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times. Sith' appears as prep. in the Scots, the Gaelic or Erse; the siththan' (after-that) ; later forms language of the Lowlands of which are ‘sithens,' 'sithence,' English. Gawain Douglas (about ‘sith,' since,' 'syn (sin, sen),' 1474—1522) was perhaps the first 'syne' (100). The common phrase native writer to apply the political 'syn syne' (since then) shews differ- term to the language, as if the lanent forms in different uses (prep., guage of the Scottish people (or and adv. for noun).

people in Scotland) were Scottish; 103. Guise is the same word as 'wise' so that there is not a little of the

(100). When the O. Ger. wisa was irony of fate in his being commemtaken into · French, Frenchmen orated by Sir David Lyndesay as could not pronounce it without put- ' in our English rhetoric the rose.' ting a g before the w (which was (See Dr J. A. H. Murray's Dialect eventually dropped in pronuncia- of the Southern Counties of Scot. tion), and so they made it guise. land, Introd., sect. 13, 14.) We have taken both forms. Cf. 256. Thou bears, 'beiris.'

We say war, Fr, guerre ; ward, guard; war- 'bearest'; but 'bears' (2d sing.) is rant, guarantee; wile, guile.

good Northern English. -Makers. 106. From the spleen. Now we should The poet (Gr. poiētës, Lat. poeta, say from the heart.'

a maker, from poiein, to make) is 132. Observance, playing, singing, &c., very commonly called a maker by in celebration of May. Cf. Chaucer, our older writers.

The name exThe Knight's Tale, 187, and note pressively suggests originating or (pp. 33, 34).

creative force, Sir Philip Sidney 252. Mirthful May, of every mon(e)th (Apologie for Poetrie, 1581) calls

Queen. The poet's enthusiasm for it a 'high and incomparable title.' May is unbounded, as becomes a Tennyson has : 'And she can make, professed disciple of Chaucer. Comp. and she can sing.' 82, “May, of 'mirthful monthis

259. Was thou. Cf. 256, note; also queen ;' and, generally, the whole 'thou could write' (67), and 'thou stanza (82—90).

has spent' (274). See (below) 253. Chaucer was Dunbar's ever-ad- Burns.

mired master. Note the epithet 262. John Gower (1340?–1408) and "reverend.'-Rhetors, poets; lit. John Lydgate (1380—1450 ?) are usu(public) speakers, orators, hence ally joined with Chaucer, when the composers in elevated language. tuneful brethren in Scotland sing the Cf. rhetoric' (270). So Sir D. praises of the great poets in the Lyndesay laments Bishop Gawain southern kingdom.--Moral. This Douglas as ' in our English rhetoric epithet, first applied by Chaucer, has the rose.

continued to stick to Gower. His 254. In our tongue. Compare

stories, however immoral, were inEnglish' (259), 'our rude language' tended to point a moral. (266), 'our speech' (267). Dunbar, 271. Quair, quire, book.

The most though writing in Scotland, clearly famous English poem of the 15th affirms that his language is English. century is entitled 'The King's By:Scottish,' in his day, was gene- Quhair,' or Book. It was written rally understood the language of (1424) by King James I.


THOMAS MORE.-1480-1535. Sir THOMAS MORE was the son of a judge of the Court of King's Bench. From being a page the household of Cardinal Morton, he became a student at Oxford, whence he proceeded to the bar, and soon rose to distinction. He sat in parliament in 1504; and by successfully opposing Henry VII.'s demand for a heavy subsidy, drew upon himself the resentment of the king. Under the smiles of Henry VIII., however, he advanced rapidly, becoming Chancellor on the fall of Wolsey in 1530. He was a staunch Roman Catholic, and would not follow Henry in breaking with Rome; and, as he refused to acknowledge the validity of the divorce of Catherine, and the king's remarriage with Anne Boleyn, he was beheaded in 1535.

More's chief work in English is a Life and Reign of Edward V., and of his Brother, and of Richard III., which has been very much praised. It was written probably about 1509; and a Latin version, which breaks off at Richard's coronation, is represented as the hasty work of the author some four years later (1513). The Utopia, written in Latin (1516), is 'the typical book of the Revival' of learning in the beginning of the 16th century. It describes an ideal state of society, anticipating many schemes of political, social, and religious reform, since carried into effect, and many others that are yet among the aspirations of advanced thinkers. More was also an energetic writer of controversial tracts directed against the Reform doctrines, and particularly against Tyndale.


(From The History of King Richard the Third.) [Richard, youngest son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was born at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire, 1452 ; was created Duke of Gloucester when his brother Edward became king, 1461; supplanted—tradition says murdered-his two nephews, and raised himself to the throne, 1483; and was killed at Bosworth in Leicestershire, in the last battle of the Roses, August 22, 1485, at the age of thirty-three. Bad as he must have been, his bad qualities, physical as well as moral, have certainly been much exaggerated, and his biographers, who wrote under his enemies the Tudors, would lead us to suppose that he had no good qualities at all. He was the last king of the House of York, and the last English sovereign of the line of the Plantagenets. He was one of our great soldier kings; and he is the only English sovereign since Harold that has fallen on the field of battle.]

