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For another magnificent description of that jolly shepherd Colin Clout's (Spenser's) lass,' see The Faery Queen, Book VI., Canto x. Compare especially:

So far as doth the Daughter of the Day
All other lesser lights in light excel ;
So far doth she in beautiful array
Above all other lasses bear the bell;
Ne less in virtue that beseems her well
Doth she exceed the rest of all her race;
For which the Graces, that here wont to dwell,

Have for more honour brought her to this place,
And graced her so much to be another Grace.'

And in the next stanza but one he addresses the Queen, perhaps not without a subtle suggestion of comparison :

Sun of the world, great glory of the sky,
That all the earth dost lighten with thy rays,
Great Gloriana, greatest majesty !
Pardon thy Shepherd, 'mongst so many lays
As he hath sung of thee in all his days,
To make one minim* of thy poor handmaid,
And underneath thy feet to place her praise ;

That, when thy glory shall be far displayed
To future age, of her this mention may be made.'


Mark when she smiles with amiable cheer,
And tell me whereto can ye liken it;
When on each eyelid sweetly do appear
An hundred Graces as in shade to sit.
Likest it seemeth, in my simple wit,
Unto the fair sunshine in summer's day ;
That, when a dreadful storm away is flit,
Through the broad world doth spread his goodly ray ;
At sight whereof, each bird that sits on spray,
And every
beast that to his den was fled,

Comes forth afresh out of their late dismay,
And to the light lift up their drooping head.

So my storm-beaten heart likewise is cheered
With that sunshine, when cloudy looks are cleared.

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NOTES. 1. Cheer, countenance. Cf. F. Q., I., 'Each purple peak, each flinty spire, i. 2, note.

Was bathed in floods of living fire.' 4. Graces. Gr. Charites, Lat. Gratia,

Still the verb is sometimes plural. the Graces, three in number, 'were

Cf. Pope, Imitations of Horace, Sat. the goddesses who enhanced the

II., ii. 75-6: enjoyments of life by refinement

• How pale each worshipful and and gentleness.'

reverend guest 11. Comes forth. Sing. verb. The sub

Rise from a clergy or a city feast!' jects may be taken separately : each bird comes,' and '


beast Warton's note censures Pope too comes ;' besides the singularising hastily: 'A strange instance of false force of 'each' and 'every’ is very grammar and false English, in using strong. Cf. Scott, Lady of the Lake, rise for rises.'-Observe 'their,' and canto i. II:

cf. Dunbar, lines 96-9, and note, p. 99.

RICHARD HOOKER.-1553 ?-1600. RICHARD HOOKER was born near Exeter. Through the good offices of Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, he was sent to Oxford (1567), where he remained many years. In 1581 he married, and settled in the poor living of Drayton-Beauchamp, in Buckinghamshire. Here he was visited by an old Oxford pupil, son of Bishop Sandys, who saw with mixed pity and admiration his meek submission to the wretched life that Mrs Hooker led him. Through the influences that Sandys set working, his old tutor was appointed Master of the Temple (1585). Hooker, who preached Episcopalian views in the forenoon, was answered by Travers, who preached Presbyterian views in the afternoon; and when Travers was silenced by Archbishop Whitgift, the war raged in print. Longing for a quiet refuge from controversy, Hooker removed first to the living of Boscombe, near Salisbury (1591), and then to Bishopsbourne, near Canterbury (1595).

The judicious' Hooker's great work on Ecclesiastical Polity has been the object of high praise. Four Books appeared in 1594, the fifth followed in 1597, and three more were found among his papers at his death in 1600.

CHURCH MUSIC. (From The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, Book V., Sect. 38.) Touching musical harmony, whether by instrument or by voice, it being but of high and low in sounds a due proportionable disposition, such notwithstanding is the

force thereof, and so pleasing effects it hath in that very part of man which is most divine, that some have been thereby induced to think that the soul itself by nature is, or hath in it, harmony; a thing which delighteth all ages, and beseemeth all states; a thing as seasonable in grief as in joy; as decent, being added unto actions of greatest weight and solemnity, as being used when men most sequester themselves from action.

