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blind side of old Gunpowder, who had now got over | very act of hurling his head at him. Ichabod en his fright and waywardness.
deavored to dodge the horrible missile, but too late. Ichabod, who had no relish for this strange mid | It encountered his craoium with a tremendous crash night companion, and bethought himself of the ad- |-he was tumbled headlong into the dust, and Gun. venture of Broni Bones with the galloping Hessian, powder, the black steed, and the goblin rider, passed now quickened his steed in hopes of leaving him by like a whirlwind. behind. The stranger, however, quickened his horse, The next morning the old horse was found with to an equal pace. Ichabod pulled up and fell into a out his saddle, and with the bridle under his feet, walk, thinking to lag behind-the other did the soberly cropping the grass at his master's gate. Ichsame. His heart began to sink within him; he en- abod did not make his appearance at breakfast-dindeavored to resume his psalm tune, but his parched ner-hour came, but no Ichabod. The boys assemtongue clove to the roof of his mouth, and he could bled at the school-house, and strolled idly about the not utter a stave. There was something in the banks of the brook, but no school-master. Haus moody and dogged silence of this pertinacious com- / Van Ripper now began to feel some uneasiness about panion that was mysterious and appalling. It was the fate of poor Ichabod and his saddle. An inquiry soon fearfully accounted for. On mounting a rising was set on fout, and after diligent investigation they ground, which brought the figure of his fellow-trav came upon his traces. In one part of the road leadeler in relief against the sky. gigantic in height and ing to the church was found the saddle, trampled muffled in a cloak, Ichabod was horror-struck on in the dirt; the tracks of horses' hoofs deeply dented perceiving that he was headless! but his horror was in the road, and evidently at furious speed, were still more increased on observing that the head, which traced to the bridge, beyond which, on the bank of should have rested on his shoulders, was carried be- a broad part of the brook, where the water ran deep fore him on the pommel of his saddle! His terror and black, was found the hat of the unfortunate rose to desperation; he rained a shower of kicks and Ichabod, and close beside it a shattered pumpkin. blows upon Gunpowder, hoping, by a sudden move. The brook was searched, but the body of the ment, to give his companion the slip-but the spec-schoolmaster was not to be discovered. Hans Van ter started full jump with him. Away, then, they Ripper, as executor of his estate, examined the bundashed through thick and thin; stones flying and dle which contained all his worldly effects. They sparks flashing at every bound. Ichabod's Himsy consisted of two shirts and a half, two stocks for garments Auttered in the air as he stretched his long, the neck, a pair or two of worsted stockings, an old lank body away over his horse's head, in the eager- i pair of corduroy small-clothes, a rusty razor, a book ness of his flight.
of psalm tunes full of dog's ears, and a broken pitchThey had now reached the road which turns off to pipe. As to the books and furniture of the school. Sleepy Hollow; but Gunpowder, who seemed pos house they belonged to the community, excepting sessed with a demon, instead of keeping up it, made Cotton Mather's History of Witchcraft, a New Engan opposite turn and plunged headlong down hill to land Almanac, and a book of dreams and fortune the left. This road leads through a sandy bollow, telling, in which last was a sheet of foolscap much shaded by trees for about a quarter of a mile, where scribbled and blotted by several fruitless attempts to it crosses the bridge famous in goblin story, and just make a copy of verses in honor of the heiress of beyond swells the green knoll on which stands the Van Tassel. These magic books and tbe poetic wuitewashed church.