Richard, the third son, . . . was in wit and courage equall with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both, little of stature, ill-featured of limbs, crook-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favoured of visage, and such as is in states called warly, in other men otherwise, he was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from afore his birth ever froward. It is for truth reported that ... he came into the world with the feet forward, ... and (as the fame runneth) also not untoothed, whether men of hatred report above the truth, or else that nature changed her course in his beginning, which in the course of his life many things unnaturally committed. None evil captain was he in the war, as to which his disposition was more meetly than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never in default as for his own person, either of hardiness or politic order, free was he called of dispence, and somewhat above his power liberal, with large gifts he got him unstedfast friendship, for which he was fain to pill and spoil in other places, and got him stedfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissimuler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly companionable where he inwardly hated, not letting to kiss whom he thought to kill : dispitious and cruel, not for evil will alway, but ofter for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much-what indifferent, where his advantage grew; he spared no man's death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower, as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the king, which would undoubtedly, if he had intended that

10f Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York. 2 His two surviving brothers, Edward IV., and George, Duke of Clarence. 3 Warlike.

thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

Some wise men also ween that his drift covertly conveyed lacked not in helping forth his brother of Clarence to his death : which he resisted openly, howbeit somewhat (as men deemed) more faintly than he that were heartily minded to his wealth. And they that thus deem think that he long time in king Edward's life forethought to be king in case that the king his brother (whose life he looked that evil diet should shorten) should happen to decease (as in deed he did) while his children were young. And they deem that for this intent he was glad of his brother's death the Duke of Clarence, whose life must needs have hindered him so intending, whether the same Duke of Clarence had kept him1 true to his nephew, the young king, or enterprised to be king himself. But of all this point is there no certainty, and whoso divineth upon conjectures may as well shoot too far as too short. Howbeit this have I by credible information learned, that the self night in which king Edward died, one Mistlebrook long ere morning came in great hasteż to the house of one Pottier dwelling in Redcross Street without Cripplegate : and when he was with hasty rapping quickly letten in, he showed unto Pottier that king Edward was departed. By my truth, man,' quod4 Pottier, 'then will my master the Duke of Gloucester be king.' What cause he had so to think, hard it is to say, whether he being toward him any thing knew that he such thing purposed, or otherwise had any inkling thereof : for he was not likely to speak it of nought.

Himself, Clarence. 2 Lat. ed. curriculo contendisse (drove in haste). *Lat. ed. eadem hora extinctum (that very hour departed). *Quoth.


The third son. More means the third admitting tautology for the sake of

surviving son; not reckoning the emphasis: 'let' = 'hindrance.' second son, Edmund, Earl of Rut- Whom. Antecedent, 'him' or 'those,' land, who was slain with his father omitted. at Wakefield in Yorkshire, Dec. 30, Dispitious, full of despite, resentment, 1460.

It has Equal. The original text has ‘egall,' nothing to do with piteous.

0. Fr. despit.

Cf. which shews the influence of Fr. dispiteous, Spenser, Faery Queene, égal (Lat. æquälis).

I. ii. 15, and Shak., K. John, IV. Limbs. Orig, 'limmes.' The 'b' is i. 34, note. an accretion in spelling: it is not Friend and foe was &c.

Why 'was' even pronounced. Cf. thumb. and not 'were ?' Observe also the Similarly we have 'number' (Lat. omission of an article with friend' numerus), 'humble' (Lat. humilis), and 'foe.' &c.

Much-what. Cf. 'somewhat.' In states, in men of high state or His wealth, his weal, his well-being.

estate, noblemen. The Lat. edition Lat. ed. has salutem. has in purpuratis. A little earlier, Edward's life. Orig. has ‘Edwardes the author says the three brothers life,' preserving the usual genitive were great states of birth’ (nobles inflection. Yet, two paragraphs by birth). Cf. Milton, Paradise earlier, it has also 'King Harry his Lost, ii. 386 :

life.' Cf. Layamon, Brut, 28,539, The bold design note. Pleased highly those infernal states.' His brother's death the Duke of Clarence. Fame. Lat. fama, report.

We do not postpone the adjunct ; of hatred, from, out of, prompted by, we say “his brother the Duke of hatred.

Clarence's death.' 'For King His beginning, which. We rather dis- Henry's sake the sixth' is another pense with the possessive here, so example from More.

See Langley, as to allow the relative 'which' to Piers the Plowman, Passus V. 185, come close to its antecedent: 'the and note (page 28). beginning of hin, which (= who) The self night, 'the same night;' &c.' Cf. (below): 'no man's death 'self' being anciently an adjective whose life' &c.

meaning 'same.' Cf. Cadmon, Par. Many things &c. The inversion of I., xxi. 128, note.

the usual order is probably due to Departed, one of the multitude of our the author's feeling of how it would euphemisms for 'dead.' The Lat. run in Latin.


says roughly extinctum-'exDissimuler has given way

to the tinguished,' 'quenched,' 'put or Frenchified 'dissembler.'

snuffed out:' literally 'pricked or Not letting, not hesitating, not restrain- punched out.' 'Dead' gives the ex

ing himself from. Cf. Isaiah xliii. act sense ; 'departed,''gone,''fallen 13: ‘I will work, and who shall let asleep,' 'passed away,' &c., are (thwart, hinder) it?' Shak., Twelfth more general expressions, more disNight, v. I: 'nothing lets (hinders) tantly and thus more softly and to make us happy.' So 2 Thess. ii. reverentially indicating the un7; &c. See also note to 'those that pleasant fact; the special nature of be unfittest' &c. pp. 72-3.

. Without the departing,''going,' &c., being let or hindrance' is a common phrase, inferred from the circumstances.

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