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Ran Colle our dogge, and Talbot, and Garlond,
And Malkyn, with a distaf in hire hond;
Ran cow and calf, and eek the verray hogges
So were they fered 1 for’ berkyng of the dogges

565
And schowting of the men and wymmen eke,
Thay ronnë 3 so hem thoughte here hertë breke. 4
They zelleden as feendës doon 5 in helle ;
The dokes 6 criden as men7 wolde hem quelle ; 8
The gees for ferë 9 flowen 10 over 11 the trees ;

570 Out of the hyvës cam the swarm of bees ; So hidous was the noyse, a benedicite ! Certes he Jakkë Straw, and his meyné, 13 Ne maden never schoutës half so schrille, Whan that thay wolden eny Flemyng kille,

575 As thilke day was maad upon the fox. Of bras thay broughten beemës, 13 and of box, Of horn, of boon, 14 in which thay blewe and powpede And therwithal thay schrykede and thay howpede ; 15 It semede as that heven schuldë falle.

580 THE TABLES TURNED. Now, goodë men, I praye zou herkneth alle ; Lo, how fortunë torneth sodeinly The hope and pride eek of hire enemy! This cok that lay upon this foxës bak, In al his drede, unto the fox he spak, And saide : “Sire, if that I were as ze, Zet schulde I sayn (as wis 16 God helpë me), Turneth azein, ze proudë cherles 17 alle ! A verray pestilens upon zow falle! Now I am come unto this woodës syde,

590 Maugre 18 zoure heed, the cok schal heer abyde; I wol him ete in faith, and that anoon.' The fox answerde, ‘In faith, it schal be doon.' And as he spak that word, al sodeinly This cok brak from his month delyverly, 19 And heigh upon a tree he fleigh anoon.

And whan the fox seigh 20 that he was i-goon, 21 'Feared, frightened. 2 By, because of. 3 Ran. So (that) them thought (to them seemed) their heart to break. 5 Do. 6 Ducks. 7 Man, onc, people. "Quell, kill. 9 Fear. 10 Flew. 11 Pronounce o'er. 12 Many, multitude, followers. " Trumpets. 14 Bone. 15 Whooped. 16 Truly. 17 Churls, fellows. 18 In spite of "Quickly. 20 Saw. 21 Gone.

585

595 600

605

• Allas !' quod he, O Chaunteclere, allas !
I have to zow,' quod he, 'y-don1 trespás,
In-as-moche as I makede zow aferd,
Whan I 30w hente, and brouzte out of the gerd ; 3
But, sire, I dede 4 it in no wikke entente ; 5
Com doun, and I schal telle 30w what I mente.
I schal zou seyë soth, God help me so.'
‘Nay than,' quod he, ‘I schrewe? us bothe tuo,
And first I schrewe myself, bothe blood and boones,
If thou bigile me any ofter than oones.
Thou schalt no morë, thurgh thy flaterye,
Do 8 me to synge and wynkë with myn eye.
For he that wynketh, whan he scholde see,
Al wilfully, God let him never the !'9
“Nay,' quod the fox, “but God zive him meschaunce,
That is so undiscret of governaunce,
That jangleth 10 whan he scholdë holde his pees.'
Lo, such it is for to be recheles, 11
And necgligent, and truste on flaterie.

610

615

1 Done. 2 A feard, afraid. 3 Yard, inclosure. 4 Did. intent. 6(To) you say sooth (truth). 7 Beshrew, curse. 9 Thrive. 10 Prateth, talks. 11 Reckless, heedless.

With no wicked 8 Cause, induce.

NOTES. 462. Anon, or anoon, anon: lit. in one the one (particular occasion). The (instant).

n beginning 'noones,' 'nonce,' be473. Boece, Boethius (470-524 A.D.), a longs to the def. article; the proper

famous Roman statesman and author. form would be ‘for then oones,' See Gibbon (below). He enjoyed for the(n) once.' Older English great fame as a philosopher down to gives for than (or then) anes,' which the 14th century. His celebrated work shews the genitive inflection, now De Consolatione Philosophiæ was obscured in 'nonce.' Older still is turned into English by King Alfred, the dat. form, 'for tham anum.' and also by Chaucer. Chaucer's Then was transferred from the poetry shews that his mind was article by the end of the 12th censaturated with it, and, when near tury. Cf. noumpere (=an umpire), death, he thanked 'our Lord Jesus Langley, Piers the Plowman, PasChrist, and his mother, and all the sus V., 181, note; also newt (=an saints in heaven,' for his translation ewt), and nuncle (Shak., K. Lear). of it. It is in alternate verse and 513. Daun, Dan, Lord, Master : a title

prose. Boethius also wrote on Music. prefixed to names of persons, especi502. Tresoun, treason. 0. Fr. trarson ally of monks and poets. Lat.