scrawl were forthwith consigned to the flames by As yet the panic of the steed had given his un- | Hans Van Ripper, who, from that time forward, deskillful rider an apparent advantage in the chase; termined to send his children no more to school, obbut just as he had got half-way through the hollow, serving that he never knew any good come of this the girths of the saddle gave way, and he felt it same reading and writing. Whatever money the slipping from under him. He seized it by the pom-schoolmaster possessed, and he had received his mel, and endeavored to hold it firm, but in vain; quarter's pay but a day or two before, he must and had just time to save himself by clasping old have had about his person at the time of his disap Gundowder round the neck, when the saddle fell to pearance. the earth and he heard it trampled under foot by his The mysterious event caused much speculation at pursuer. For a moment the terror of Hans Van the church on the following Sunday. Knots of gazRipper's wrath passed across his mind--for it was ers and gossips were collected in the churchyard, at his Sunday saddle; but this was no time for petty the bridge, and at the spot where the hat and pump. fears: the goblin was hard on his launches; and kin had been found. The stories of Brouwer, of (unskillful rider that he was!) he had much ado to Bones, and a whole budget of others were called to maintain his seat; sometimes slipping on one side, mind; and when they had diligently considered them sometimes on another, and sometimes jolted on the all, and compared them with the symptoms of the high ridge of his horse's backbone, with a violence present case, they shook their heads, and came to that he verily feared would cleave him asuuder. the conclusion that Ichabod liad been carried off by
An opening in the trees now cheered him with the the galloping Hessian. As he was a bachelor, and in hopes that the church bridge was at hand. The wa-nobody's debt, nobody troubled his head any more vering reflection of a silver star in the bosom of the about him; the school was removed to a different brook told him that he was not mistaken. He saw quarter or the Hollow, and another pedagogue the walls of the church dimly glaring under the trees reigned in his stead. beyond. He recollected the place where Brom Bones's. It is true an old farmer, who had been down to New ghostly competitor had disappeared. “If I can but York on a visit several years after, and from whom reach that bridge,” thought Ichabod, “I am safe." this account of the ghostly adventure was received, Just then he heard the black steed panting and blow brought home the intelligence that Ichabod Crane ing close behind him; he even fancied that he felt was still alive; that be had left the neighborhood his hot breath. Another convulsive kick in the ribs partly through fear of the goblin and Hans Pau and old Gunpowder sprung upon the bridge; he Rippor, and partly in mortification at having been thundered over the resounding planks; he gained suddenly dismissed by the heiress; that he had the opposite side, and now Ichabod cast a look be changed his quarters to a distant part of the coudhind to see if his pursuer should vanish, according try; had kept school and studied law at the same to rule, in a flash of fire and brimstone. Just then time; had been admitted to the bar; turned politi, he saw the goblin rising in his stirrups and in the cian; electioneered; written for the newspapers: anu
finally had been made a Justice of the Ten Pound cluded there was much laughter and approbation, Court. Brom Bones too, who, shortly after his ri. i particularly from two or three deputy aldermen, who Val's disappearance, conducted the blooming Katrina had been asleep the greater part of the time. There in triumph to the altar, was observed to look ex- was, however, one tall, dry-looking old gentleman, ceedingly knowing whenever the story of Ichabod with beetling eyebrows, who maintained a grave was related, and always burst into a hearty laugh at and rather severe face throughout; now and then the mention of the pumpkin; which led some to sus folding his arms, inclining his head, and looking pect that he knew more about the matter than he down upon the floor, as if turning a doubt over in chose to tell.
his mind. He was one of your wary men who never The old country wives, however, who are the best laugh but upon good grounds-when they have judges of these matters, maintain to this day that reason and the law on their side. When the mirth Ichabod was spirited away by supernatural means; of the rest of the company had subsided and silence and it is a favorite story often told about the neigh- / was restored, he leaned one arm on the elbow of his borhood round the winter evening fire. The bridge chair, and sticking the other a-kimbo, demanded, became more than ever an object of superstitious with a slight but exceedingly sage motion of the awe; and that may be the reason why the road bas head, and contraction of the brow, what was the been altered of late years, so as to approach the moral of the story and what it went to prove. church by the border of the mill pond. The school. The story-teller, who was just putting a glass of house, being deserted, soon fell to decay, and was wine to his lips, as a refreshment after his toils, reported to be haunted by the ghost of the unfortu paused for a moment, looked at his inquirer with an pate pedagogue; and the plow-boy, loitering home air of infinite deference, and lowering the glass ward of a still summer evening, has often fancied slowly to the table, observed that the story was inhis voice at a distance, chanting a melancholy psalmtended most logically to prove: tune among the tranquil solitudes of Sleepy Hol “That there is no situation in life but has its adlow.
