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inessenger (old nessager, 0. Fr. 96. No more but. After comparatives messagier), passenger (old passager, we now say 'than;' 'but,' however, 0. Fr. passagier).
was common for long after Shak58. Parmaceti, spermaceti, a fatty mat- speare. (See the Queen Anne
ter obtained chiefly from the head of writers.) a certain species of whale. From 100. Confound, consume, destroy; lit. Gr. and Lat. sperma (seed), and Gr. pour together (Lat. con-fundere). ketos (sea-monster),
101. Hardiment, hard blows, resolute 60. Saltpetre, nitre; which, in the fighting, native state, is usually found oozing
Severn is now per ed. from rocks, walls, &c. Lat. sal 108. Base and rotten policy. Compare petræ (salt of rock or stone).
the king's previous speech : 81 and 60-1. Cf. Milton, Paradise Lost, vi. following: 509 and following.
110. Nor never : double negative for 79. Ransom, redeem. The noun 'ran- one denial; emphatic.
som' is a French modification of 121. Kind, nature, manner. Lat. redemptionem (re-d-emptionem, 125. An if : redundant.
An' means a buying back).
‘if;' it is also often written 'and.' 80. Mortimer. Sir Edmund Mortimer 136. Unthankful (cf. 137, ingrate). Cf.
was the second son of the Earl of lines 160 and following. March and Philippa, daughter and 146. The next of blood. This was not heiress of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Sir Edmund Mortimer, Hotspur's third son of Edward III. He was brother-in-law, but the other Edmund brother-in-law to Hotspur, who had Mortimer, Earl of March, his nephew married his sister Elizabeth. Shak- (see 84, note). As he was only six speare calls her Kate (1 King Hen.
years old at Richard II.'s deposition, IV., ii. 3, and iii. 1).
he was easily passed over ; the prin83. Great magician. See 1 King Hen. ciple of hereditary descent being in
iii. 1.- Glendower. Owen those days of little avail to a child. Glendower, proclaiming himself the 151-2. Did return—deposed-murdered. descendant of the native princes, roused Wales to revolt from Henry 159. Wished &c. Cf. line 89. Observe IV., in 1400.
It required several the absence of 'to' before 'starve.' campaigns of patient and persistent | 168. Predicament, the fact or the matsoldiering to break his power.
ter of predication, that is, of affirm84. Whose daughter &c. She married ing or stating; hence, situation or
the Sir Edmund Mortimer mentioned condition in which certain stateabove (80), who had been taken
ments may be made or inferences prisoner by her father; not the Earl drawn); orig. a logical term. Lat. of March, who was Sir Edmund's
prædicamentum, from præ-dicare nephew. Shakspeare may have been
(to proclaim, declare). helped to this confusion by the 178. Shook : we should say 'shaken.' identity of their names.
But in the time of Elizabeth, and 87. Indent, compound, bargain; lit. to much later, the p. part. often took notch like the teeth (Lat. dentes) of the form of the past tense.
When an indenture (con- | 183. Disdained, disdainful. From O. Fr. tract of apprenticeship) was drawn, desdaigner, Lat. dedignari (to think the copies for the contracting parties unworthy), from de (down, away, were inscribed on the same piece of in negative sense), and dignari (to parchment, and then separated by a consider dignus or worthy). tooth-like cutting, so that they should | 187. Cousin is often used in the dracorrespond when compared.
matists vaguely, as here (and below)
in addressing relations. It is the 240. Pismires, emmets, ants. same as 'kinsman'in 234.
241. Politician, in bad sense, cunning, 189. To, in accordance with, suitably artful schemer. to: a meaning easily connected
247. Ravenspurgh, or Ravenspur, in with the primary sense, 'in the Yorkshire, was the place where direction of.'
Bolingbroke landed on his return 194. He : whoever attempts to o'er- from exile to seize the throne in walk &c. (192).