(mod. Fr. trahison), Lat. tradi Dominus. Cf. Span. Don.-

tionem, from trado (deliver up). Russel. The fox is so called from 512. For the noones, for the nonce, for his russet or reddish-brown colour.

516. Sewed, followed, pursued. The He was the son of Achilles, the simple verb sue' is now of less | bravest of the Greeks before Troy, general application; cf. suit, suite. and the chief hero of the Iliad. See

0. Fr. sewir, Lat. sequi (follow). Verg. Æn. ii. 491, and following. 519. The night before, Chanticleer - Streite, drawn; Lat. strictus.

dreamed a very ugly dream, and in For the modification, compare Lat. the morning he was somewhat down factum, Fr. fait, Eng. feat; Lat. hearted about it: he 'gan gronen in biscoctus, Fr. and Eng. biscuit; his throte. His wife, Madame Lat. fructus, Fr. and Eng. fruit. Pertelote' (Dame Partlet), rated him 537. Hent kyng Priam, &c. See Verg. soundly for his cowardice, and ex- | Æn. ii. 552-3. Priam was king of pressed herself very contemptuously Ilium or Troy. about the prophetic character of 559. Harrow! Wayleway! Cries of dreams (lines 88 ... 98-102): 1 distress. "" Away!" quod sche, “fy on

q» quod sche cofv on 573. Jack Straw, a priest, led the zow, herteles !....

insurgents of Essex in the peasant How dorste 3e sayn for schame

revolt headed by Wat Tyler in 1381. unto your love,

575. Flemyng. The insurgents killed That any thing mighte make Zow

many Flemings, who were settled in aferd ?

London and dealt in cloth.
Han ge no mannes herte, and

591. Maugre, Fr. malgré, against the han a berd?

will of, in spite of : from mal (ill) Allas ! and konne Ze ben agast of

and gré (will, pleasure); Lat, malum,

gratum.
swevenys (dreams)?
Nothing, God wot, but vanité,

599. Trespas, trespass, wrong: from in sweven is.”

0. Fr. trespasser (go beyond due

bounds), from Lat. trans (beyond) And she went on confidently to and passus (step).

assign a purely physical explanation. 612. Meschaunce, mischance. From 534-5. Ory. .. lamentacioun , .. of 0. Fr. negative prefix mes (from

ladies. See Vergil, Æneid, üi. 486-8, Lat. minus), and 0. Fr. chéance, 535. Tlioun, Ilion, Ilium, Troy; a town Fr. chance, from Lat. cadentia,

of Asia Minor, taken by the Greeks from cado (fall): lit. what falls out (through the stratagem of the Wooden ill. “Mes' is now assimilated in Horse), after a famous siege of ten form to the native prefix 'mis,' but years. This Trojan war supplies they must not be confounded. So

the incidents of Homer's Iliad. misadventure, mischief, miscreant, 536. Pirras, Pyrrhus or Neoptolemus. misnomer, misprision, &c.

JOHN FORTESCUE.-1395–1485. Sir JOHN FORTESCUE was Chief Justice of the King's Bench under Henry VI. (1442–1461). After the battle of Towton (1461), he went into exile with Henry, who appointed him tutor to the Prince of Wales, and made him (nominally) Lord Chancellor. He was taken prisoner at Tewkesbury (1471), and pardoned by Edward IV., whose praises he sings in his book on 'Monarchy'(Chap. XIX.).

He wrote a Latin treatise De Laudibus Legum Anglia (On the Excellencies of the Laws of England) in the reign of Henry VI. ; and a work in English, The Difference between an Absolute and a Limited Monarchy, as it more

particularly regards the English Constitution, in the reign of Edward IV. In matter, the two books are often very like each other. Fortescue delights to glorify the English law and the English people, and he makes the French figure very wretchedly in contrast.

OF ABSOLUTE AND LIMITED MONARCHY.

