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The Lecompton bill; Passed in the Senate, but defeated in the House; The Crittenden-Montgomery substitute...
VOTE IN WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION, 1852, on Resolve approving Compromise Measures of 1850....
Yeas and Nays on adopting substitute..
Carried through both Houses; The Wyandot
SPENCER, AMBROSE, of New-York, President Whig National Convention, 1844 SPENCER, JOHN C., of New-York, President Anti-Masonic National Convention STEVENSON, ANDREW, of Virginia, President Second Democratic National Convention. Ditto, President National Democratic Convention, 1848......
STRANGE, ROBERT, of North Carolina, beaten for Vice-President in Democratic Convention, 1852.. SUMNER, CHARLES, of Massachusetts, defeated for Vice-President in Republican National Convention, 1856... SUPREME COURT, POWER AND DUTIES OFOpinions of Thomas Jefferson...
Opinions of John Taylor of Caroline, Va., John Randolph of Roanoke, Nathaniel Macon of N. C., and John Bacon, of Massachusetts... Opinions of John J. Crittenden, Nathaniel Macon, James Barbour, Supreme Court of Georgia, Legislature of Georgia, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and Court of Appeals of Virginia.... Opinions of Mahlon Dickerson, Richard M. Johnson, Gen. Andrew Jackson, and Daniel Webster........
WARD, JOHN E., of Georgia, President of
beaten for Vice-President in Democratic National Convention, 1852
WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTIONS, held at Harrisburg, Penn., 1839
Held at Baltimore, Md., 1844
Held at Philadelphia, Penn., 1848.
Held at Baltimore, Md., 1852
A POLITICAL TEXT-BOOK FOR 1860.
NATIONAL CAUCUSES, CONVENTIONS, AND
a potent influence over such questions, being, on this occasion, unable to agree as to which of her favored sons should have the preference. Ninety-four of the 136 Republican members of Congress attended this caucus, and declared their preference of Mr. Madison, who received 83 votes, the remaining 11 being divided between Mr. Monroe and George Clinton. The Opposition supported Mr. Pinckney; but Mr. Madison was elected by a large majority.
NATIONAL Conventions for the nomination of candidates are of comparatively recent origin. in the earlier political history of the United States, under the Federal Constitution, candidates for President and Vice-President were nominated by congressional and legislative caucuses. Washington was elected as first President under the Constitution, and reëlected for a second term by a unanimous, or nearly unanimous, concurrence of the American people; but an opposition party gradually grew up in Toward the close of Mr. Madison's earlier Congress, which became formidable during his term, he was nominated for reëlection by a second term, and which ultimately crystalized Congressional Caucus held at Washington, in into what was then called the Republican May, 1812. In September of the same year, a party. John Adams, of Massachusetts, was convention of the Opposition, representing prominent among the leading Federalists, while eleven States, was held in the city of New Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, was preëmi-York, which nominated De Witt Clinton, of nently the author and oracle of the Republican party, and, by common consent, they were the opposing candidates for the Presidency, on Washington's retirement in 1796-7.
Mr. Adams was then chosen President, while Mr. Jefferson, having the largest electoral vote next to Mr. A., became Vice-President.
New-York, for President. He was also put in nomination by the Republican Legislature of New-York. The ensuing canvass resulted in the reëlection of Mr. Madison, who received 128 electoral votes to 89 for De Witt Clinton.
no opposition to the reëlection of Mr. Monroe in 1820, a single (Republican) vote being cast against him, and for John Quincy Adams.
