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NOTES. Be. Fortescue uses also 'beth' (the mons in general were the depend

old 'beoth'). 'Are' is Scandi- ents of the nobles, and the town navian.

deputies were not raised to a really Schewyd, shewed. For ed,' the ending equal voice with the nobles till

‘yd' or 'id' used. Many similar later, by a bold innovation of St

capricious spellings will be noticed. Lewis's grandson, Philip the Fair Jus Regale. Under this, the prince (1285–1314).

"may rule his people by such laws Estate' is from Old Fr. estat as he maketh himself' (Chap. I.) (mod. Fr. état), from Lat. statum an absolute monarchy.

(condition, position, state), from Jus Politicum et Regale. Under this, stare (to stand). The prefixed e is

the prince 'may not rule his people a modification of i, which the vulgar by other laws than such as they Latin put before sc, sm, sp, st, in assent unto' (Chap. I.)-a limited the fifth and sixth centuries, to monarchy. 'Law Politic' is Law make the pronunciation easier. enacted by the will of the people or Parlement, the French form of 'Parliacitizens (Gr. polītēs, a citizen, in- ment;' from Fr. parler (to speak):

habitant of a polis, city,' or state). the fact of talking about or disSaynt Lowes. Lewis IX. of France, cussing things; and hence, specially,

who reigned 1226-70, was called the fa of considering the affairs St Lewis; 'and most rightly so of the nation. Whence = the place, called, for he was perhaps the best and the assembly. Milton wrote king that ever reigned, unless it * Parlament.' were our own Alfred' (Freeman). A War in Fraunce : the Hundred Years' He led the seventh crusade, and

War. This began in 1338, and went was engaged in the eighth at his on intermittently till the middle of death.

next century. Ne . . . never. We have already seen To geders, together. From old gade

examples of denial by two, three, rian, to gather. and even four negatives.

Than, another form of "then ; ' now Talys, tailles, tallies, tallage, taxes. used only as adv. of degree (com.

Originally, similar pieces of wood parison) : greater than,' 'less with reckonings scored or notched than,' &c. upon them, kept by debtor and Necessite is the transition form from creditor ; hence, kept by vassal and Fr. nécessi-(from Lat. necessilord in the case of taxes or tribute. tatem) to 'necessi-ty.' From Lat. talea (a green stick, a He would not set ... upon the Nobles, shoot newly cut), through Fr. taille


Cf.: 'The Kyng ther in the (lit. a cutting, section).

Realme of Fraunce) askyth never Astatts, Estates, conditions, orders, Subsyde of (subsidy from) his Nobles,

classes; 'that is, representatives of for drede that if he chargyd them so, the different classes of freemen in thay would confedre (confederate) the nation. These, in most coun

with the Comons, and peraventure tries, were counted as three-Nobles, putt hym downe' (Chap. XII.) Clergy, and Commons-the Com- Have not rebellid or &c. Cf.: Which mons generally being only the (to rebel) the Comons of Fraunce do citizens of the towns' (Freeman). not, nor may (can) do ; for thay have Here the three Estates must be no Wepon, nor Armor, nor Good to taken somewhat loosely; the com

bye (buy) it withall' (Chap. XII.);




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and below-'nor they have wepon,' escut; mod. Fr. écu), a shield, coat &c.

of arms, crown; from Lat. scutum Be hardy, bold, spirited, courageous. (shield).

Povertie onely is not the Artyd, from Lat. ar(c)tus, squeezed, Cause, why the Comons of Fraunce pressed, forced. rise not ageyn (against) their Sover- Most extreme. ‘Extreme' is already yng Lord:... it is Cowardise superlative, though not in the usual and lack of Hartes and Corage,

English form. Lat. extremus, that kepith the Frenchmen from superl. of exter, or exterus (from rysyng, and not Povertie' (alone). ex, out of). (Chap XIII.)

