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Ald Seaxum, of Anglum, of Old Saxons, from the Angles, Iotum. Of Iotum comon from the Jutes. From the Cantwara and Wihtwara, Jutes came the Kent people thæet is seo megth the and the Wight people, that is nu eardath on Wiht, and the tribe that now dwelleth in thæet cyn on West Sexum Wight, and that race among the man nu git hæt Iutna the West Saxons that one now cynn. Of Eald Seaxum yet calls the Jutes' race. From coman East Seaxa, and the Old Saxons came the East Suth Sexa, and West Sexa. Saxons, and the South Saxons, Of Angle comon - sea and the West Saxons. From syththan stod westig betwix Angel—which ever since has Iutum and Seaxum — East stood waste betwixt the Jutes Engla, Middel Angla, and the Saxons-came the East Mearca, and ealla North- Angles, the Middle Angles, the hymbra. Heora heretogan Mercians, and all the Northwäron twegen gebrothra, umbrians. Their leaders were Hengest and Horsa. Thæt two brothers, Hengest and wäron Wihtgilses suna ; Horsa. They were Wihtgils” Wihtgils wäs Witting, sons; Wihtgils was Witta's Witta Wecting, Wecta son, Witta Wecta’s son, Wecta Wodning. Fram than Woden's son. From (that) Wodne awoc eall ure Woden sprang all our kingly cynecynn, and Suthanhymbra kin, and the Southumbrians' eac.


NOTES. An., for 'anno,' 'in the year.'

Ebbsfleet in the isle of Thanet, N.E. Her, here, now; adv. of place used as corner of Kent.

adv. of time. Cf. 'her-æfter,' here- | Pyhtas, the Picts or Caledonians, occuafter, after now. The Chronicle pying the country N. of the Forth. also often has 'on thissum (thisum, | Secgan: cg is for £g; pronounce as or this) geare; ' and not unfrequently l 'seggan.' both expressions together: 'her on | Brytwalana, of the Brito-Welsh, or of thissum geare.'

the British strangers. The English Martianus was emperor of the east called the people of Britain Welsh,

division of the Roman world, 450 | meaning Strangers. (So the Ger457 A.D. He began life as a com mans call the Italians die Wälschen mon soldier.

---that is, the strangers, foreigners.) Valentinian II. was emperor of the The British called themselves, col. west, 425-455.

lectively, not Welsh, but Kymry. Wyrtgeorn, or Vortigern, was the most of Ald Seaxam. The Old Saxons,

powerful British (= Welsh) king of the Saxons of the continent, dwelt those days.

between the lower course of the Heopwines fleot, or Ypwines fleot, is ! Elbe and the Ems.

Of Anglum. The Angles or English | dint of very hard fighting, they

occupied the south of modern Den slowly extended their borders west mark and Schleswig-Holstein.

and north ; and at last Wessex grew Of Iotum. The Jutes or Goths held into the kingdom of all England.

the north-nearly the whole-of the Angle, Angel. The district between mainland of modern Denmark, as Flensburg and Schleswig-the heart well as a considerable part of the of the land of the Angles—is called south of Sweden.

Angeln to this day. Cantwara .. .. Iutna cynn. The Jutes East Engla. The East Angles (or

settled in Kent (east and west king English) peopled East Anglia (or doms), the Isle of Wight, and the England), the modern Norfolk (the coast of Hampshire (449-.... A.D.). north folk) and Suffolk (the south Their chief town was the capital of

capital of folk). East Kent, Cant-wara-byrig, Kent Middel Angla, Mearca. The Middle men's-borough, now Canterbury. Angles (or English) were settled to Nu (eardath on Wiht). Now' means the west of East Anglia. Thus they

in the time of Bæda ;' for this part became borderers on the Welsh, of the Engl. Chron. is based on the and were called Marchmen, MerChurch History i of Bæda ('the cians. They gradually absorbed the Venerable Bede'), who lived in the middle of England, from the Humber last quarter of the 7th and the first to the Thames, and from East Anglia half of the 8th century.