In 1816, the Republican Congressional Caucus nominated James Monroe, who received, in the The first Congressional Caucus to nominate caucus, 65 votes to 54 for Wm. H. Crawford, candidates for President and Vice-President, is of Georgia. The Opposition, or Federalists, said to have been held in Philadelphia in the named Rufus King, of New-York, who received year 1800, and to have nominated Mr. Jeffer-only 34 electoral votes out of 217. There was son for the first office, and Aaron Burr for the second. These candidates were elected after a desperate struggle, beating John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina. In In 1824, the Republican party could not be 1804, Mr. Jefferson was reelected President, induced to abide by the decision of a Congres with George Clinton, of New-York, for Vice, sional Caucus. A large majority of the Repubencountering but slight opposition: Messrs.lican members formally refused to participate Charles C. Pinckney and Rufus King, the op-in such a gathering, or be governed by its deci posing candidates, receiving only 14 out of 176 sion; still, a Caucus was called and attended by Electoral Votes. We have been unable to find the friends of Mr. Crawford alone. Of the 261 any record as to the manner of their nomina-members of Congress at this time, 216 were tion. In January, 1808, when Mr. Jefferson's Democrats or Republicans, yet only 66 res second term was about to close, a Republican Congressional Caucus was held at Washington, to decide as to the relative claims of Madison and Monroe for the succession, the Legislature of Virginia, which had been said to exert
ponded to their names at roll-call, 64 of whom voted for Mr. Crawford as the Republican nominee for President. This nomination was very extensively repudiated throughout the country, and three competing Republican candidates
were brought into the field through legislative | New-York, presided over the delil erations of the and other machinery-viz., Andrew Jackson, Convention, and the nominees received each Henry Clay, and John Quincy Adams. The re- 108 votes. The candidates accepted the nomi. sult of this famous "scrub race" for the Presi- nation and received the electoral vote of Verdency was, that no one was elected by the mont only. The Convention did not enunciate people, Gen. Jackson receiving 99 electoral any distinct platform of principles, but apvotes, Mr. Adams 84, Mr. Crawford 41, and Mr. pointed a committee to issue an Address to the Clay 37. The election then devolved on the people. In due time, the address was published. House of Representatives, where Mr. Adams It is quite as prolix and verbose as modern powas chosen, receiving the votes of 13 States, litical addresses; and, after stating at great against 7 for Gen. Jackson, and 4 for Mr. Craw-length the necessary qualifications for the ford. This was the end of "King Caucus." Chief of a great and free people, and presentGen. Jackson was immediately thereafter put ing a searching criticism on the institution of in nomination for the ensuing term by the Le-free-masonry in its moral and political bearings, gislature of Tennessee, having only Mr. Adams somewhat intensified from the excitement for an opponent in 1828, when he was elected caused by the (then recent) alleged murder of by a decided majority, receiving 178 Electoral William Morgan, for having revealed the secrets Votes to 83 for Mr. Adams. Mr. John C. Cal- of the Masonic Order, the Address comes to the houn, who had at first aspired to the Presidency, conclusion that, since the institution had bein 1824, withdrew at an early stage from the come a political engine, political agencies must canvass, and was thereupon chosen Vice-Presi- be used to avert its baneful effects-in other dent by a very large electoral majority-Mr. words, "that an enlightened exercise of the Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, (the caucus right of suffrage is the constitutional and candidate on the Crawford ticket,) being his equitable mode adopted by the Anti-Masons is only serious competitor. In 1828, Mr. Calhoun necessary to remove the evil they suffer, and was the candidate for Vice-President on the produce the reforms they seek." Jackson ticket, and of course reëlected. It was currently stated that the concentration of the Crawford and Calhoun strength on this ticket was mainly effected by Messrs. Martin Van Buren and Churchill C. Cambreleng, of NewYork, during a southern tour made by them in 1827. In 1828, Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, was the candidate for Vice-President on the Adams ticket.
DEMOCRATIC OR JACKSON NATIONAL
There was no open opposition in the Democratic party to the nomination of Gen. Jackson for a second term; but the party were not so well satisfied with Mr. Calhoun, the Vice-President; so a Convention was called to meet at Baltimore in May, 1832, to nominate a candidate for the second office. Delegates appeared U. S. ANTI-MASONIC CONVENTION-1830. and took their seats from the States of The first political National Convention in this Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachucountry of which we have any record was held setts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New-York, at Philadelphia in September, 1830, styled the New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, MaryUnited States Anti-Masonic Convention. It was land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, composed of 96 delegates, representing the Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, TenStates of New-York, Massachusetts, Connecti-nessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. cut, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New-Jersey, Delaware, Ohio, Maryland and the Territory of Michigan. Francis Granger of New-York presided; but no business was transacted beyond the adoption of the following
Resolved, That it is recommended to the people of the United States, opposed to secret societies, to meet in convention on Monday the 26th day of September, 1881, at the city of Baltimore, by delegates equal in number to their representatives in both houses of Congress, to make nominations of suitable candidates for the office of President and Vice-President, to be supported at the next election, and for the transaction of such other business as the cause of Anti-Masonry may require.