One, the most fertile Realme is about Them One of the MSS. reads hem, the same

one of the most the older form.

fertile realms.' The apposition form So augmented . ... as. We should now

has now given way to the partitive say 'so... that;' and this form form. Cf. Spenser, Faery Queene, I. occurs below.

iii. 37: 'He is one the truest knight May (unneth lyve). 'May'here means alive.' Shakspeare has examples ; can.'

One of the MSS. reads such as one the wisest prince' 'mowe,' here and throughout; cf. (Henry VIII., ii. 4). the extract from Mandeville, where straungars. 0. Fr. estranger (mod. both forms occur.

Fr. étranger), from estrange, from Unneth is the old un-eath-e, 'un- Lat. extraneus (from extra), an

easi-ly:' hence hardly, scarcely. outsider, foreigner, stranger. Werya, wear. In 3d plur. indic., For- Almayn, Germany. Fr. Allemagne,

tescue sometimes uses the ending Lat. Allemannia. *yn,' sometimes 'en' (cf. 'passen' Castells, castles. Lat. castellum, a in next sentence, and 'gone' in the fortified place, fort. next).

Fortrasis, fortresses, strongholds. Fr. Grete (canvas), great, gross, coarse. forteresse, from Lat. fortis (strong).

Compare More's Utopia, Book II. Socoures, succours. From Lat. suc. (Robinson's transl., Arber's reprint, curro (from sub, curro), run under, p. 88): 'As for the smalnesse or fine- so as to hold up or aid. nesse of the threde, that is no thinge The Scotts, who came from Ireland passed for' (regarded as of no con- about the end of the third century sequence).

A.D., and the Pyctes (Picts), or CaleHosyn, hosen, hose. Our only plural donians (called Peohtas in the Chron

noun in -en still remaining in good icle), held the country north of the use is 'oxen.'

Forth. Both were Keltic peoples. Sum (singular), some one, one; an indef. Trybutorye. Britain was held by the

selection of a representative person. Romans, 43-410 A.D. Tenement, Fr. ténément, Lat. tene- Litil Brytayne or Bretagne, Britannia

mentum, from tenere, to hold, Minor, Brittany, the north-west occupy: anything (lands, houses, corner of France. &c.) holden, held, or occupied ; a Off which . . . Yssue. Rectify syntax. holding.

Grete Arthure, says this mythical hisScute, a crown, a French gold coin tory, was son of Uther Pendragon,

worth 38. 4d. O. Fr. escu (orig. one of Constantine's three sons.

The whole chapter may be re-written, with special attention to

improved construction of Sentence and Paragraph.


WILLIAM DUNBAR.–1460 ?-1520? WILLIAM DUNBAR is the greatest name in English poetry between Chaucer and Spenser; indeed, Sir Walter Scott speaks of him as “the excellent poet, unrivalled by any which Scotland has produced.' He was a native of Lothian, studied in St Salvator's College, St Andrews (B.A. 1477, and M.A. 1479), begged for a while in the garb of a Franciscan friar, and thereafter spent much time at the Scottish court in vain hopes of a fat benefice. In 1500, James IV. gave him a pension of £10 Scots (about £3 English), which was doubled in 1507, and raised to £80 in 1510.

Dunbar's extant pieces are all short. One of the greatest, and certainly the most elaborate, is The Goldyn Targe, 1508, a fine allegorical description of the gradual succumbing of Reason to the persistent attacks of Love. With it may be ranked The Thistle and the Rose, 1503, an allegorical poem on the nuptials of James IV. and Margaret Tudor, and The Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins.

Bright as the star of day began to shine,
When gone to bed were Vesper and Lucine,

I raise, and by a rosere 2 did me rest ;
Up sprang the golden candle matutine,3
With clear depurit 4 beamës crystalline,

5 Gladding the merry fowlis in their nest,

Ere Phæbus was in purple cape revest ;5
Up rose the lark, the heavens' minstrel fine,

In May, in till 6 a morrow mirthfullest. 1 Rose. 2 Arbour of roses. 3 Of the morning. 4 Purified. 5 Dressed, attired. 6 In-to, upon.