vantages and pleasures-provided we will but take a joke as we find it: '
"That, therefore, he that runs races with goblin POSTSCRIPT,
troopers is likely to have rough riding of it:
“Ergo, for a country schoolmaster to be refused FOUND IN THE HANDWRITING OF MR. KNICKER
TING OF MR. KNICKER- | the hand of a Dutch heiress is a certain step to high BOCKER.
preferment in the state." THE preceding Tale is given almost in the precise | The cautious old gentleman knit his brows tenfold words in which I heard it related at a Corporation closer after this explanation, being sorely puzzled by meeting of the ancient city of the Manhattoes,* at the ratiocination of the syllogism; while, methought, which were present many of its sagest and most il. the one in pepper-and-salt eyed him with something lustrious burghers. The narrator was a pleasant, of a triumphant leer. At length he observed that shabby, gentlemanly old fellow in pepper-and-salt all this was very well, but still he thought the story clothes, with a sadly humorous face, and one whom a little on the extravagant-tbere were one or two I strongly suspected of being poor-he made such points on which he had his doubts. efforts to be entertaining. When his story was con “Faith, sir," replied the story-teller, “as to that
matter, I don't believe one half of it myself.” • New York,
THE WORDS OF WASHINGTON.
LETTER TO THE GOVERNORS.
| days and watchful nights, and whose happiness,
being extremely dear to me, will always constitute Newburgh, N. Y., June 18, 1788.
no inconsiderable part of my own. SIR—The object for which I had the honor to hold | Impressed with the liveliest sensibility on this an appointment in the service of my country being pleasing occasion, I will claim the indulgence of accomplished, I am now preparing to resign it into dilating the more copiously on the subject of our the hands of Congress, and return to that domestic mutual felicitation. When we consider the magni. retirement, which, it is well known, I left with the tude of the prize we contended for, the doubtful greatest reluctance; a retirement for which I have nature of the contest and the favorable manner in never ceased to sigh through a long and painful ab- which it has terminated, we shall find the greatest sence, in which (remote from the noise and trouble possible reason for gratitude and rejoicing. This is of the world), I meditate to pass the remainder of a theme that will afford infinite delight to every belife in a state of undisturbed repose; but, before I nevolent and liberal mind; whether the event in carry this resolution into effect, I think it a duty in contemplation be considered as a source of present cumbent on me to make this my last official commu- enjoyment, or the parent of future happiness; and nication, to congratulate you on the glorious events we shall have equal occasion to felicitate ourselves which heaven has been pleased to produce in our on the lot which Providence has assigned us, whether favor; to offer my sentiments respecting some im- we view it in a natural, a political, or moral point of portant subjects, which appear to me to be intimately light. connected with the tranquility of the United States; ! The citizens of America, placed in the most ento take my leave of your excellency as a public char: viable condition, as the sole lords and proprietors of acter; and to give my final blessing to that country, a vast tract of continent, comprehending all the vari. in whose service I have spent the prime of my life; ous soils and climates of the world, and abounding for whose sake I have consumed so many anxious with all the necessaries and conveniences of life, are now, by the late satisfactory pacification, acknowl- | quietly enjoying in private life, after all the toils of ediged to be possessed of absolute freedom and inde- / war, the benefits of a wise and liberal government. pendency; they are from this period to be considered will, I flatter myself, sooner or later, convince my is the actors on a most conspicuous theater, which country, that I could bave no sinister views in descems to be peculiarly designed by Providence for livering, with so little reserve, the opinion contained the display of human greatness and felicity. Here in this address. they are not only surrouuded with everything that. There are four things which, I humbly conceive. c.in contribute to the completion of private and do- are essential to the well being, I may cven venture mestic enjoyment, but heaven has crowned all its to say, to the existence, of the United States, as an other blessings, by giving a surer opportunity for independent power, political happiness, than any other nation has ever 1st. An indissoluble union of the states under one been favored with. Nothing can illustrate these ob. federal head. servations more forcibly than a recollection of the 2dly. A sacred