to beyond the Severn. East Seaxa. The Saxons that settled Northhymbra. The land of the North

in Essex were called the East umbrians (547–.... A.D.) stretched Saxons; their chief town was Col N. of the Humber as far as the Forth, chester. A part of these, called the and half across the island. Edinburgh Middle Saxons, held Middlesex, is the burgh founded by and named with London for chief town.

after Edwin, the great Northumbrian Suth Sexa. The South Saxons were king. The chief town was York

those that landed under Ella and (Eoforwic, Lat. Eboracum). his son Cissa at the Roman town Heretoga, leader, general, duke. Cf. Regnum (English Cissanceaster, Ger. herzog. From 'here' (army, Chichester, camp or city of Cissa), | host), and "teôn' (pres. indic. and took possession of the country 'teôge,' to tug, draw, lead). between the two Jute settlements Hengest, Horsa. Both names mean (477–491 A.D.). Sussex keeps their 'horse.' "The horse is now the name.

badge of Kent, as you may see to West Sexa. The West Saxons landed this day on any sack of Kentish

at Portsmouth under Cerdic and his hops' (Freeman). son Cynric, took Winchester, and Thæt. Cf. one of the uses of 'it.' established the kingdom of Wessex | Witting, Wecting, Wodning. 'Son of in Hampshire (495-519 A.D.). Byl is expressed by the suffix '-ing.'

THE FIGHT OF BRUNANBURH. This ode is the earliest and the greatest of the poetic outbursts in the Chronicle.

Brunanburh was somewhere in the north of England. Here Æthelstan and Edmund (see Notes) gained a splendid victory over Constantine, king of the Scots, and Anlaf, a Danish king from Ireland. Five Danish kings, seven earls (or jarls), and Constantine's son, with 'countless fighting men, fleetmen, and Scots,' were among the slain.

AN. DCCCC.XXXVII. ... Feld dennade secga swate, siththan sunne up, on morgen tid, mære tungol, glad ofer grundas, Godes candel beorht, eces Drihtnes, oth seo æthele gesceaft sah to setle ....

937 A.D. ... The field streamed 25 with warriors' sweat,

since the sun up, at morning tide, glorious star, glided over grounds, God's candle bright, the eternal Lord's, till the noble creature sank to (her) 3 settle. ...


.... Tha gebrothor, begen ætsomne, cyning and ætheling, cyththe sohton, West-seaxna land, wiges hremige. Leton him behindan, hrâ brittigan, salowig padan thone sweartan hræfn, hyrned nebban, and thone hasupadan earn æftan hwit, æses brucan, grædigne guthhafoc, and thæt græge deor, wulf on wealde. Ne wearth wal mare on thys iglande æfre gyta folces gefylled beforan thyssum sweordes ecgum, .... siththan eastan hider Engle and Seaxe up becomon, ...

.... The brothers,

both together, 115 king and prince,

(their) kith sought,
the West-Saxons' land,
in the war exulting.

Left they behind them, 120 corpses to share,

the sable-coated
the swart raven,

and the ash (-coloured)-coated 125 erne* aft5 white,

carrion to eat,
the greedy war-hawk,
and that gray deer,

the wolf of the weald.? 130 Not was slaughter more

in this island
ever yet
of folk felled

before this
135 with sword's edges, ....

since from the east hither

Angles and Saxons 140 up came. ...

1 Blood. 2 Time.' 3 The sun (sunne) is fem. in Old English ; now it is personified as masc. 4 Eagle. 5 Behind. 6 Beast (generally). 7 Wold, forest.

NOTES. 115. King. Æthelstan, son of Edward | 116. Cyththe, kith, country, home, the

the Elder, and grandson of Alfred, place (more particularly) known reigned 925–940 A.D.