The sea has washed it away. 196. So, provided that, Cf. 206. 252. When his infant fortune &c. The ‘Cross' is subjunctive.
scene referred to is given in Shak., 201. Methinks, meseems, it thinks (= King Rich. 11., ii. 3, 65-7: seems, appears) to me. The subj.
'Boling. Evermore thanks, the to‘methinks' is the whole statement,
exchequer of the poor; ‘it were an easy leap to pluck,' &c.
Which, till my infant fortune 210. Attend. We now add 'to,' al
comes to years, though'to'is already there ; 'attend'
Stands for my bounty.' is lit. to stretch to or in the direction of: from Lat. ad (by assimilation at, 253. Gentle Harry Percy. Cf. King to), and tendo (stretch).
Rich. II., ii. 3, 45: 224. Shall. Subj. 'which' omitted : a Boling. I thank thee, gentle common omission in poetry.
Percy.' 228. Defy, renounce, give up. From 254. Cozeners, deceivers, cajolers; with
Fr. défier, Lat. diffidere, from dis a play upon 'cousin' (253). As if (asunder, in negative sense, revers
'those that pretend close friendship, ing the root action), and fidère (to and then deceive one's hopes.' trust, have fides or faith in).
257. Stay, wait: we now say “stay for.'
A DOUBLE ROBBERY PLANNED.
SCENE.-London. An apartment of the Prince of Wales. Enter THE PRINCE OF WALES, SIR John FALSTAFF (an old fat man,' a 'round man,' a 'huge hill of flesh, infinitely humorous), and Poins.
Poins. But, my lads, my lads, to-morrow morning, by four o'clock, early at Gadshill! There are pilgrims going to Canterbury with rich offerings, and traders riding to London with fat purses. I have vizards for you all, you have horses for yourselves ; Gadshill lies to-night in Rochester; I have bespoke supper to-morrow night in Eastcheap ; we may do it as secure as sleep. If you will go, I will stuff your purses full of crowns; if you will not, tarry at home and be hanged.
Fal. Hear ye, Yedward ; if I tarry at home and go not, I'll hang you for going.
Poins. You will, chops ?
P. Hen. Who, I rob? I a thief ? Not I, by my faith.
Fal. There's neither honesty, manhood, nor good fellowship in thee, nor thou camest not of the blood royal, if thou darest not stand for ten shillings.
P. Hen. Well, then, once in my days, I'll be a mad-cap.
Poins. Sir John, I prithee, leave the prince and me alone ; I will lay him down such reasons for this adventure, that he
Fal. Well, may'st thou have the spirit of persuasion and he the ears of profiting, that what thou speakest may move and what he hears may be believed, that the true prince may, recreation sake, prove a false thief; for the poor abuses of the time want countenance. Farewell ; you shall find me in Eastcheap.
P. Hen. Farewell, thou latter spring! Farewell, Allhallown summer !
[Exit FALSTAFF. Poins. Now, my good sweet honey lord, ride with us to
I have a jest to execute that I cannot manage alone. Falstaff, Bardolph, Peto, and Gadshill shall rob those men that we have already waylaid ; yourself and I will not be there ; and when they have the booty, if you and I do not rob them, cut this head from my shoulders.
P. Hen. But how shall we part with them in setting forth ?
Poins. Why, we will set forth before or after them, and appoint them a place of meeting, wherein it is at our pleasure to fail: and then will they adventure upon the exploit themselves : which they shall have no sooner achieved but we'll set upon them,
P. Hen. Ay, but ’tis like that they will know us, by our horses, by our habits, and by every other appointment, to be ourselves.
Poins. Tut! our horses they shall not see, I'll tie them in the wood ; our vizards we will change after we leave them; and, sirrah, I have cases of buckram for the nonce, to immask our noted outward garments.
