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The sentences may be improved ; much may be done even by better punctuation. The contrasts give some opportunity for balanced structure.-Compare Shakspeare's Tragedy of King Richard the Third.

UTOPIAN CONTEMPT OF GOLD. (From Utopia, Book II. : Robinson's Translation, 2d edit., 1556.)

The Ambassadors of the Anemolians came to Amaurote whiles I was there. And because they came to entreat of great and weighty matters, those three citizens apiece out of every city were come thither before them. But all the ambassadors of the next countries, which had been there before, and knew the fashions and manners of the Utopians, among whom they perceived no honour given to sumptuous apparell, silks to be contemned, gold also to be infamed and reproachful, were wont to come thither in very homely and simple array. But the Anemolians, because they dwell1 far thence, and had a very little acquaintances with them; hearing that they were all apparelled alike, and that very rudely and homely; thinking them not to have the things which they did not wear; being therefore more proud than wise; determined in the gorgeousness of their apparel to represent very gods, and with the bright shining and glistering of their gay clothing to dazzle the eyes of the silly poor Utopians. So there came in three ambassadors with an hundred servants all apparelled in changeable colours; the most of them in silks ; the ambassadors themselves (for at home in their own country they were noblemen) in cloth of gold, with great chains of gold, with gold hanging at their ears, with gold rings upon their fingers, with brooches and aglets of gold upon their caps, which glistered full of pearls and precious stones : to be short, trimmed and adorned with all those things which among

1 The Lat. orig. has aberant (dwelt). 2 Lat. orig. habuerant (had had). * Lat. orig. minus commercii (less intercourse).

the Utopians were either the punishment of bondmen, or the reproach of infamed persons, or else trifles for young children to play withal. Therefore it would have done a man good at his heart to have seen how proudly they displayed their peacocks' feathers, how much they made of their painted sheaths, and how loftily they set forth and advanced themselves, when they compared their gallant apparel with the poor raiment of the Utopians. For all the people were swarmed forth into the streets. And on the other side it was no less pleasure to consider how much they were deceived, and how far they missed of their purpose, being contrary ways taken than they thought they should have been. For to the eyes of all the Utopians, except very few, which had been in other countries for some reasonable cause, all that gorgeousness of apparel seemed shameful and reproachful. In so much that they most reverently saluted the vilest and most abject of them for lords ; passing over the ambassadors themselves without any honour; judging them by their wearing of golden chains to be bondmen. Yea you should have seen children also, that had cast away their pearls and precious stones, when they saw the like sticking upon the ambassadors' caps, dig and push their mothers under the sides, saying thus to them : 'Look, mother, how great a lubber doth yet wear pearls and precious stones, as though he were a little child still.' But the mother, yea and that also in good earnest : "Peace, son,' saith she; 'I think he be some of the ambassadors' fools.' Some found fault at their golden chains, as to no use nor purpose, being so small and weak that a bondman might easily break them, and again so wide and large that, when it pleased him, he might cast them off, and run away at liberty whither he would. But when the ambassadors had been there a day or two, and saw so great abundance of gold so lightly esteemed, yea, in no less reproach than it was with them in honour; and besides that, more gold in the chains and gyves of one fugitive bondman than all the costly ornaments of them three was worth : they began to abate their courage, and for very shame laid away all that gorgeous array, whereof they were so proud.

And specially when they talked familiarly with the Utopians, and had learned all their fashions and opinions. For they marvel that any men be so foolish as to have delight and pleasure in the doubtful glistering of a little trifling stone, which may behold any of the stars, or else the sun itself. Or that any man is so mad as to count himself the nobler for the smaller or finer thread of wool, which selfsame wool (be it now in never so fine a spun thread) a sheep did once wear : and yet was she all that time no other thing than a sheep. They marvel also that gold, which of the own nature is a thing so unprofitable, is now among all people in so high estimation that man himself, by whom, yea and for the use of whom it is so much set by, is in much less estimation than the gold itself. In so much that a lumpish blockheaded churl, and which hath no more wit than an ass, yea and as full of naughtiness as of folly, shall have nevertheless many wise and good men in subjection and bondage only for this, because he hath a great heap of gold. Which if it should be taken from him by any fortune, or by some subtle wile and cautel of the law (which no less than fortune doth both raise up the low and pluck down the high), and be given to the most vile slave and abject drivel of all his household, then shortly after he shall go into the service of his servant, as an augmentation or overplus beside his money. But they much more marvel at and detest the madness of them which to those rich men in whose debt and danger they

1 Lat. orig. quam stipiti (than a log, block, stick).

be not do give almost divine honours, for none other consideration but because they be rich : and yet knowing them to be such niggish penny fathers 1 that they be sure as long as they live not the worth of one farthing of that heap of gold shall come to them.