regard to public justice. happy conjuncture of times and circumstances, under 3dly. The adoption of a proper peace establishwhich our republic assumed its rank among the ment. And, nations. The foundation of our empire was not laid • 4dly. The prevalence of that pacific and friendly in a gloomy age of ignorance and superstition, but disposition ainong the people of the United States, at an epocha when the rights of mankind were better which will induce them to forget their local prejuunderstood and more clearly defined, than at any dices and policies; to make those mutual coucessions, former period. Researches of the human mind after which are requisite to the general prosperity; and in social happiness liave been carried to a great extent; some instances, to sacrifice their individual advantthe treasures of knowledge acquired by the labors of ages to the interest of the community, philosophers, sages, and legislators, through a long These are the pillars on which the glorious fabrie succession of years are laid open for us, and their of our independency and national character must be collected wisdom may be happily applied in the es-supported. Liberty is the basis—and whoever would tablishment of our forms of government. The free dare to sap the foundation, or overturn the structure, cultivation of letters, the unbounded extension of under whatever specious pretext he may attempt it, commerce, the progressive refinement of manners, will merit the bitterest execration, and the severest the growing liberality of sentiment, and, above all, punishment, which can be afflicted by his injured the pure and benign light of revelation, have had a country. meliorating influence on mankind, and increased the On the three first articles I will make a f obser. blessings of society. At this auspicious period, the vations, leaving the last to the good sense and serious United States came into existence as a nation; and if consideration of those immediately concerned. their citizens should not be completely free aud Under the first head, although it may not be happy, the fault will be entirely their own.
necessary or proper for me in this place to enter Such is our situation, and such are our prospects. into a particular disquisition of the principles of the But notwithstanding the cup of blessing is thus union, and to take up the great question which has reached out to us; notwithstanding happiness is ours, been frequently agitated, whether it be expedient if we have a disposition to seize the occasion, and and requisite for the states to delegate a larger promake it our own, yet it appears to me there is an portion of power to Congress, or not; yet it will be option still left to the United States of America, a part of my duty, and that of every true patriot, to whether they will be respectable and prosperous, or assert, without reserve, and to insist upon the folcontemptible and miserable as a nation. This is the lowing positions:—That, unless the states will suffer time of their political probation: this is the moment Congress to exercise those prerogatives they are when the eyes of the whole world are turned upon undoubtedly invested with by the constitution, everythem; this is the time to establish or ruin their na- thing must very rapidly tend to anarchy and con. tional character forever; this is the favorable moment fusion: That it is indispensable to the happiness of to give such a tone to the federal government, as will the individual states, that there should be lodged, enable it to answer the ends of its institution; or, somewhere, a supreme power to regulate and govern this may be the ill fated moment for relaxing the the general concerns of the confederated republie, powers of the union, annihilating the cement of the without which the union cannot be of long duration. confederation, and exposing us to become the sport That there inust be a faithful and pointed compliof European politics, which may play one state ance on the part of every state with the late proposals against another, to prevent their growing importance, and demands of Congress, or the most fatal conand to serve their own interested purposes. For, sequences will ensue: That whatever measures have according to the system of policy the states shall a tendency to dissolve the union, or contribute to adopt at this moment, they will stand or fall; and violate or lessen the sovereign authority, ouglit to be by their confirmation or lapse, it is yet to be decided, considered as bostile to the liberty and independence whether the revolution must ultimately be considered of America, and the authors of them treated accordas a blessing or a curse, not to the present age alone, | ingly. And, lastly, that, unless we can be enabled for with our fate will the destiny of unborn millions by the concurrence of the states to participate in tlie be involved.