Gen. Robert Lucas, of Ohio, presided, and the regular proceedings were commenced by the passage of the following resolution:
Resolved, That each State be entitled, in the nomina. tion to be made for the Vice-Presidency, to a number of in the electoral colleges, under the new apportionment, in voting for President and Vice-President; and that two-thirds of the whole number of the votes in the Convention shall be necessary to constitute a choice.
votes equal to the number to which they will be entitled
This seems to have been the origin of the famous "two-thirds" rule which has prevailed of late in Democratic National Conventions.
The Convention proceeded to ballot for a candidate for Vice-President, with the following result:
For Martin Van Buren: Connecticut, 8; Illinois, 2;
In compliance with the foregoing call, a National Anti-Masonic Convention was held at Baltimore, in September, 1831, which nominated William Wirt, of Maryland, for President, and Amos Ellmaker, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-President. The convention was attended by 112 delegates from the States of Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Delaware and Maryland-only Total, 49. Massachusetts, New-York and Pennsylvania Mr. Van Buren, having received more than being fully represented. John C. Spencer, of two-thirds of all the votes cast, was declared
For Philip P. Barbour: North Carolina, 6; Virginia, 23; Maryland, 8; South Carolina, 11; Alabama, 6—
duly nominated as the candidate of the party for Vice-President.
The Convention passed a resolution cordially concurring in the repeated nominations which Gen. Jackson had received in various parts of the country for reëlection as President.
Mr. Archer, of Virginia, from the committee appointed to prepare an address to the people, reported that
The committee, having interchanged opinions on the subject submitted to them, and agreeing fully in the principles and sentiments which they believe ought to be embodied in an address of this description, if such an address were to be made, nevertheless deem it advisable under existing circumstances, to recommend the adoption of the following resolution : Resolved, That it be recommended to the several delegations in this Convention, in place of a General Address from this body to the people of the United States, to make such explanations by address, report, or other wise, to their respective constituents, of the object, proceedings and result of the meeting, as they may deem expedient.
The result of this election was the choice of General Jackson, who received the electoral vote of the following States:
Maine. 10; New-Hampshire, 7; New-York, 42; NewJersey, 8; Pennsylvania, 30; Maryland, 8; Virginia, 23; North Carolina, 15; Georgia, 11; Tennessee, 15; Ohio, 21; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4; Indiana, 9 Illinois, 5; Alabama, 7; Missouri, 4-Total, 219.
For Mr. Clay: Massachusetts, 14; Rhode Island, 4 Connecticut, 8; Delaware, 8; Maryland, 5; Kentucky, 15-Total, 49.
For John Floyd, of Virginia: South Carolina, 11.
Mr. Van Buren received only 189 votes for Vice-President, Pennsylvania, which cast her vote for Jackson, having voted for William
Wilkins of that State for Vice-President.
John Sergeant, for Vice-President, received the same vote as Mr. Clay for President. South Carolina voted for Henry Lee of Massachusetts,
NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CONVENTION1831.
diate predecessor (J. Q. Adams) by Gen. Jackson in his Inaugural Address, and adds:
The indecorum of this denunciation was hardly less glaring than its essential injustice, and can only be paralleled by that of the subsequent denunciation of the same Administration, on the same authority, to a foreign government.