* The spelling is largely modernised in this extract; and it will be modernised, where necessary, in all extracts following.


Full angel-like these 1 birdis sang their hours 2
Within their curtains green, in to 3 their bowers,

Apparellit white and red with bloomës sweet;
Enamellit was the field with all colours ;
The pearly droppis shook in silver showers,

While all in balm did branch and leavis fleet:

To part from Phæbus did Aurora greet ;6 Her crystal tears I saw hang on the flowers,

Which 6 he for love all drank up with his heat.




For mirth of May, with skippis and with hops,
The birdis sang upon the tender crops,

With curious notes, as Venus' chapel clerks ;
The roses young, new spreading of their knops,?
Were powderit bright with heavenly beryl drops,

Through beamës red, burning as ruby sparks ;

The skyës rang for shouting of the larks ; The purple heaven, o'erscalit 8 in silver slops, 9

O'ergilt the treeïs, branches, leaves, and barks.


Down through the ryce 10 a river ran with streams
So lustily again(st) those 11 lykand 12 leams,13

That all the lake as lamp did leam 14 of light 30
Which 6 shadowit all about with twinkling gleams ;
That boughis bathit were in fecund beams

Through the reflex of Phæbus' visage bright.

On every side the hedges rose on height ; The bank was green, the brook was full of breams, 15 35

The stanners 16 clear as stars in frosty night.

The crystal air, the sapphire firmament,
The ruby skyës of the orient,

Cast beryl beams on emerant 17 boughis green;
The rosy garth depaynt 18 and redolent,


1 Thir (in original). 2 Orisons. 3 In, within.

4 Float.

5 Weep. Orig. quhilk. 7 Buds. 8 Spilt, poured over, overflowing. 'Or slaps, breaches (as in a wall). 10 Long branches (cf. Ger. reis, twig), hence trees or bush 11 Orig. thai. 12 Grateful, pleasing. 13 Gleams, sunbeams. 14 Gleam, shine. 15 Fishes. 18 Gravel, small stones in the bed of the river. 17 Emerald, verdant. 18 Painted.

With purple, azure, gold, and goulisl gent

Arrayed was by dame Flora the queen

So nobilly3 that joy was for to sene ;4 The rock again(st)5 the river resplendent

As low 6 enluminit7 all the leavës sheen.


What through the merry fowlis' harmony,
And through the river's sound that ran me by,

On Flora’s mantle I slepit as I lay ;
Where soon in to my dreamës fantasy
I saw approach again(st) the orient sky

A sail, as white as blossom upon spray, 8

With merse 9 of gold, bright as the star of day; Which tendit the land full lustily,

As falcon swift desirous of her prey.



And hard on board 10 unto the bloomit meads,
Among the greenë rispis 11 and the reeds,

Arrivit she, wherefrom anon there lands
An hundred ladies, lusty in to weeds,12
As fresh as floweris that in May up spreads,
In kirtles 13

green, withoutyn kell 12 or bands : Their bright hairis hang glittering on the strands In tresses clear, wyppit 15 with golden threads,

With pappis white, and middles 16 small as wands.


Describe I would, but who could well endite,
How all the fieldis with those lilies white

Depaynt were bright, which to the heaven did glete : 17
Not thou, Homèr, as fair as thou could write,
For all thine ornate stylis so perfyte ;1

Nor yet thou, Tullius, whose lippis sweet
Of rhetoric 19 did in till termës fleet:



4 See

1 Gules (a term of heraldry), red. 2 Elegant, pretty. 3 Nobly. (gerund), 5 Opposite to, facing. 6 Flame. 7 Illuminated. 8 Sprig, small twig or branch. 9 Mast. 10 Close on shore. 1 Coarse marsh-grass. 12 Pleasant in clothes, delightfully dressed. 13 Short jackets, or petticoats. 14

* Cowl, hood. 15 Bound, tied round. 16 Waists. 17 Glitter. 18 Perfect. 19 Oratory, the speaker's art.

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