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THOMAS CARLYLE.—BORN 1795. THOMAS CARLYLE was born in Dumfriesshire, and studied at Edinburgh. After four years' labour in teaching he devoted his energies exclusively to literature.
Carlyle's most important works are these: Life of Schiller (1825), first contributed to the London Magazine in 1823–4; The French Revolution (1837); Sartor Resartus, which originally appeared, after not a few rejections elsewhere, in Fraser's Magazine (1833–4), and became a book in 1838; Chartism (1839); Past and Present (1843); Cromwell's Letters and Speeches (1845); Latter-day Pamphlets (1850); Biography of John Sterling (1851); and The History of Frederick the Great (1858–65). Add to these not a few important translations from the German (1824-7), especially Goethe's Wilhelm Meister (1824); and many miscellaneous articles of great literary value in various periodicals.
DISMISSAL OF THE RUMP. (From Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches, Part VII.) (The ‘Long Parliament' met on Nov. 3, 1640. "The Rump or Fag-end of it did not finally vanish till 16th March 1659–60.
Under pressure from the army, the Long Parliament was to be dis. solved and a new one summoned; and the last of a series of conferences on the subject was held at Whitehall, April 19, 1653, 'above twenty leading members of parliament being present, and many officers.' They parted late, able to settle on nothing except the engagement to meet here again to-morrow morning.']
Wednesday, 20th April 1653.—My Lord General accordingly is in his reception room this morning, ‘in plain black clothes and gray worsted stockings ;' he, with many officers : but few Members have yet come, though punctual Bulstrode and certain others are there. Some waiting there is; some impatience that the Members would come. The Members do not come : instead of Members, comes a notice that they are busy getting on with their Bill in the House, hurrying it double-quick through all the stages. Possible? New message that it will be Law in a little while, if no inter
position take place ! Bulstrode hastens off to the House : my Lord General, at first incredulous, does now also hasten off,—nay, orders that a Company of Musketeers of his own regiment attend him. Hastens off, with a very high expression of countenance, I think ;-saying or feeling : Who would have believed it of them? “It is not honest; yea, it is contrary to common honesty !'My Lord General, the big hour is come!
Young Colonel Sidney, the celebrated Algernon, sat in the House this morning; a House of some Fifty-three. Algernon has left distinct note of the affair ; less distinct we have from Bulstrode, who was also there, who seems in some points to be even wilfully wrong. Solid Ludlow was far off in Ireland, but gathered many details in afteryears; and faithfully wrote them down, in the unappeasable indignation of his heart. Combining these three originals, we have, after various perusals and collations and considerations, obtained the following authentic, moderately conceivable account:
"The Parliament sitting as usual, and being in debate upon the Bill with the amendments, which it was thought would have been passed that day, the Lord General Cromwell came into the House, clad in plain black clothes and gray worsted stockings, and sat down, as he used to do, in an ordinary place.' For some time he listens to this interesting debate on the Bill; beckoning once to Harrison, who came over to him, and answered dubitatingly. Whereupon the Lord General sat still, for about a quarter of an hour longer. But now the question being to be put, That this bill do now pass, he beckons again to Harrison, says, “This is the time; I must do it!" —and so 'rose up, put off his hat, and spake. At the first, and for a good while, he spake to the commendation of the Parliament for their pains and care of the public good ; but afterwards he changed his style, told
them of their injustice, delays of justice, self-interest, and other faults,'—rising higher and higher, into a very · aggravated style indeed. An honourable Member, Sir
Peter Wentworth by name, not known to my readers, and by me better known than trusted, rises to order, as we phrase it; says, “It is a strange language this; unusual within the walls of Parliament this ! And from a trusted servant, too; and one whom we have so highly honoured ; and one'-'Come, come !' exclaims my Lord General in a very high key, 'we have had enough of this '—and in fact my Lord General now blazing all up into clear conflagration, exclaims, ‘I will put an end to your prating,' and steps forth into the floor of the House, and clapping on his hat,' and occasionally stamping the floor with his feet,' begins a discourse which no man can report! He says—Heavens! he is heard saying : * It is not fit that you should sit here any longer! You have sat too long here for any good you have been doing lately. You shall now give place to better men !—Call them in !' adds he briefly to Harrison, in word of command : and some twenty or thirty' grim musketeers enter, with bullets in their snaphances ; grimly prompt for orders; and stand in some attitude of Carry-arms there. Veteran men : men of might and men of war, their faces are as the faces of lions, and their feet are swift as the roes upon the mountains —not beautiful to honourable gentlemen at this moment !
"You call yourselves a Parliament, continues my Lord General, in clear blaze of conflagration : “You are no Parliament; I say you are no Parliament ! Some of you are drunkards,' and his eye flashes on poor Mr Chaloner, an official man of some value, addicted to the bottle ;
some of you are and he glares into Harry Marten, and the poor Sir Peter, who rose to order, lewd livers both ; 'living in open contempt of God's commandments.