fruits of the revolution, and enjoy the essential With this conviction of the importance of the pres benefits of civil society, under a forin of goverument ent crisis, silence in me would be a crime; I will so free and uncorrupted, so happily guarded against therefore speak to your excellency the language of the danger of oppression, as has been devised and freedom and sincerity, without disguise. I am aware, adopted by the articles of confederation, it will be a however, those who differ from me in political senti. subject of regret, that so much blood and treasure ments may, perhaps, remark, I am stepping out of have been lavished for no purpose; that so many the proper line of iny duty; and they may prohably sufferings have been encountered without a compenascribe to arrogance or ostentation, what I know is sation, and that so many sacrifices have been made alone the result of the purest intention. But the in vain. Many other considerations might bere be rectitude of my own heart, which disdains such un- adduced to prove, that, without an entire conformity worthy motives; the part I have hitherto acted in to the spirit of the union, we cannot exist as an life; the determination I have formed of not taking independent power. It will be sufficient for my any share in public business hereafter, the ardent purpose to mention but one or two, which seem to desire I feel, and shall continue to manifest, of me of the greatest importance. It is only in our
united character as an empire, that our independence or a temper of obstinacy and perverseness should is acknowledged, that our power can be regarded, or | manifest itself in any of the states; if such an un. our credit supported amoug foreign nations. The gracious disposition should attempt to frustrate all treaties of the European powers with the United the happy effect that might be expected to flow from States of America, will have no validity on a dis- the union; if there should be a refusal to comply solution of the union. We shall be left nearly in a with requisitions for funds to discharge the annual state of nature; or we may tind, by our own unhappy | interest of the public debt; and if that refusal should experience, that there is a natural and necessary revive all those jealousies, and produce all those progression from the extreme of anarchy to the evils, which are now happily removed, Congress, extreme of tyranny; and that arbitrary power is who have in all their transactions shown a great most easily established on the ruins of liberty, abused | degree of magnanimity and justice, will stand justito licentiousness.
fied in the sight of God and man! and that state As to the second article, which respects the per-alone, which puts itself in opposition to the aggregate formance of public justice, Congress have, in their wisdom of the continent, and follows such mistaken late address to the United States, almost exhausted and pernicious counsels, will be responsible for all the subject; they have explained their ideas so fully, the consequences. and have enforced the obligations the states are For my own part, conscious of having acted, while under to render complete justice to all the public a servant of the public, in the manner I conceived creditors, with so much dignity and energy, that, in best suited to promote the real interests of my my opinion, no real friend to the honor and inde country; having, in consequence of my fixed belief pendency of America can hesitate a single moment in some measure pledged myself to the army, that respecting the propriety of coinplying with the just their country would finally do them complete and and honorable measures proposed. If their argu- 1 ample justice, and not wishing to conceal any in. ments do not produce conviction, I know of nothing stance of my official conduct from the eyes of the that will have greater influence, especially when we world, I bave thought proper to transmit to your reflect tbat the system referred to, being the result excellency the enclosed collection of papers relative of the collected wisdom of the continent, must be to the half-pay and commutation granted by Con. esteemed, if not perfect, certainly the least objec. gress to the officers of the army. From these comtionable, of any that could be devised; and that, if munications my decided sentiment will be clearly it should not be carried into immediate execution, a comprehended, together with the conciusive reasons national bankruptcy, with all its deplorable conse- wbich induced me, at an early period, to recommend quences. will take place before any different plan the adoption of this measure in the most earnest and can possibly be proposed or adopted; so pressing are serious manner. As the proceedings of Congress, the present circumstances, and such is the alternative | the army, and myself, are open to all, and contain, now offered to the states.