(cuth, from 'cunnan,' to know). Ætheling, prince : son of the (pre- 126. Brucan, to eat, enjoy ; later, to

eminently) æthele or noble man' bear, endure, brook. (cf. Witting,' &c., last note to 128. Deor, deer, animal generally. Cf. preceding extract). This is the old Shak., K. Lear, iï. 4: 'mice and name for ‘Prince,' 'Crown Prince,' rats, and such small deer' (animals). or 'Heir-Apparent.' Robert of So, the regular word for 'animal' Gloucester (about 1300 A.D.) ex- in German is thier; in Danish, plains that 'whoso were next king by birth, people call him Athelyng:' ||


WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. MILLESIMO . LXXXVII.--. .. Se 1087. A.D.-- .:. The King cyng Willelm the we embe William that we speak about specath wæs swithe wis man, was a very wise man, and very and swithe rice, and wurthfulre powerful, and more dignified and strengere thonne ænig his and stronger than any of his foregenggal wäre. He was milde predecessors were. He was tham godum mannum the God mild to the good men that lufedon, and ofer eall gemett loved God, and over all measure stearc 2 tham mannum the with severe to the men that gaincwadon his willan. .... said his will. .... Also Eac he wæs swythe wurthful: he was very dignified : thriwa he bær his cynehelm 3 thrice he bare his crown ælce geare, swa oft swa he wæs each year, as oft as he was on Englelande. On Eastron he in England. At Easter he hine bær on Winceastre, on bare it in Winchester, at Pentecosten on Westmynstre, Pentecost in Westminster, at on Midewintre on Gleaweceas- Midwinter in Gloucester. .... tre. .... Swilce he wæs eac So he was also a very swythe stearc man and ræthe, stark man and fierce, SO swa that man ne dorste nan that nobody durst do thing ongean his willan dôn. one thing against his He hæfde eorlas on his bend. will. He had earls in his um, the dydan ongean his bonds, that did against his willan ; biscopas he sætte of will; bishops he cast from hcora biscoprice, and abbodas their bishoprics, and abbots of heora abbodrice, and thægnas from their abbacies, and thanes

1 Foregoers. 2 Stark. 8 Royal helm.

on cweartern; and at nextan into prison; and at last he he ne sparode his agene brothor spared not his own brother Odo hêt.4 .... Betwyx oth- named Odo..... Among rum thingum nis na to for- other things is not to be forgytane thæt gode frith the he gotten the good peace that he macode on thisan lande ; swa made in this land ; so that a thæt ân man the himsylf aht man that had confidence in wæremihte faran ofer his rice himself might fare over his mid his bosum full goldes un- realm with his bosom full of gederad. And nan man ne gold, unhurt. And no man dorste slean otherne man, næfde durst slay another man, had he he næfre swa mycel yfel gedôn never so great evil done to the with thone otherne. . ... Wit- other. . . . . Certainly in his odlice on his timan hæfdon men time had men great hardship mycel geswinc and swithe man- and very many injuries. Castles ige teonan. Castelas he let he caused to be built, and poor wyrcean, and earme men swithe men to be greatly oppressed. swencean. .... He wæs on .... He was into covetousgitsunge befeallan, and grædi- ness fallen, and greediness he næsse he lufode mid ealle. He loved altogether. He set up a sætte mycel deor frith, and he great deer preserve, and he laid lægde laga thærwith, that swa down laws thereanent, that hwa swa sloge beort oththe whosoever slew hart or hind hinde, thæt hine man sceolde (that) him one should blind. blendian. He forbead tha heor. He forbade the harts, as also tas, swylce eac tha baras : swa the boars [to be slain]: as swithe he lufode tha headeôr, greatly he loved the tall deer swilce he wære heora fæder. as if he were their father. Also Eac he sætte be tham haran he set down concerning the thæt hi mosten freo faran. His hares that they must fare free. rice men hit mændon, and tha His powerful men moaned at earme men hit becêorodan : ac it, and the poor men murmured he (wæs] swa stith that he ne at it: but he [was] so obdurate rohte heora eallra nith, ac hi that he recked not of the hatred moston mid ealle thes cynges of them all, but they must wille folgian, gif hi woldon lib- wholly follow the king's will, ban, oththe land habban, oththe if they would live, or have eahta, oththe wel his sehta. land, or property, or even his Wala wa that ænig man sceolde peace. Alas! that any man modigan swa, hine sylf app should be so proud, himself

4 Hight. 5 Lit., that to himself was aught.

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