P. Hen. But I doubt they will be too hard for us.
Poins. Well, for two of them, I know them to be as truebred cowards as ever turned back ; and for the third, if he fight longer than he sees reason, I'll forswear arms. The virtue of this jest will be the incomprehensible lies that this same fat rogue will tell us when we meet at supper : how thirty, at least, he fought with ; what wards, what blows, what extremities he endured ; and in the reproof of this lies
P. Hen. Well, I'll go with thee; provide us all things necessary, and meet me to-night in Eastcheap; there I'll sup. Farewell. Poins. Farewell, my lord.
NOTES. O'clock, of (the) clock.
ends with the sound of s, or the At Gadshill, in Kent, about three miles following noun begins with s; and
from Rochester, on the London road. especially with 'sake.' Vizards, visors : lit. the opening in All-hallown summer : like 'latter spring,'
the helmet for seeing through; hence summer as at All-hallow, or Allthe whole mask or face-covering. saints' day, the first day of NovemFrench visière, from Lat. visum (to ber. see).
Our habits, clothes, garments. Fr. Gadzhin lies, &c. This is one of the habit, Lat. habitus, from habitum company.
(to have, hold). Eastcheap, a street in London, in which Appointment, equipment, part of our was the famous Boar's Head Tavern.
get-up. Yedward, for Edward. Cf. 'yale' Buckram, coarse linen cloth stiffened (ale), “yarbs' (herbs), &c.
with glue. For recreation sake. The poss. inflec- Noted, known.
tion is dropt. This often happens Turned back. 'Back'is the noun, not when either the noun in the poss. adverb here.
A DOUBLE ROBBERY EXECUTED: FALSTAFF AFOOT. (From The First Part of King Henry IV., Act II., Scene ii.)
:- The Highway, near Gadshill. Enter PRINCE HENRY and POINS; BARDOLPH and PETO at
some distance. Poins. Come, shelter, shelter; I have removed Falstaff's horse, and he frets like a gummed velvet. P. Hen. Stand close.
[They retire. Enter FALSTAFF. Fal. Poins ! Poins, and be hanged ! Poins !
P. Hen. (coming forward). Peace, ye fat-kidneyed rascal ! what a brawling dost thou keep !
Fal. Where's Poins, Hal ?
P. Hen. He is walked up to the top of the hill ; I'll go seek him.
Retires. Fal. I am accursed to rob in that thief's company: the rascal hath removed my horse, and tied him I know not where. If I travel but four foot by the squire further afoot, I shall break my wind. Well, I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this, if I scape hanging for killing that rogue. I have forsworn his company hourly any time this two-andtwenty year, and yet I am bewitched with the rogue's company. If the rascal have not given me medicines to make me love him, I'll be hanged; it could not be else; I have drunk medicines.—Poins !—Hal!-A plague upon you both! -Bardolph !—Peto !—I'll starve, ere I'll rob a foot further. An't were not as good a deed as drink, to turn true man, and leave these rogues, I am the veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. Eight yards of uneven ground is threescore and ten miles afoot with me; and the stony-hearted villains know it well enough : A plague upon’t, when thieves cannot be true one to another! [They whistle.] Whew !-A plague light upon you all! Give me my horse, you rogues ; give ine my horse, and be hanged !
P. Hen. (coming forward). Peace, ye fat paunch! lie down ; lay thine ear close to the ground, and list if thou can hear the tread of travellers.
Fal. Have you any levers to lift me up again, being down? 'Sblood, I'll not bear mine own flesh so far afoot again, for all the coin in thy father's exchequer. What a plague mean ye to colt me thus ?
P. Hen. Thou liest; thou art not colted, thou art uncolted.
Fal. I prithee, good prince Hal, help me to my horse, good king's son.
P. Hen. Out, ye rogue ! shall I be your ostler ?
Fal. Go, hang thyself in thine own heir-apparent garters ! If I be ta’en, I'll peach for this. An I have not ballads made on you all, and sung to filthy tunes, let a cup of sack be my poison: when a jest is so forward, and afoot too! I hate it.