CHAP. III.
Hereafter be schewyd, the Frutes of Jus Regale, 1 and the

Frutes of Jus Politicum & Regale.2 And hou so be it, that the French Kyng reynith upon his People Dominio Regali ;3 Yet Saynt Lewes sumtyme Kyng ther, ne any of his Progenytors set never Talyse or other Impositions, upon the People of that Lond, without the Assent of the three Astatts, which whan thay be assemblid ar like to the Court of Parlement in Englond. And this order kept many of his Successours until late days, that Englishmen made such a War in Fraunce, that the three Estats durst not come to geders. And than for that Cause and for grete Necessite which the French Kyng had of goods, for the defence of that Lond, he took upon hym to set Talys and other Impositions upon the Commons, without the Assent of the three Estats ; but yet he would not set any such chargs, nor hath set upon the Nobles, for feare of rebellion. And because the Commons, though they have grutchid, have not rebellid or be hardy to rebell, the French Kyngs have yearly sythen, sett such chargs upon them, and so augmented the same chargis, as the same Commons be so impoverishid and distroyyd, that they may unnetho lyve. Thay drynke Water, thay eate Apples, with Bred right brown made of Rye. Thay eate no Flesche, but if 10 it be selden," a litill Larde, or of the Entrails, or Heds of Bests sclayne 12 for the Nobles, and Merchaunts of the Lond. They weryn no Wollyn, 13 but if it be a pore Cote 14 under their uttermost Garment, made of grete 15 Canvas, and cal it a Frok. Their Hosyn be of like Canvas, and passen not their Knee ; wherfor they be gartrid and their Thyghs bare. Their Wifs and Children gone bare fote; they may in non otherwyse lyve. For sum of them, that was wonte to pay to his Lord for his Tenement, which he hyrith by the Yere, a Scute, 16

1 Law Royal. 2 Law Politic and Royal. 3 By Lordship royal. 4 Tailles, tallage, taxes. 5 Estates. 6 Together. 7 Grumbled, grudged. 8 Since. 'Scarcely. 10 But if = except, unless. 11 Seldom. 12 Slain. 13 Woollen (noun). 14 Poor coat. 15 Great, coarse. 16 Crown. .

payyth now to the Kyng, over that Scute, fyve Skuts. Wher thrugh? they be artyd3 by necessite, so to watch, labour, and grub in the Ground, for their Sustenaunce, that their nature is much wastid, and the Kynd of them brought to nowght. They gone crokyd,4 and ar feble, not able to fyght, nor to defend the Realme; nor they have wepon, nor monye to buy them wepon withal; but verely thay lyvyn in the most extreme Povertie and Myserye, and yet thay dwellyn, in one, the most fertile Realme of the World : wher thrugh the French Kyng hath not Men of his owne Realme, able to defend it, except his Nobles, which beryn non such Impositions; and therfor thay ar ryght likely of their Bodys, by which cause the said Kyng is compellid to make his Armys, and Retennys for the defence of his Land, of Straungars, as Scotts, Spaniards, Arragonars, Men of Almayn, and of other Nacions, els al his Ennymys might overrenne6 hym. For he hath no Diffence of his own, excepte his Castells, and Fortrasis. Loo this the frute of hys Jus Regale. Yf the Realme of Englond, which is an Ile, and therefor may not lightly get Socoures? of 8 other Londs, were rulid under such a Lawe, and under such a Prince, it would be than a Pray to all other Nacions that would conquere, robbe, and devouer yt; which was well prouvydo in the tyme of the Brytons, whan the Scotts and the Pyctes, so bette and oppressyd this Lond, that the People thereof sought helpe of the Romayns, to whom they had byn Trybutorye. And whan thay could not be defendyd by them, they sought helpe of the Duke of Brytayne, than callid Litil Brytayne, and grauntyd therfor, to make his Brother Constantine their Kyng. And so he was made Kyng heere, and raynyd many Yers, and his Children after hym, off which grete Arthure, was one of their Yssue. But blessid be God, this Lond ys rulid under a better Lawe, and therfor the People therof be not in such penurye, nor therby hurt in their Persons, but thay be wealthye and have al thyngs necessarye, to the sustenaunce of Nature. Wherfor thay be myghty, and able to resyste 10 the Adversariis of the Realme, and to bett other Realmes, that do or will do them wrong. Loo this is the Frute of Jus Politicum & Regale, under which we lyve. Sumwhat now I have schewyd you of the Frutys of both Lawys, Ut ex fructibus eorum cognoscatis eos, &c.11

1 Besides, in addition to. 2 Wherethrough, whereby. 3 Pressed, forced. 4 Go crooked, walk bent. 5 Germany. 6Overrun. 7 Succours. 8 From. Proved. 10 Resist. 11 So that by their fruits ye may know them, &c.

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