makes the arch; the rest that there were put,
ported. What would have been the triumph of that Are nothing till that comes to bind and shut:
odious hypocrite and his minions, if Wilkes had been Then stands it a triumphal mark! Then men
defeated! It was not your fault, reverend sir, that Observe the strength, the height, the why and when It was erected; and still, walking under,
he did not enjoy it completely. But now, I promise Meet some new matter to look up and wonder!"
you, you have so little power to do mischief, that I I am, sir, your humble servant,
much question whether the ministry will adhere to
the promises they have made you. It will be in vain JOHN HORNE. to say that I am a partisan of Mr. Wilkes, or per
sonally your enemy. You will convince no man, for LETTER LI.
you do not believe it yourself. Yet I confess I am s
little offended at the low rate at which you seem to TO THE REVEREND MR. HORNE.
valne my understanding. I beg, Mr Horne, you will “SIR,
• July 24, 1771.
hereafter believe, that I measure the integrity of mea I cannot descend to an altercation with you in | by their conduct, not by their professions. Such the newspapers: but since I have attacked your char tales may entertain Mr. Oliver, or your grandmother, acter, and you complain of injustice, I think you but, trust me, they are thrown away upon Janius have some right to an explanation. You defy me to You say you are a man. Was it generous, was it prove, that you ever solicited a vote, or wrote a word manly, repeatedly to introduce into a newspaper, the in support of the ministerial aldermen. Sir, I did name of a young lady with whom you must hereto never suspect you of such gross folly. It would have fore have lived on terms of politeness and good habeen impossible for Mr. Horne to have solicited votes, mor? But I have done with you. In my opinion. and very difficult to have written in the newspapers your credit is irrevocably ruined. Mr. Townshend, I in defense of that cause, without being detected, and think, is nearly in the same predicament. Poor Oliver bronght to shame. Neither do I pretend to any in- has been shamefully duped by yon. You have made telligence concerning you, or to know more of your him sacrifice all the honor he got by his imprisodiconduct than you yourself have thought proper to ment. As for Mr. Sawbridge, whose character I really communicate to the public. It is from your own let respect, I am astonished he does not see through your ters, I conclude, that you have sold yourself to the duplicity. Never was so base a design so poorly conministry: or, if that charge be too severe, and suppos- ducted. This letter, * you see, is not intended for the ing it possible to be deceived by appearances so very strongly against you, what are yonr friends to say in | Mr. Horne, at Junius's request. Mr. Horne returned 13
1This letter was transmitted privately by the printer to your defense? Must they not confess, that, to gratify to the printer, with directions to publish it.
public; but, if you think it will do you any service, , letter of abuse, by the printer, which he finishes with you are at liberty to publish it.
telling me, “I am at liberty to publish it.” This, to JUNIUS. be sure, is a most excellent method to avoid an alter
cation in the newspapers!
The proofs of his positive charges are as extraordiLETTER LII.
nary. “He does not pretend to any intelligence conFROM THE REV. MR. HORNE TO JUNIUS.
cerning me, or to know more of my conduct than I
myself have thought proper to communicate to the SIR,
July 31, 1771.
public." He does not suspect me of such gross folly You have disappointed me. When I told you as to have solicited votes, or to have written anonythat surmise and general abuse, in however elegant mously in the newspapers; because it is impossible language, ought not to pass for proots, I evidently to do either without being detected, and brought to hinted at the reply which I expected, but you have shame. Junius says this ! who yet imagines that he dropped your usual elegance, and seem willing to try has himself written two years under that signature what will be the effect of surmise and general abuse (and more under others) without being detected ! his in very coarse language. Your answer to my last let warmest admirers will not hereafter add, without ter (which, I hope, was cool, and temperate, and being brought to shame. But, though he never did modest) has convinced me, that my idea of a man is suspect me of such gross folly, as to run the hazard of much superior to yours of a gentleman. Of your being detected, and brought to shame, by anonymous fornier letters, I have always said, Materiam supera
writing, he insists that I have been guilty of a much bat opus : I do not think so of the present: the prin
grosser folly, of incurring the certainty of shame and ciples are more detestable than the expressions are detection, by writings signed with my name! But mean and illiberal. I am contented that all those this is a small flight for the towering Junius: “He is who adopt the one should for ever load me with the far from thinking meanly of my abilities,” though other.