The reason hereof is an admirable facility which music hath to express and represent to the mind, more inwardly than any other sensible mean, the very standing, rising and falling, the very steps and inflections every way, the turns and varieties of all passions whereunto the mind is subject; yea, so to imitate them, that, whether it resemble unto us the same state wherein our minds already are, or a clean contrary, we are not more contentedly by the one confirmed, than changed and led away by the other. In harmony, the very image and character even of virtue and vice is perceived, the mind delighted with their resemblances, and brought by having them often iterated into a love of the things themselves. For which cause there is nothing more contagious and pestilent than some kinds of harmony; than some, nothing more strong and potent unto good. And that there is such a difference of one kind from another, we need no proof but our own experience, inasmuch as we

are at the hearing of some more inclined unto sorrow and heaviness, of some more mollified and softened in mind; one kind apter to stay and settle us, another to move and stir our affections; there is that draweth to a marvellous grave and sober mediocrity; there is also that carrieth, as it were, into ecstasies, filling the mind with an heavenly joy, and for the time in a manner severing it from the body. So that, although we lay altogether aside the consideration of ditty or matter, the very harmony of sounds being framed in due sort, and carried from the ear to the spiritual faculties of our souls, is, by a native puissance and efficacy, greatly available to bring to a perfect temper whatsoever is there troubled ; apt as well to quicken the spirits as to allay that which is too eager; sovereign against melancholy and despair; forcible to draw forth tears of devotion, if the mind be such as can yield them; able both to move and to moderate all affections. The prophet David having therefore singular knowledge, not in poetry alone, but in music also, judged them both to be things most necessary for the house of God, left behind him to that purpose a number of divinely indited poems, and was farther the author of adding unto poetry melody in public prayer; melody, both vocal and instrumental, for the raising up of men's hearts, and the sweetening of their affections towards God. In which considerations the church of Christ doth likewise at this present day retain it as an ornament to God's service, and an help to our own devotion. They which, under pretence of the law ceremonial abrogated, require the abrogation of instrumental music, approving, nevertheless, the use of vocal melody to remain, must shew some reason wherefore the one should be thought a legal ceremony, and not the other. In church music, curiosity and ostentation of art, wanton or light or unsuitable harmony, such as only pleaseth the ear, and doth not naturally serve to the very kind and degree of those impressions which the matter that goeth with it leaveth, or is apt to leave, in men's minds, doth rather blemish and disgrace that we do, than add either beauty or furtherance unto it. On the other side, these faults prevented, the force and efficacy of the thing itself, when it drowneth not utterly, but fitly suiteth with matter altogether sounding to the praise of God, is in truth most admirable, and doth much edify, if not the understanding, because it teacheth not, yet surely the affection, because therein it worketh much. They must have hearts very dry and tough, from whom the melody of psalms doth not sometime draw that wherein a mind religiously affected delighteth.

NOTES. of high and low disposition. In- together, and are they regarded as version of natural order.

quite different ? Thereof.

Compounds of advs. and One kind (is) apter. The construction preps. are exceedingly common in changes here. Hooker.

Mediocrity: moderate state of feeling Harmony. Nom. or obj., according to or emotion, as opposed to 'ecstasies

the alternative statements. With (below). inflection of the noun (as in Lat., | Ditty, something said or sung; here Gr., &c.), such a contracted sen- explained by the alternative name tence is impossible,

matter.' 0. Fr. dicte or ditte, A thing. More general noun taking from Lat. dictum (to say). Another

on explanatory adjuncts. The sen- derivation is from Old Eng. dihtan tence thus gets a new start. It is (to arrange, compose): cf. Ger. often more advantageous to eke dichten (to compose), and dichter out a sentence in this way, than (a poet). to put the matter into a new sen- Indited, declared or set forth in writing, tence.

composed. From. Lat. indictum Sensible, that can be felt by the senses, (declare), = from in and dico, dicappealing to the senses.

tum (to say). Mean. The singular is almost disused Melody, both vocal &c. Noun repeated

nowadays: we say this means.' for further qualification. Cf. 'thing' Clean contrary.

*Clean' is adv.; it (above). has the same form as the adj., Under pretence of ...

abrothrough the falling away of the in- gated. Latinism. flectional termination.

These faults (being) prevented. Absolute Is perceived. Why 'is' (sing.)? Are participle; preparatory advl. expres

the two subjects predicated about sion.


Heavy and complicated sentences, with many inversions under the influence of Latin arrangement, are relieved by a grave melody. There are many examples of balanced structure and of tautology.

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