Exception is taken to the indiscriminate removal of all officers within the reach of the President, who were not attached to his person or party. As illustrative of the extent to which this political proscription was carried, it is stated that, within a month after the inauguration of General Jackson, more persons were removed from office than during the whole 40 years that had previously elapsed since the adoption of the Constitution. Fault is also found with the Administration in its conduct of our foreign affairs. Again the Address says:
On the great subjects of internal policy, the course of the President has been so inconsistent and vacillating, that it is impossible for any party to place confidence in his character, or to consider him as a true and effective friend. By avowing his approbation of a judicious tariff, at the same time recommending to Congress precisely the same policy which had been adopted as the best plan of attack by the opponents of that measure; by admitting the constitutionality and expediency of Internal Improvements of a National character, and at the same moment negativing the most important bills of this description which were presented to him by Congress, the President has shown that he is either a secret enemy to the system, or that he is willing to sacrifice the most important national objects in a vain attempt to conciliate the conflicting interests, or rather adverse party feeling and opinions of different sections of the country.
the United States Bank, and the necessity and Objection is taken to Gen. Jackson's war on usefulness of that institution are argued at considerable length. The outrageous and inhuman treatment of the Cherokee Indians by the State ministration to protect them in their rights, of Georgia, and the failure of the National Adacquired by treaty with the United States, is also the subject of animadversion in the the Address.
A resolve was adopted, recommending to the young men of the National Republican Party to hold a Convention in the city of Washington on the following May.
sided, and at which the following, among other
Resolved, That an adequate Protection to American Industry is indispensable to the prosperity of the country; and that an abandonment of the policy at this period would be attended with consequences ruinous to the best interests of the Nation.
The National Republicans met in convention at Baltimore, Dec. 12, 1831. Seventeen States Such a Convention was accordingly held at and the District of Columbia were represented the Capital on the 11th of May, 1832, over by 157 delegates, who cast a unanimous vote which William Cost Johnson, of Maryland, prefor Henry Clay, of Kentucky, for President, and John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-Pre-resolves, were adopted: sident. James Barbour, of Virginia, presided, and the States represented were: Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana and Indiana. The Convention adopted no formal platform of principles, but issued an Address, mainly devoted to a criticism on the Administration of Gen. Jackson, asserting, among other things, that
Resolved, That a uniform system of Internal Improvements, sustained and supported by the General Governharmony, the strength and the permanency of the Rement, is calculated to secure, in the highest degree, the public.
Resolved, That the indiscriminate removal of public officers, for a mere difference of political opinion, is a
gross abuse of power; and that the doctrine lately boldly preached in the United States Senate, that "to the victors belong the spoils of the vanquished," is detrimental to the interest, corrupting to the morals, and dangerous to the liberties of the people of this country.
The political history of the Union for the last three years exhibits a series of measures plainly dictated in all their principal features by blind cupidity or vindictive party spirit, marked throughout by a disregard of good policy, justice, and every high and generous sentiment, and, terminating in a dissolution of the Cabinet under DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, circumstances more discreditable than any of the kind to be met with in the annals of the civilized world.
The address alludes to the charge of incapa
In May, 1835, a National Convention repre
eity and corruption leveled against his imme-senting twenty-one States, assembled at Balti
more to nominate candidates for President and Vice-President. The Hon. Andrew Stevenson, of Virginia, was chosen president, with half a dozen vice-presidents and four secretaries. A rule was adopted that two-thirds of the whole number of votes should be necessary to make a nomination or to decide any question connected therewith. On the first ballot for President, Mr. Van Buren was nominated unanimously, receiving 265 votes. For Vice-President, Richard M. Johnson, of Kentucky, received 178, and William C. Rives, of Virginia, 87. Mr. Johnson, having received more than two-thirds of all the votes cast, was declared duly nominated as the candidate for Vice-President. This Convention adopted no platform.
THE OPPOSITION IN 1836.
result was the triumphant election of Harrison and Tyler, Van Buren receiving the electoral vote of only seven States; viz:
New-Hampshire, 7; Virginia, 23; South Carolina, 11; Illinois, 5; Alabama, 7; Missouri, 4; and Arkansas, 8Total, 60.
South-Carolina refused to vote for Richard M. Johnson for Vice-President, throwing away her 11 votes on Littleton W. Tazewell, of Virginia. Harrison and Tyler received the votes of the following States:
necticut, 8; Vermont, 7; New-York. 42; New-Jersey, 8: Maine, 10; Massachusetts, 14; Rhode Island, 4; ConPennsylvania, 80; Delaware, 8; Maryland, 10; North Carolina, 15; Georgia, 11; Kentucky, 15; Tennessee, 15; Ohio, 21; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4; Indiana,9; Michigan, 8-Total, 234.