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NOTES. Anemolians, Lat. Anemolii, Gr. Ane- Utopians. 'Utopia' (from Gr. ou, not,

molioi, from aněmos (wind) : men and topos, a place) means Nowhere, like the winds-empty, blustering, a place that is merely imaginary. vainglorious, giving themselves airs. It would have been very dangerous Carlyle might call them "Wind- for More to write a formal political bags.'

essay to shew directly how the Amaurote, Lat. Amaurotus, from Gr. institutions of England ought to be

amauros (faintly seen, obscure): the changed in order to come up to his unknown city. 'Of them (the Uto- ideal of perfection. So he invented pian cities) all, this is the worthiest the story of this island Utopia, his and of most dignity.' 'This city perfect model of a commonwealth;' is taken for the chief and head and what he attributed to its inhabcity.'

itants as their actually existing inWhiles, genitive of the noun while' stitutions and ways of doing, were

(= time), used as an adverbial con- simply his own ideal arrangements. junction. 'While' is now the com- A recent writer has inverted the mon form. "Whilst,' which is in English word, calling his ideal good use, takes on t to strengthen country Erewhon. Compare Carthe sound, the tongue readily passing lyle's Weissnichtwo (Know-notfrom s to t: cf. amidst, against, where-Kennaquhair).

amongst, &c.; tyrant, sound, &c. Infamed, spoken (ill of, held in bad I was there. 'I' is Raphael Hythlo- repute (Lat. fama). Milton (Par.

day, whose story More professes Lost, ix. 797) uses “infamed' simply to note down. He lived in 'not famed,' not celebrated, not Amaurote, he


five whole

known to fame. together,' and liked it better than Silly, simple-minded, homely, unso

any of the other cities in Utopia. phisticated : half-way between the Entreat, treat, handle, negotiate, dis- ancient sælig (blessed, good), and

cuss. From Lat. in-tractare, the modern sense (weak-minded, through Fr. traiter.

half-witted). Those three citizens apiece, &c. In an Aglets, or aiglets, points or tags, as at

earlier chapter we are told that the end of fringes, &c. From Fr. 'there come yearly to Amaurote aiguillette (tag), dimin. of aiguille out of every city three old men (needle), from Lat. acicula (pin), wise and well experienced, there to from acus (needle). entreat and debate of the common Which glistered. The antecedent to matters of the land.'

which' is 'brooches and aglets.' Come. Orig. has 'comen,' the n of Either the punishment &c. Three the p.part. not yet dropt.

alternatives are given by either ...

1 Lat. orig. tam sordidos atque avaros.

or ... or.' The application of gold Cf. note on 'self' under preceding to vile or inferior uses had been extract (p. 56). earlier detailed, and the reader had The own (nature). We should now been told that 'thus by all means say

'its own.' possible they procure to have gold | And which hath &c. Very awkward and silver among them in reproach management of adjuncts. For and and infamy.'

which hath'try simply with.' Advanced themselves. Orig. has 'them Which if it should be taken &c. Relaselfes.' We find also both 'wifes tive pronouns now seldom

appear in and 'wives.'

the beginning of sentences : the Contrary wayes, now 'contrariwise.' translation here follows the Latin

Wayes' is genitive: cf. 'whiles' arrangement. There is also redunabove; also 'always,' 'sometimes,' dancy. Examine the exact use of ‘sideways,''nowadays.'

which.' Than, after 'contrary ways,' seems Cautel, from Lat. cautus, should mean

somewhat forced and unusual. More caution, wariness, foresight; but in natural would be 'to what.' 'Con- coming through Fr. it has degentrary ways' is indeed practically erated into a synonym for 'wile,' equal to ' quite otherwise,' the com- fraud, deceit. Lat. orig. has but parative force in which would justify one word for both-stropha (a turn'than.'

ing, crook; hence artifice, trick). Was (worth). May the singular verb Which. The anteced. is 'wile and

be to any extent justified ? The cautel.'
translator may have been led to re- Drivel, or 'driveller,' foolish weak-
gard the subject collectively by the minded fellow : literally, slaverer.
expression of the Lat. original : | Overplus, what remains over after a
quam totus ipsorum trium appara- certain amount or quantity has been
tus constiterat.


and Lat. plus Courage, pride; Lat, orig. has pennis (more, in addition). (their plumes).

Danger comes in the long-run from Which may behold &c. : the antece- Lat. dominiarium, from dominium,

dent is ‘men,' a long way off. from dominus (lord). Hence 'to be • Which' may be resolved with ad- in one's danger' is to be within vantage into conjunction and demon- one's lordship, power, to be at one's strative pronoun.

mercy. Cf. Shak., Merchant of Self-same = the very same. Both Venice, iv. 1, 180 : • You stand

words have the same meaning- within his danger, do you not ?'repetition being a common and

also a case of debt, like the case in obvious way of giving emphasis. the text. The passage may be re-composed in modern form. The frequent

tautologies will be avoided.

Robinson seldom translates an epithet with a single word; he repeats two or even three words that are nearly synonymous. It would seem as if he distrusted the expressiveness of the new language, and sought to convey the Latin meaning by shewing it in as many aspects as our language permitted’ (Minto). The number of tautologies in this extract is below the average. Examples : ‘great and weighty' is for Lat. magnis ; 'fashions and manners' for mores ; 'infamed and reproachful' for infame ; 'in very homely and simple

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