in my opinion, sufficient information to remove the The ability of the country to discharge the debts prejudices and errors which may have been enterwhich have been incurred in its defence, is not to be tained by any, I thick it unnecessary to say anything doubted; and inclination, I flatter myself, will not more than just to observe, that the resolutions of be wanting. The path of our duty is plain before Congress, now alluded to, are as undoubtedly and us; honesty will be found, on cvery experiment, to absolutely binding upon the United States, as the be the best and only true policy. Let us then, as a most solemn acts of confederation or legislation. nation, be just; let us fulfill the public contracts As to the idea which, I am iuformed, bas in some which Congress had undoubtedly a right to make for instances prevailed, that the half-pay and commutathe purpose of carrying on the war, with the same tion are to be regarded merely in the odious light of good faith we suppose ourselves bound to perform a pension, it cught to be exploded forever; that proour private engagements. In the mean time, let an vision should be viewed, as it really was, a reasonattention to the cheerful performance of their proper able compensation offered by Congress, at a time business, as individuals, and as members of society, when they had nothing else to give to officers of the be earnestly inculcated on the citizens of America; army, for services then to be performed. It was the then will they strengthen the bands of government, only means to prevent a total dereliction of the and be happy under its protection. Every one will service. It was a part of their hire. I may be · reap the fruit of his labors; every one will enjoy his allowed to say, it was the price of their blood and of Own acquisitions, without molestation and without your independency. It is therefore more than a danger,
common debt; it is a debt of honor; it can never be In this state of absolute freedom and perfect secur considered as a pension, or gratuity, nor canceled ity, who will grudge to yield a very little of his until it is fairly discharged. property to support the common interests of society, With regard to the distinction between officers and ensure the protection of government? Who and soldiers, it is sufficient that the uniform experi. does not remember the frequent declarations at the ence of every nation of the world, combined with commencement of the war-that we should be com our own, proves the utility and propriety of the displetely satisfied if, at the expense of one half, we crimination. Rewards, in proportion to the aid the could defend the remainder of our possessions? public draws from them, are unquestionably due to Where is the man to be found who wishes to remain all its servants. In some lines, the soldiers have, in debt, for the defence of his own person and prop- perbaps, generally, had an ample compensation for orty, to the exertions, the bravery, and the blood of Their services, by the large bounties which have been others, withont making one generous effort to pay paid them, as their officers will receive in the prothe debt of honor and of gratitude? In what part posed commutation, in others, if, besides the dona. of the continent shall we find any man, or body of tion of land, the payment of arreages of clothing men, who would not blush to stand up and propose and wages in which articles all the component parts measures purposely calculated to rob the soldier of of the army must be put upon the same footing), we his stipend, and the public creditor of his due? And take into the estimate the bounties many of the were it possible that such a flagrant instance of in- , soldiers have received, and the gratuity of one year's justice could ever happen, would it not excite the full pay, which is promised to all, possibly their general indignation, and tend to bring down upon situation (every circumstance being duly considered) the authors of such measures the aggravated venge- will not be deemed less eligible than that of the lace of Heaven? If, after all, a spirit of disunion, | officers. Should a farther reward, however, be judged equitable, I will venture to assert, no man resources of the continent could have been properly will enjoy greater satisfaction than myself in an | called forth; that the distresses and disappointments exemption from taxes for a limited time (which has which have very often occurred, have, in too many been petitioned for in some instances), or any other instances, resulted more from a want of energy in adequate immunity or compensation granted to the the continental government than a deficiency of brave defenders of their country's cause. But neither means in the particular states ; that the inefficacy the adoption or rejection of this proposition will, in of the measures, arising from the want of an ade any manner, affect, much less militate against the quate authority in the supreme power, from partis) act of Congress, by which they have offered five compliance with the requisitions of Congress, in years' full pay, in lieu of the half pay for life, which some of the states, and from a failure of punctuality in had been before promised to the officers of the others, wbile they tended to damp the zeal of those army.