A Convention of Abolitionists was held at
Warsaw, N. Y., on the 13th of November, 1839, which adopted the following:
In 1835, Gen. Wm. H. Harrison, of Ohio, was nominated for President, with Francis Granger, for Vice-President, by a Whig State Convention at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and also by a Democratic Anti-Masonic Convention held at Resolved, That, in our judgment, every consideration the same place. A Whig State Convention in of duty and expediency which ought to control the action of Christian freemen, requires of the Abolitionists Maryland also nominated Gen. Harrison for Pre- of the U. 8. to organize a distinct and independent polisident, with John Tyler, of Virginia, for Vice. tical party, embracing all the necessary means for nomiGen. H. also received nominations in New York,nating candidates for office and sustaining them by Ohio and other States. public suffrage.
Hugh L. White, of Tennessee was nominated The Convention then nominated for Presiby the Legislatures of Tennessee and Alabama, dent James G. Birney, of New York, and for as the Opposition or Anti-Jackson candidate; Vice-President Francis J. Lemoyne, of Pennwhile Mr. Webster was the favorite of the Oppo-sylvania. These gentlemen subsequently desition in Massachusetts, and Willie P. Mangum, clined the nomination. Nevertheless they of N. C. received the vote of S. C., 11. The received a total of 7,609 votes in various Free result of the contest of 1836 was the election States.
of Mr. Van Buren, who received the electoral votes of the States of
Maine, 10; New-Hampshire, 7; Rhode Island, 4; Connecticut, 8; New York, 42; Pennsylvania, 80; Virginia, 28; North Carolina, 15; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4; Illinois, 5; Alabama, 7; Missouri, 4; Arkansas, 8; Michigan, 3-Total 170.
Gen. Harrison received the votes of Vermont, 7; New-Jersey, 8; Delaware, 8; Maryland, 10; Kentucky, 15; Ohio, 21; and Indiana, 9-Total, 78. Hugh L. White received the vote of Georgia, 11, and Tennessee, 15: total, 26. Mr. Webster received the vote of Massachusetts, 14.
WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION,-1839. A Whig National Convention representing twenty-one States met at Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 4, 1839. James Barbour, of Virginia, presided, and the result of the first ballot was the nomination of Gen. William H. Harrison, of Ohio, who received 148 votes to 90 for Henry Clay, and 16 for Gen. Winfield Scott. John Tyler, of Virginia, was unanimously nominated as the Whig candidate for Vice-President. The Convention adopted no platform of principles; but the party in conducting the memorable campaign of 1840, assailed the Administration of Mr. Van Buren for its general mismanagement of public affairs and its profligacy, and the
*Ballots were repeatedly taken in committee throughout two or three days; but as no candidate received a majority, it was only reported to the convention that the committee had not been able to agree on a candidate to be presented to the convention. Finally, the delegates from New-York and other States which had supported Gen. Scott, generally went over to Gen. Harrison, who thus received a majority, when the result was declared, as
DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, 1840.
A Democratic National Convention met at Baltimore, May 5th, 1840, to nominate candidates for President and Vice-President. gates were present from the States of Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Indiana, Missouri, Michigan, and Arkansas. Gov. William Carroll, of Tennessee, presided, and the Convention, before proceeding to the ing platform—viz. : nomination of candidates, adopted the follow
limited powers, derived solely from the Constitution, and 1. Resolved, That the Federal Government is one of the grants of power shown therein ought to be strictly construed by all the departments and agents of the government, and that it is inexpedient and dangerous to exercise doubtful constitutional powers.
2. Resolved, That the Constitution does not confer upon the General Government the power to commence or carry on a general system of internal improvement. 8. Resolved, That the Constitution does not confer authority upon the Federal Government, directly or indirectly, to assume the debts of the several States, contracted for local internal improvements or other State purposes; nor would such assumption be just or ex
4. Resolved, That justice and sound policy forbid the Federal Government to foster one branch of industry to the detriment of another, or to cherish the interest of one portion to the injury of another portion of our common country-that every citizen and every section of the country has a right to demand and insist upon an equality of rights and privileges, and to complete and ample protection of persons and property from domestic violence or foreign aggression.