“he is convinced that I want judgment extremely;" I appeal to the common sense of the public, to and can “really respect Mr. Sawbridge's character,” which I have ever directed myself: I believe they though he declares him* to be so poor a creature, as have it; though I am sometimes half inclined to sus- not to see through the basest design, conducted in pect that Mr. Wilkes has found a truer judgment of the poorest manner. And this most base design is mankind than I have. However, of this I am sure, conducted in the poorest manner by a man, whom he that there is nothing else upon which to place a steady does not suspect of gross folly, and of whose abilities reliance. Trick, and low cunning, and addressing he is far from thinking meanly! their prejudices and passions, may be the fittest means Should we ask Junius to reconcile these contrato carry a particular point; but if they have not dictions, and explain this nonsense, the answer is common sense, there is no prospect of gaining for ready: "He cannot descend to an altercation in the them any real permanent good. The same passions newspapers." He feels no reluctance to attack the which have been artfully used by an honest man for character of any man: the throne is not too high, nor their advantage, may be more artfully employed by the cottage too low: his mighty malice can grasp a dishonest man for their destruction. I desire them both extremes. He hints not his accusations as to apply their common sense to this letter of Junius, opinion, conjecture, or inference, but delivers them as not for my sake, but their own; it concerns them positive assertions. Do the accused complain of inmost nearly; for the principles it contains lead to dis-justice? He acknowledges they have some sort of grace and ruin, and are inconsistent with every no- right to an explanation ; but if they ask for proofs tion of civil society.
and facts, he hegs to be excused; and though he is no The charges which Junius has brought against me, where else to be encountered," he cannot descend to are made ridiculous by his own inconsistency and an altercation in the newspapers." self-contradiction. He charges me positively with And this, perhaps, Junius may think “the liberal "a new zeal in support of administration;" and with resentment of a gentleman ;" this skulking assassination " endeavors in support of the ministerial nomination he may call courage. In all things, as in this, I hope of sheriffs." And he assigns two inconsistent motives we differ. for my conduct: either that I have“ sold myself to "I thought that fortitude had been a mean the ministry;" or am instigated by the solitary 'Twixt fear and rashness ; not a lust obscene, vindictive malice of a monk :" either that I am in
Or appetite of offending; but a skill
And nice discernment between good and ill. fluenced by a sordid desire of gain, or am hurried on Her ends are honesty and public good. by “personal hatred, and blinded by resentment." And without these she is not understood.” In his letter to the duke of Grafton, he supposes me Of two things, however, he has condescended to actuated by both: in his letter to me, he at first I give proof. He very properly produces a young lady donbts which of the two, whether interest or revenge,'' to prove that I am not a man; and a good old woman, is my motive. However, at last he determines form
my grandmother, to prove Mr. Oliver a fool. Poor the former, and again positively asserts, “that the old soul! she read her Bible far otherwise than ministry have made me promises :" yet he produces no instance of corruption, nor pretends to have any, 1 * I beg leave to introduce Mr. Horne to the character intelligence of any ministerial connection. He men of the Double Dealer. I thought they had been better tions no cause of personal hatred to Mr. Wilkes. nor acquainted “Another very wrong objection has been
made by some, who have not taken leisure to distinguish any reason for my resentment or revenge: nor has the characters. The hero of the play (meaning Melefonte) Mr. Wilkes himself ever hinted any, though repeat-is a gull, and made a fool, and cheated. Is every man a edly pressed. When Junius is called upon to instify gull and a fool that is deceived? At that rate, I am
afraid, the two classes of men will be reduced to one, and his accusation, he answers, “He cannot descend to the kraves themselves be at a loss to justify their title.
But if an open, honest-hearted man, who has an entire Wh
confidence in one whom he takes to be his friend. and who
(to confirm bim in his opinion) in all appearance, and he has "attacked my character” there, and thinks
| upon several trials, has been so, if this man be deceived
by the treachery of the other, must he of necessity comJunius “cannot descend to an altercation in the mence fool immediately, only because the other has newspapers !” And because he cannot descend to anı
proved a villain?" Yes, says parson Horne. No, says
Congreve: and he, I think, is allowed to have known altercation with me in the newspapers, he sends a' omething of human nature.