who were more willing to exert themselves, served Before I conclude the subject on public justice, I also to accumulate the expenses of the war, and to fruscannot omit to mention the obligations this country trate the best concerted plans; and that the discouris under to that meritorious class of veterans, the agement occasioned by the complicated difficulties and non-commissioned officers and privates, who liave embarrassments, in which our affairs were by this been discharged for inability, in consequence of the means involved, would have long ago produced the resolution of Congress, of the 23d of April, 1782, on dissolution of any army, less patient, less virtuous, an annual pension for life. Their peculiar suffer and less persevering, than that which I have had ings, their singular merits and claims to that pro the honor to command. But, while I mention vision, need only to be known, to interest the feelings those things which are notorious facts, as the deof humanity in their behalf. Nothing but a punc fects of our federal constitution, particularly in the tual payment of their annual allowance can rescuo prosecution of a war, I beg it may be understood, them from the most complicated misery; and nothing ihat, as I have ever taken a pleasure in gratefully could be a more melancholy and distressing sight acknowledging the assistance and support I have than to behold those who have shed their blood, or derived from every class of citizens, so I shall al. lost their limbs in the service of their country, with ways be happy to do justice to the unparalleled out a shelter, without a friend, and without the exertions of the individual states on many interesimeans of obtaining any of the comforts or neces. | ing occasions, saries of life, compelled to beg their breail daily I have thus freely disclosed what I wished to from door to door. "Suffer me to recommend those | make known before I surrendered up my public of this description, belonging to your state, to th3 trust to those who committed it to me." The task is warmest patronage of your excellency and your now accomplished; I now bid adieu to your excellegislature.
lency, as the chief magistrate of your state; at the It is necessary to say but a few words on the third same time I bid a last farewell to the cares of topic which was proposed, and which regards pir- office, and all the employments of public life. ticularly the defence of the republic-15 there can It remains, then, to be my fipal and only request, ve little doubt but Congress will recommend a propor: that your excellency will communicate these sentipeace establishment for the United States, in which ments to your Legislature at their pext meeting, and a due attention will be paid to the inportance of that they inay be considered as the legacy of one who placing the militia of the union upon a regular and has ardently wished, on all occasions, to be useful respectable footing. If this should be the case, I to bis country, and who, even in the shade of re should beg leave to urge the great advantage of it in | tirement, will not fail to implore the Divine benediothe strongest terms,
|tion upon it. The militia of this country must be considered as I now make it my earnest prayer, that God would the palladium of our security, and the first effcctual have you, and the state over which you preside, in resort in case of hostility. It is essential, therefore, his holy protection; that he would incline tea that the same system should pervade the whole ; that hearts of the citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordithe formation and discipline of the militia of the con nation and obedience to government; to entertain a tinent should be absolutely uniform; and that the brotherly affection and love for one another; for same species of arms, accoutrement, and military their fellow-citizens of the United States at large; apparatus, should be introduced in every part of the and particularly for their brethren who have served United States. No one, who has not learned it from in the field; and, finally, that he would most graexperience, can conceive the difficulty, expense, and ciously be pleased to dispose us all to do justice, to confusion, which result from a contrary system, or love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that the vague arrangements which have hitherto pre. charity, humility, and pacific temper of the mind, vailed.
which were the characteristics of the Divine Author If, in treating of political points, a greater latitude of our blessed religion, without an humble imitation than usual has been taken in the course of the ad- of whose example, in these things, we can never dress, the importance of the crisis, and the magnitude lope to be a happy nation. of the objects in discussion, must be my apology. I have the honor to be, with much esteem and re It is, however, neither my wish nor expectation, spect, sir, your excellency's most obedient and most that the preceding observations should claim any re- humble servant. gard, except so far as they shall appear to be dic
GEORGE WASHINGTON. tated by a good intention, consonant to the immutable rules of justice ; calculated to produce a liberal
FAREWELL TO THE ARMY. system of policy, and founded on whatever expcri. ence may have been acquired by a long and close
Princeton, November 2, 1783. attention to public business. Here I might speak THE United States in Congress assembled, after with more confidence from my actual observations; | giving the most honorable testimony to the merits of and, if it would not swell this letter (already too the federal armies, and presenting them with the prolix) beyond the bounds I had prescribed myself, thanks of their country for their long, eminent, and I could demonstrate to every mind open to con- faithful services, having thought proper, by their viction, that, in less time, and with much less ex- proclamation bearing date the 18th day of Octohet pense than has been incurred, the war might have last, to discharge such part of the troops as were been brought to the same bappy conclusion, if the engaged for the war, and to permit the officers oa